Trioceros is a genus of lizards in the family Chamaeleonidae. Trioceros was considered a subgenus of the genus Chamaeleo until 2009, when it was elevated to full genus level.[1][2]

Jackson's Chameleon444.jpg
Jackson's three-horned chameleon
(Trioceros jacksonii )
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Iguania
Family: Chamaeleonidae
Subfamily: Chamaeleoninae
Genus: Trioceros
Swainson, 1839
Type species
Chamaeleo oweni
Gray, 1831[1]

Species and subspeciesEdit

The following species and subspecies are recognized as being valid.[3]

Image Name Common Name Subspecies Distribution
Trioceros affinis
(Rüppell, 1845)
beardless Ethiopian montane chameleon, Rüppell's desert chameleon Ethiopia.
  Trioceros balebicornutus
(Tilbury, 1998)
Bale two-horned chameleon Ethiopia.
  Trioceros bitaeniatus
(Fischer, 1884)
side-striped chameleon, two-lined chameleon Ethiopia, southern Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Trioceros camerunensis
(L. Müller, 1909)
Cameroon dwarf chameleon Cameroon.
Trioceros chapini
(de Witte, 1964)
Chapin's chameleon,[4] grey chameleon Gabon and Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Trioceros conirostratus
(Tilbury, 1998)
South Sudanese unicorn chameleon South Sudan and Uganda.
  Trioceros cristatus
(Stutchbury, 1837)
crested chameleon, fringed chameleon Bioko, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, Ghana, and Togo.
  Trioceros deremensis
(Matschie, 1892)
Usambara giant three-horned chameleon, wavy chameleon East Usambara, Uluguru, Nguu and Nguru Mountains, and Udzungwa Mountains.
  Trioceros ellioti
(Günther, 1895)
Elliot's chameleon,[5] montane side-striped chameleon, Elliot's groove-throated chameleon Burundi, Kenya, South Sudan, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Trioceros feae
(Boulenger, 1906)
Bioko hornless chameleon, Bioko montane chameleon, Fea's chameleon Bioko.
Trioceros fuelleborni
(Tornier, 1900)
(named after Friedrich Fülleborn),[6] flapjack chameleon, Ngosi Volcano chameleon, Poroto three-horned chameleon, mountain three-horned chameleon Tanzania
Trioceros goetzei
(Tornier, 1899)
Goetze's chameleon,[7] Ilolo chameleon, Goetze's whistling chameleon
  • Trioceros goetzei goetzei (Tornier, 1899) – Goetze's whistling chameleon
  • Trioceros goetzei nyikae (Loveridge, 1953) – Nyika whistling chameleon
Tanzania and Malawi.
Trioceros hanangensis
Krause & Böhme [de], 2010
Mount Hanang montane dwarf chameleon, Mount Hanang chameleon Tanzania
Trioceros harennae
(Largen, 1995)
Harenna hornless chameleon
  • Trioceros harennae harennae (Largen, 1995)Harenna hornless chameleon
  • Trioceros harennae fitchi (Nečas, 2004)Fitch's Harenna hornless chameleon[8]
  Trioceros hoehnelii
(Steindachner, 1891)
helmeted chameleon, high-casqued chameleon, von Höhnel's chameleon[9] Kenya and Uganda
Trioceros incornutus
(Loveridge, 1932)
Ukinga hornless chameleon Tanzania
Trioceros ituriensis
(K.P. Schmidt, 1919)
Ituri forest chameleon Democratic Republic of the Congo and Kenya.
  Trioceros jacksonii
(Boulenger, 1896)
Jackson's chameleon[10]
  • Trioceros jacksonii jacksonii (Boulenger, 1896) – Jackson's three-horned chameleon
  • Trioceros jacksonii merumontanus (Rand, 1958) – dwarf Jackson's chameleon
  • Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus (Eason, Ferguson & Hebrard, 1988)Mount Kenya three-horned chameleon, yellow-crested Jackson's chameleon
south-central Kenya and northern Tanzania.
  Trioceros johnstoni
(Boulenger, 1901)
Johnston's chameleon,[11] Johnston's three-horned chameleon, Ruwenzori three-horned chameleon Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda
Trioceros kinangopensis
Stipala et al., 2012
Aberdare Mountains dwarf chameleon Kenya.
Trioceros kinetensis
(K.P. Schmidt, 1943)
Mount Kineti montane dwarf chameleon, Mount Kineti chameleon South Sudan.
Trioceros laterispinis
(Loveridge, 1932)
spiny-flanked chameleon United Republic of Tanzania, East Africa.
Trioceros marsabitensis
(Tilbury, 1991)
Marsabit one-horned chameleon, Mt. Marsabit chameleon, Tilbury's chameleon Kenya.
  Trioceros melleri
(Gray, 1865)
giant one-horned chameleon, Meller's chameleon,[12] Meller's giant one-horned chameleon Malawi, northern Mozambique, and Tanzania
  Trioceros montium
(Buchholz, 1874)
Cameroon sailfin chameleon Cameroon.
Trioceros narraioca
(Nečas, Modrý & Šlapeta, 2003)
Mount Kulal chameleon or Mount Kulal stump-nosed chameleon Kenya
Trioceros ntunte
(Nečas, Modry & Slapeta, 2005)
Mount Nyiru chameleon, Nyiru montane dwarf chameleon Kenya
Trioceros nyirit
Stipala et al., 2011
Mount Mtelo stump-nosed chameleon, Pokot chameleon Kenya
  Trioceros oweni
(Gray, 1831)
Owen's chameleon[13] Nigeria in the north, to Angola in the south, and Burundi in the east
Trioceros perreti
(Klaver & Böhme, 1992)
Perret's [fr] chameleon,[14] Perret's montane chameleon Cameroon.
Trioceros pfefferi
(Tornier, 1900)
Pfeffer's two-horned chameleon,[15] Pfeffer's chameleon, Bakossi two-horned chameleon Cameroon.
Trioceros quadricornis
(Tornier, 1899)
four-horned chameleon
  • Trioceros quadricornis quadricornis (Tornier, 1899) – southern four-horned chameleon
  • Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (Mertens, 1968)Rumpi Hills chameleon
  • Trioceros quadricornis gracilior
    (Böhme & Klaver, 1981) – northern four-horned chameleon
western Cameroon and southeastern Nigeria.
  Trioceros rudis
(Boulenger, 1906)
coarse chameleon, rough chameleon, Ruwenzori side-striped chameleon, Rwenzori bearded montane dwarf chameleon western Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and eastern DR Congo
Trioceros schoutedeni
(Laurent, 1952)
Schouteden's montane dwarf chameleon[16] Rwanda and Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Trioceros schubotzi
(Sternfeld, 1912)
Mount Kenya montane dwarf chameleon, Mount Kenya side-striped chameleon, Schubotz's chameleon[17] Kenya
Trioceros serratus
(Mertens, 1922)
Trioceros sternfeldi
(Rand, 1963)
(named after Richard Sternfeld),[18] Crater Highlands side-striped chameleon, Tanzanian montane dwarf chameleon Tanzania
  Trioceros tempeli
(Tornier, 1899)
Tanzania mountain chameleon, Tempel's chameleon,[19] Udzungwa double-bearded chameleon Tanzania
  Trioceros werneri
(Tornier, 1899)
Werner's chameleon,[20] Wemer's chameleon, Wemer's three-horned chameleon Tanzania
  Trioceros wiedersheimi
(Nieden, 1910)
Mount Lefo chameleon, Wiedersheim's chameleon[21] Cameroon and Nigeria
  Trioceros wolfgangboehmei
Koppetsch, Nečas & Wipfler, 2021

Nota bene: In the above list, a binomial authority or trinomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species or subspecies was originally described in a genus other than Trioceros.


  1. ^ a b Trioceros oweni at the Reptile Database. Accessed 17 May 2022.
  2. ^ Tilbury & Tolley (2009).
  3. ^ Trioceros at the Reptile Database
  4. ^ Beolens et al., p. 51.
  5. ^ Beolens et al., p. 82.
  6. ^ Beolens et al., p.95.
  7. ^ Beolens et al., p. 103.
  8. ^ Beolens et al., p. 90.
  9. ^ Beolens et al., p. 124.
  10. ^ Beolens et al., p. 132.
  11. ^ Beolens et al., p. 135.
  12. ^ Beolens et al., p. 175.
  13. ^ Beolens et al., p. 198.
  14. ^ Beolens et al., p. 203.
  15. ^ Beolens et al., p. 205,
  16. ^ Beolens et al., p. 237.
  17. ^ Beolens et al., p. 238.
  18. ^ Beolens et al., 253.
  19. ^ Beolens et al., p. 263.
  20. ^ Beolens et al., p. 282.
  21. ^ Beolens et al., p. 285.


  • Boelens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
  • Tilbury, C.R., & Tolley, K.A. (2009). "A re-appraisal of the systematics of the African genus Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae)". Zootaxa 2079: 57–68.
  • Swainson, W. (1839). The Natural History of Fishes, Amphibians, & Reptiles, or Monocardian Animals. Vol. II. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longmans; John Taylor. (A. Spottiswoode, printer). 452 pp. (Trioceros, new genus, p. 369).

External linksEdit