Iguanomorpha

Iguania is an infraorder of squamate reptiles that includes iguanas, chameleons, agamids, and New World lizards like anoles and phrynosomatids. Using morphological features as a guide to evolutionary relationships, the Iguania are believed to form the sister group to the remainder of the Squamata, and comprise nearly 13,000 named species[citation needed]. However, molecular information has placed Iguania well within the Squamata as sister taxa to the Anguimorpha and closely related to snakes.[1] The order has been under debate and revisions after being classified by Charles Lewis Camp in 1923 due to difficulties finding adequate synapomorphic morphological characteristics.[2] Most Iguanias are arboreal but there are several terrestrial groups. They usually have primitive fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, although the tongue is highly modified in chameleons. The group has a fossil record that extends back to the Early Jurassic (the oldest known member is Bharatagama, which lived about 190 million years ago in what is now India).[3] Today they are scattered occurring in Madagascar, the Fiji and Friendly Islands and Western Hemisphere [4]

Iguanomorpha
Temporal range: Early Jurassic - present, 190–0 Ma
Leiocephalus-personatus-maskenleguan.jpg
Leiocephalus personatus, a species of iguanian
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Clade: Toxicofera
Clade: Iguanomorpha
Sukhanov, 1961
Suborder: Iguania
Cope, 1864
Families

ClassificationEdit

The Iguania currently include these extant families:[5][6]

PhylogenyEdit

Below is a cladogram from the phylogenetic analysis of Daza et al. (2012) (a morphological analysis), showing the interrelationships of extinct and living iguanians:[7]

Iguanomorpha

Hoyalacerta sanzi

Huehuecuetzpalli mixtecus

Pristiguana brasiliensis

Iguania
Chamaeleontiformes

Mimeosaurus crassus

Priscagama gobiensis

Phrynosomimus asper

Acrodonta

Physignathus

Agama

Uromastyx

Leiolepis

Rhampholeon

Brookesia

Iguanoidea (=Pleurodonta)

Polrussia mongoliensis

Igua minuta

Isodontosaurus gracilis

Anchaurosaurus gilmorei

Zapsosaurus sceliphros

Saichangurvel davidsoni

Temujinia ellisoni

Ctenomastax parva

Silvaiguana
Hoplocercidae

Enyaloides

Morunasaurus

Hoplocercus

Polychrotidae

Polychrus gutturosus

Polychrus marmoratus

Polychrus femoralis

Afairiguana avius

Leiosaurus

Anisolepis

Enyalius

Pristidactylus

Anolis electrum

Anolis occultus

Anolis heterodermus

Anolis vermiculatus

Euiguana
Corytophanidae

Laemanctus

Basiliscus

Corytophanes

Terraiguana

Iguanidae

Crotaphytidae

Crotaphytus

Gambelia

Phrynosomatidae

Phrynosoma

Uta

Petrosaurus

sand lizards

Sceloporus

Urosaurus

Opluridae

Chalarodon madagascariensis

Oplurus quadrimaculatus B

Oplurus quadrimaculatus A

Oplurus cyclurus

Uquiasaurus

Liolaemidae

Phymaturus

Ctenoblepharis

Liolaemus

Leiocephalus

Tropiduridae

Stenocercus

Tropidurus

Uranoscodon

Conservation StatusEdit

As of 2020 The IUCN Red List of endangered species lists 63.3% of the species as Least concern, 6.7% Near Threatened, 8.2 vulnerable, 9.1% endangered, 3.1% critically endangered, 0.3 extinct and 9.2% data deficient. The major threats include agriculture , residential and commercial development {https://www.iucnredlist.org/}.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Vidal, N.; Hedges, S. B. (2005). "The phylogeny of squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Biologies. 328 (10–11): 1000–1008. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2005.10.001. PMID 16286089. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26.
  2. ^ Daza, J., Abdala, V., Arias, J., García-López, D., & Ortiz, P. (2012). Cladistic Analysis of Iguania and a Fossil Lizard from the Late Pliocene of Northwestern Argentina. Journal of Herpetology, 46(1), 104-119. Retrieved May 12, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/41515023
  3. ^ Evans, Susan E.; Prasad, G. V. R.; Manhas, B. K. (2002). "Fossil lizards from the Jurassic Kota Formation of India". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22 (2): 299. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0299:FLFTJK]2.0.CO;2.
  4. ^ Moody, S. (1985). Charles L. Camp and His 1923 Classification of Lizards: An Early Cladist? Systematic Zoology, 34(2), 216-222. doi:10.2307/2413329
  5. ^ Wiens, J.J., C. R. Hutter, D. G. Mulcahy, B. P. Noonan, T. M. Townsend, J. W. Sites Jr., T. W. Reeder. (2012) Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species. Archived 2018-08-05 at the Wayback Machine Biology Letters
  6. ^ Schulte II, J. A., J. P. Valladares, and A. Larson. (2003) [Phylogenetic relationships within Iguanidae inferred using molecular and morphological data and a phylogenetic taxonomy of iguanian lizards.] Herpetologica 59: 399-419
  7. ^ Daza, J. D.; Abdala, V.; Arias, J. S.; García-López, D.; Ortiz, P. (2012). "Cladistic Analysis of Iguania and a Fossil Lizard from the Late Pliocene of Northwestern Argentina". Journal of Herpetology. 46: 104–119. doi:10.1670/10-112. S2CID 85405843.