Trbovlje (pronounced [təɾˈbɔ̀ːwljɛ] (listen); German: Trifail) is Slovenia's ninth largest town, and the seat of the Municipality of Trbovlje. It is located in the valley of a minor left bank tributary of the Sava River in the Central Sava Valley in central-eastern Slovenia.
Left to right, from top: apartment block at Sallaumines Street,
Trbovlje Chimney, Miners' Houses
|Statistical region||Central Sava|
|• Mayor||Jasna Gabrič|
|• Total||10.2 km2 (3.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||307 m (1,007 ft)|
|• Rank||9th, Slovenia|
|• Density||1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||03 (+386 3 from abroad)|
|Google Maps||Trbovlje, Slovenia|
Trbovlje was attested in written sources in 1220–30 as Trefeul (and as Trevůl and Trevol in 1265–67, Triuella in 1302, Trifeul in 1325, Triueal in 1330, and Triuel in 1424). The name is a feminine plural noun in standard Slovene, but in the local dialect it is declined as a neuter singular adjective. This indicates that the name is derived from *Trěbovľe selo (literally, 'Trěbo's village'), referring to an early inhabitant of the place. In the past the German name was Trifail.
Coal mining began at Beech Mountain (Slovene: Bukova gora, 547 meters or 1,795 feet) south of the town in 1804. The town was connected to the Austrian Southern Railway in 1849, which contributed to its further development. During the 19th century, a cement plant, mechanical separator, sawmill, and power plant were built in Trbovlje.
Poor social conditions in Trbovlje led to several strikes by mine workers, and the town became a center of the leftist movement and communist agitation. On June 1, 1924 there was a clash between workers and members of the Organization of Yugoslav Nationalists that resulted in several fatalities on both sides. In 1934, miners staged a sitdown strike at the mine.
Second World WarEdit
During the Second World War, Trbovlje, along with the rest of Lower Styria, was annexed to the Third Reich. The coal mine and other industries of Trbovlje were especially important to the German authorities, and they initially lowered unemployment in the town and increased wages, increasing satisfaction with the new regime. However, the arrest and exile of Slovenes in August 1941 created disaffection. This and other repressive measures resulted in an estimated 90% of the population opposing the Germans by the summer of 1944.
The Abandoned Cemetery Mass Grave (Slovene: Grobišče na opuščenem pokopališču) site, associated with World War II, is located in the former cemetery in the northern part of the town, between the fence and Trboveljščica Creek. It is also known as the Town Park Mass Grave (Grobišče Mestni park), and it contains the remains of about 30 German soldiers.
The Trbovlje Student Club organization (Slovene: Klub trboveljskih študentov) holds various events.
Parishes and churchesEdit
The Parish Church of St Martin was originally a Romanesque church, of which part of the nave survives. The sanctuary is Gothic and in the 18th century a Baroque belfry and chapel were added. In the 19th century the nave was extended. A second church of the Parish of Trbovlje–St. Martin in the western end of town is dedicated to Saint Nicholas and was built in the 18th century.
The Parish of Trbovlje–St Mary in the southern part of the town was established in 2000. Its parish church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Mother of the Church. It was built from 1998 to 2000 according to plans by the architect Jože Marinko. Stained glasses, paintings, and the Stations of the Cross were created by the academy-trained painter Lojze Čemažar. The church was blessed in August 2000 and consecrated in October 2007.
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- "Height above sea level of seats of municipalities" (in Slovenian and English). Statistical Office of Slovenia. 2002. Archived from the original on 2012-11-25.
- "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Trbovlje".
- Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 4: Štajersko. 1904. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 58.
- Snoj, Marko. 2009. Etimološki slovar slovenskih zemljepisnih imen. Ljubljana: Modrijan and Založba ZRC, pp. 434–435.
- Gorjanc, Boris (1999). "Trbovlje: Zgodovina". Enciklopedija Slovenije. 13. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. p. 318.
- Trbovlje. 1998. Veliki splošni leksikon, vol. 8, p. 4448. Ljubljana: DZS.
- Perovšek, Jure (1994). "Orjuna". Enciklopedija Slovenije. 8. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. pp. 157–158.
- Magocsi, Paul Robert. 1993. Historical Atlas of East Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, p. 153.
- Troha, Nevenka (1999). "Trbovlje: Zgodovina". Enciklopedija Slovenije. 13. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. pp. 318–319.
- Ferenc, Mitja, & Ksenija Kovačec-Naglič. 2005. Prikrito in očem zakrito: prikrita grobišča 60 let po koncu druge svetovne vojne. Celje: Muzej novejše zgodovine Celje, p. 124.
- Ferenc, Mitja (December 2009). "Grobišče na opuščenem pokopališču". Geopedia (in Slovenian). Ljubljana: Služba za vojna grobišča, Ministrstvo za delo, družino in socialne zadeve. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- "Trbovlje Museum website" (in Slovenian).
- Laibach industrial band website
- Parish of Trbovlje–St. Martin (in Slovene)
- Parish of Trbovlje–St. Mary (in Slovene)
- Slovenian Ministry of Culture register of national heritage reference number ešd 3455
- Slovenian Ministry of Culture register of national heritage reference number ešd 3458
- Šneberger, Boštjan (4 November 2007). "Sad sodelovanja" [The Fruit of Cooperation]. Druzina.si (in Slovenian).
- "Population by religion, municipalities, Slovenia". 2002.
- Rogelj, Ajda (5 April 2013). "Ali ste vedeli ... da so ulico v Trbovljah poimenovali Sallaumines" [Did You Know... That a Street in Trbovlje Has Been Named Sallaumines]. Rodna gruda (in Slovenian). Združenje Slovenska izseljenska matica.
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