Tolosa (Spanish and Basque: [toˈlosa]) is a town and municipality in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, in northern Spain. It is located in the valley of the river Oria, next by Uzturre, a local mountain topped by a white cross.
|Autonomous community||País Vasco|
|• Mayor||Olatz Peón (PNV)|
|• Total||37.39 km2 (14.44 sq mi)|
|Elevation||75 m (246 ft)|
|• Density||520/km2 (1,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Official language(s)||Spanish, Basque|
Iurre, Berazubi, Bidebieta, San Esteban, Izaskun, San Blas, Amarotz, Usabal, Santa Lutzia, Montezkue, Belate, Belabieta, Alde Zaharra (Parte Vieja), Auzo Txikia, Alliri, Arramele, Iparragirre, Urkizu, Aldaba, Larramendi, Aldaba Txiki and Bedaio.
- Provincial archive of Gipuzkoa, built in 1904 by the architect Cortázar, was one of the first to be built in concrete in the province. From the sixteenth century, Toulouse was already home to the Archives of the province, formerly located in the parish.
- Town Hall, built between 1657 and 1672, Baroque style, with the ground floor portico and wrought iron balconies. Work of the master stonecutter Juan de Arburola.
- Zerkausi Market
- Old Town Hall, a rectangular elongated building that follows the line of the old wall, so its facade is perpendicular to the streets of the old town, blinding its southern vision. In neoclassical style, it was totally remodeled in the nineteen eighties for home of culture. Between 1844 and 1854 was soothes of the Regional Council of Gipuzkoa.
- Convent of Saint Francis, located at the exit of the Camino Real to Castile. The basilical plan, was constructed towards 1676 by Nicholas of Zumeta and Agustín de Lizarraga. To highlight the altarpiece of its main altar and the chapel of the Antia.
- Convent of Saint Clara. Baroque Cenobio (18th century) of the Poor Clares. Artistic altarpiece golden churrigueresco-rococo.
- Church of Saint Mary, with 1630 m² of surface at present. The original church was affected by a fire in 1503, but until 1548 works could not be started for lack of money. A building was then erected with three tall ships topped by vaults of false crucería, supported by six columns, in the local variant of Gothic called Basque Gothic. In 1761 Martín de Carrera endowed the current baroque façade with central bullring and two towers joined by balustrade, and a few years later the atrium was added. In the nineteenth century Silvestre Pérez carried out reforms with neoclassical cut. It has a central altarpiece, and in one of the side chapels is conserved the Romanesque-Gothic doorway of the hermitage of San Esteban, which was destroyed by a flood.
- Church of Corpus Christi.
- Palace of Aranburu (century XVII), prototype of the baroque Basque. Building free of irregular floors with roof of the four waters. An austere facade of cushioned ashlars following the principles of symmetry and centrality characteristic of classicism. It is imposing the decoration of the main door linking with that of the central balcony. The coat of arms of the jurisconsult Miguel de Aramburu, author in 1697 of the Compilation of the Fueros de Gipuzkoa is present.
- Palace of Atodo (XVI century), at n. 35 on the Main Street in the Renaissance style with a large proportions and facade of ashlars protected by double spoiler of carved songs. Balconies forged on the noble floor and twenty symmetrical hollows of recessed arch on the top floor. Artistic shield with rampant lion shown by a pair of infants in graceful foreshortening. Cradle of Fermín de Atodo, palatine count, captain of the Tercios tolosanos in 1558 and ambassador of Felipe II in Rome.
- Palace of Justice (1853), occupies one side of the public square's portico. Neoclassical group of unitary composition, emphasizing the palace by a greater wealth of materials and two plants instead of three that have the contiguous houses. The portico is transformed here into an arcade. Facade of limestone ashlar in ground floor and recerco of hollows and imposed. Work of the local architects Unanue and Escoriaza. In the prison of this court composed the bard Jose Maria Iparraguirre the zortziko sense of maternal evocation Nere amak baleki ("If my mother knew"). In 2009 headquarters of the Integral Center of the Puppet, TOPIC.
- Palace of Idiakez, built in 1605, stands on the wall, in the area of the old Puerta de Navarra. The current building is estimated from the eighteenth century, after a fire destroyed the previous Casa-Torre. Its main facade is hammered ashlar (closes the Old Square), while the latter is brick in sawtooth on the river. In 1794 he occupied the fabulous Felix Maria de Samaniego and Zabala, when it exerted of mayor of Tolosa. The building is now the headquarters of the Casino de Toulouse.
- Door of Castille
- Tolosa Bullring opened on 24 June 1903 (was scheduled to do so Bombita, but injury was replaced by Bonarillo and Guerrerito), it has a ring of 37.5 m with a dead 1.8 m 5300 locations. The steps and the stages are on the laying, which endows it with a special proportionality. Basque rural sport competitions (korrikalaris, aizkolaris, stone lifting, etc.) are celebrated in her. The Carnivals of the city have a nerve center, running heifers every afternoon from the day of Fat Thursday and the bull of the brandy on the morning of Tuesday Carnival.
- Andia Tower located at nr. 17 of the Main Street. There are only vestiges of the shield and two gargoyles, in addition to the foundations, of this medieval building where the enlightened Domenjón González de Andia lived, considered "King of Gipuzkoa" (Gipuzkoako Erregia).
In the neighborhood of San Esteban was discovered a human settlement of 9000 years of antiquity. For the instruments and remains of carving of flint found, it would be a group whose economy was based on the hunting and gathering of fruits.
Of the Bronze Age, about 4000 years old, are the dolmens of Belabieta and Añi, burial constructions testimony of the first religious manifestations.
In the Iron Age, about 2300 years ago, the first settlements arise. They settle in mounts of average height, like for example Intxur in Aldaba, and are protected surrounded by walls. In addition to knowing iron, they were farmers and ranchers.
All antiquity, including Romanization and until at least the year 1025, in which Gipuzkoa enters History, is a dark period of which little is known.
The territory of Gipuzkoa was incorporated to Castile in 1200. In 1256, the king Alfonso X the Wise of Castile granted the fuero to Tolosa. In this jurisdiction the inhabitants of Tolosa were granted privileges with which the inhabitants of the nearby villages, or those of other provinces, did not count. Also it arranged the fortification of Tolosa, Ordizia and Segura, points border with Navarre. The original city rises in an island separated by an arm of the Oria that passed by the present street of the Rondilla (previously of Pablo Gorosábel) and is completely walled, with six doors with defense towers (gates of Castile, Arramele, Navarre, House of Ladies, Slaughterhouse and Our Lady of Socorro).
In 1282 it suffers a fire that destroys it. Sancho IV of Castile grants new privileges to him to foment its reconstruction and the arrival of new inhabitants; among them he frees those who were to settle there of all tribute to the Crown (Vitoria-Gasteiz, April 20, 1290), privileges confirmed later by Ferdinand IV of Castile and Alfonso XI of Castile.
However, maintaining these privileges was problematic at times, as when in 1463 the collector Jacob Gaón demanded payment of the tax called order to Toulouse. They replied that they were exempt from payment, by the provisions approved by the king. Gaon threatened them, and several of them killed him, beheaded and exposed his head on top of a pillory, as punishment for having put Tolosa at the top of his list of collections. King Henry IV of Castilehe went to Toulouse to avenge his death, but the authors fled the village. The king ordered that the house where the crime was committed was destroyed. He failed to execute the perpetrators, since before catching them he received a petition from the Junta de Gipuzkoa requesting pardon for the Tolosarras, and explained the arguments of the latter, and Enrique IV acknowledged that they were exempt from payment.
The insecurity reigning since the 14th century means that for two centuries several towns and villages join and separate the council of Tolosa, including Abaltzisketa, Aduna, Albistur, Alegia, Alkiza, Altzo, Amasa, Amezketa, Andoain, Anoeta, Asteasu, Baliarrain, Belauntza, Berastegi, Berrobi, Zizurkil, Elduaien, Ezama, Gaztelu, Hernialde, Ibarra, Ikaztegieta, Irura, Laskoain, Leaburu, Lizartza, Orendain, Orexa and Iurre. Tolosa is committed to the defense of the villas, which are under the jurisdiction of the mayor, and are usually ascribed to the privileges and privileges of Tolosa. During the fourteenth century various disagreements occurred with these cities, and a conflict with San Sebastián by the cases of Andoain, Aduna and Alkiza, that ditched in 1479 with the passage of these three towns to the jurisdiction of San Sebastian.
In 1469 it underwent another important fire, and another greater in 1503 that affected even the parochial church, in spite of being isolated. It is granted in both new privileges to aid in its reconstruction, and the Catholic Monarchs issued an order by which the corregidor of the province resides in Tolosa when not visiting other villas.
The 9 of August 1794, during the War of the Convention, the troops French occupied Tolosa. In the War of Independence it was occupied again. While it was dominated by the Napoleonic army it underwent the attacks of the guerrillas of the zone.
From 1844 to 1854 under the government of the Progressives, Tolosa was the capital of Gipuzkoa for 10 years, later giving ownership to San Sebastián, with the consequent transfer of the Diputación and all the management and government to the new capital of the province.
Tolosa was one of the most important cities of the territory controlled by the Carlists in the civil war of 1872–1876, reason why was one of the headquarters of the newspaper the Real Cuartel.
Spanish Civil WarEdit
- José Antonio Zorreguieta, direct ancestor (born 13 February 1777) of Queen Máxima of the Netherlands
- Xabi Alonso, footballer
- Mikel Alonso, footballer
- Periko Alonso, footballer
- Ainhoa Arteta, soprano
- Edurne Pasaban, mountaineer
- Juan de Tolosa, founder of Zacatecas, Mexico
- Juan Manuel Lillo, football coach
- Lara Arruabarrena, tennis player
- (in Basque and Spanish) Official website of the Municipality of Tolosa.
- (in Spanish) "Tolosa" in the Auñamendi Basque Encyclopedia.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tolosa.|