The Ikettes were a trio (sometimes quartet) of female backing vocalists for the Ike & Tina Turner Revue. Despite their origins, the Ikettes became successful artists in their own right. In the 1960s they had hits such as "I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)" and "Peaches 'N' Cream." In 2017, Billboard ranked "I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)" No. 63 on its list of 100 Greatest Girl Group Songs of All Time.
|Genres||R&B, soul, pop|
|Occupation(s)||Backing vocalists, Girl group|
|Years active||1960–1976; 1988–2000s|
|Associated acts||Ike & Tina Turner, Ike Turner, Tina Turner, The Mirettes, Kings of Rhythm|
|Past members||Robbie Montgomery|
Pat Arnold (a.k.a. P.P. Arnold)
Paulette Parker (a.k.a. Maxayn Lewis)
Jeanette Bazzell Turner
Randi Love (a.k.a. Michelle Love)
Audrey Madison Turner
See members section for others
The group started as The Artettes, the backing group of Art Lassiter. The first official incarnation of The Ikettes was composed of Delores Johnson, Eloise Hester and Josie Jo Armstead. The most popular line-up consisted of Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, and Jessie Smith. It was this trio that later morphed into The Mirettes.
As the 1960s progressed, the Ikettes became known for their sexy onstage appearance; minidresses, long hair and high-energy dance routines that mirrored their mentor Tina Turner. "They represent me, and in my act they gotta look outta sight at all times. There's simply no room for sloppiness and unprofessionalism," Tina told Esquire. She added:
I also believe in the Ikette visual. I don't see it as cheap or vulgar. Nor do I see myself as that. Sex is not cheap or vulgar. And I always loved the look of long straight hair. Ike says he patterned me after Sheena of the jungle. She was white, you know. But I still love the look and action of long hair movin' and the short skirts shimmying. I want action on that stage at all times.
When Art Lassiter didn't show up for a recording session in early 1960, Ike Turner took Lassiter's backup singers, the Artettes (Robbie Montgomery, Frances Hodges, and Sandra Harding) and had them accompany Tina Turner on the recording "A Fool in Love." Following the success of the single, Ike formed the Ike & Tina Turner Revue, but with a new group of backup singers: Delores Johnson, Eloise Hester, and Jo Armstead. Montgomery was pregnant and unable to tour. They recorded "I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)" the following year, produced by Ike and leased to Atco Records. Released in November 1961, the single reached No. 3 on the Billboard R&B chart and No. 19 on the Hot 100.
Montgomery rejoined the revue shortly after having her baby and was teamed with Jessie Smith (recruited from a group named Benny Sharp and the Zorros of Rhythm) and Venetta Fields (a gospel singer from Buffalo, New Yor) to form the first official incarnation of The Ikettes. The revue toured constantly through the U.S. on the Chitlin' Circuit in the segregated South. Occasionally they'd play at major venues such as the Apollo Theater in New York, Howard Theater in Washington, D.C., and Uptown Theater in Philadelphia.
In 1962, Ike switched them to his Teena record label for two singles: "Crazy in Love" (credited as Robbie Montgomery & the Ikettes) and "Prisoner in Love." Soon after its release, the title of "Prisoner in Love" was changed to "No Bail in This Jail" in order to avoid confusion with "Prisoner of Love" by James Brown.
During this period Bonnie Bramlett was briefly an Ikette, becoming the first white Ikette. According to Bramlett, Smith briefly quit the Ikettes after Turner fired her boyfriend Sam Rhodes, who was the bass player in the Kings of Rhythm. Bramlett recalled that she was an Ikette for three days when she was 17. She put on a dark wig to cover her blonde hair and used Man Tan to darken her skin.
The single "Here's Your Heart" came out on Innis Records in 1964 but failed to go national; nor did "What'cha Gonna Do (When I Leave You)" released on Phi-Dan Records in 1966. From 1964 through 1966, they released six singles on Modern Records, including "The Camel Walk" (1964), and two hits "Peaches 'N' Cream" (1965) and "I'm So Thankful" (1965). Ultra-funky remakes of "Sally Go Round the Roses" and "Da Doo Ron Ron" did not go as well; neither did "He's Gonna Be Fine, Fine, Fine," though it sounded like a precursor to the music Betty Davis did later. When "Peaches and Cream" became rapidly popular, Ike sent a different set of Ikettes — Janice Singleton (Hughes), Diane Rutherford and Marquentta Tinsley — on the road with "The Dick Clark Caravan of Stars" and kept Montgomery, Smith, and Fields on tour with his revue. In the meantime, Turner hired new Ikettes after Montgomery, Fields and Smith left to form the Mirettes. The first set included Pat Arnold (a.k.a. P.P. Arnold), Gloria Scott, and Maxine Smith.
The first album by the Ikettes, Soul The Hits, was released on Modern Records in 1966. Instead of the Ikettes, the Blossoms provided backing vocals for Tina Turner on the Phil Spector-produced 1966 record "River Deep – Mountain High." Following the success of the single in Europe, Ike & Tina Turner were asked to tour with The Rolling Stones during their British tour in the fall of 1966. The Ikettes on that tour were Rose Smith, Pat Arnold, and Ann Thomas. Shelly Clark (later of Honey Cone) was also an Ikette in 1966 until she was injured in a bus accident in Wichita, Kansas. Other Ikettes during this period include Pat Powdrill, Paulette Parker (later of Maxayn), Jean Brown, and Juanita Hixson.
In 1968, Pompeii Records issued "So Fine" credited to Ike & Tina Turner & the Ikettes, it charted at No. 50 on the R&B chart. In Summer 1968, a revised lineup of Ikettes was formed with Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear, and Esther Jones.
Minit Records and its parent label Liberty Records issued singles credited to The Ikettes (with Ike & Tina Turner) in 1969 and 1970 respectively, resulting in the hits "Come Together" by the Beatles and Sly & the Family Stone's "I Want to Take You Higher."
In November 1969, The Rolling Stones once again asked Ike & Tina Turner to open for them, but this time on their American tour. The Ikettes on that tour were Claudia Lennear, Esther Jones and Pat Powdrill. This lineup performed on Playboy After Dark in December 1969. Stonye Figueroa along with Esther Jones, and Claudia Lennear performed on The Ed Sullivan Show with Ike & Tina Turner on January 11, 1970. That month, they performed In Las Vegas at the Hilton Hotel opposite Redd Foxx. Vera Hamilton and Jean Brown joined Jones in 1970, and this trio performed on The Andy Williams Show and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
In 1971, Liberty Records was absorbed into United Artists Records. the Ikettes released their first single "Got What It Takes (To Get What I Want)," on United Artists later that year. In 1972, "Two Timin', Double Dealin'" was released, the last known single by the Ikettes. Edna Richardson returned to the group in 1971 and remained an Ikette on-and-off until 1976. Richardson, Jean Brown and Esther Jones performed on Soul Train in April 1972. They also provided backing vocals on Gayle McCormick's album Flesh & Blood (1972). In October 1972, Tina Turner and the Ikettes performed at the political fundraising concert Star-Spangled Women for McGovern–Shriver at Madison Square Garden.
There were a few lineup changes in 1973 with the absence of Esther Jones and Enda Richardson. Jones temporarily left after she was fined for being late onstage. The Ikettes weren't paid much and were often fined by the Turners for "inexcusables" such as tardiness, no-shows at rehearsals, miscues onstage, sloppy appearance, and disruptive behavior. Jones was the "longest-lasting Ikette" and was referred to as "Motha" Ikette. She was the group's trainer and came up with most of the choreography. In February 1973, the Ikettes, consisting of Linda Sims, Linda-Shuford Williams and Alesia Butler, performed on The Midnight Special. The Ikettes performed on The Midnight Special again in November 1973; Linda Sims was joined by Edna Richardson and Charlotte Lewis. The next month Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis and Debbie Wilson performed on the music program Hits à Gogo in Switzerland. Sims and Wilson along with Tina Turner provided backing vocals on Frank Zappa's albums Over-Nite Sensation (1973) and Apostrophe (') (1974), recorded at the Turners' Bolic Sound studio.
The last album by the Ikettes, (G)Old & New, was released on United Artists in January 1974. In March, Edna Richardson, Stonye Figueroa and Linda Sims appeared on Don Krishner's Rock Concert. Esther Jones, Yolanda Goodwin and Marcy Thomas soon replaced them for most of 1974. Richardson, Goodwin and Jones became the final lineup for the Ike & Tina Turner Revue by late 1975. They performed on Don Krishner's Rock Concert in March 1976, before the Ike & Tina Turner Revue disbanded later that year.
In 1988, Ike Turner attempted an ill-fated return to the stage with Marcy Thomas, Bonnie Johnson, and Jeanette Bazzell as his Ikettes. He was arrested on drug charges the following year. After serving 18-months in prison he managed to rehabilitate his cocaine addiction and he revived his career in the 1990s. Turner formed new sets of Ikettes, which included Jeanette Bazzell, Randi Love, a.k.a. Michelle Love, Stonye Figueroa, Vera Hamilton and Audrey Madison.
- Jo Armstead, the first of the originals to leave, went solo and sang with groups before hooking up with a pre-Motown Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson to form the formidable songwriting/production team of Ashford/Simpson/Armstead.
- Bonnie Bramlett formed the duo Delaney & Bonnnie with her then-husband Delaney Bramlett between 1967 and 1972. They're best known for their singles "Never Ending Song of Love", which peaked at No. 13 on the Billboard Hot 100 and "Only You Know and I Know", which peaked at No. 20.
- Venetta Fields had a successful career after leaving Ike & Tina, joining Ray Charles as a Raelette, the rock bands Humble Pie and Pink Floyd as one of The Blackberries, as well as a brief stint with Delaney & Bonnie. She also appear as backing vocalists on the first album by Steely Dan. Fields acted as Barbra Streisand's backing singers (The Oreos) in the 1976 musical film, A Star Is Born (1976), and sang on its associated film soundtrack.
- Edna Richardson (née Woods) was married to Kings of Rhythm drummer Soko Richardson, and they later divorced. In 1974, Richardson had a minor role in the blaxploitation movie Truck Turner. She played Frenchie, one of Dorinda's Girls. She later became a backup dancer for Tina Turner during her solo years under the name LeJeune Richardson.
- Janice Singleton (Hughes) left the Ikettes to lead groups on A&M (The Secrets: lead vocals on A&M recording by Diane Rutherford-Swann) and Verve (The Unit Plus), then teamed with ex-Ikette Maxine Smith (Green) on world tours with Leo Sayer, Martha Reeves, Boz Scaggs, and Joe Cocker, among others. In 2007, Singleton and Smith joined the Mohegan Sun All Stars.
- Paulette Parker later went by the name Maxayn Lewis and formed the band Maxayn with her husband Andre Lewis in the early 1970s. She has toured with Gino Vannelli, Donna Summer, and Rufus.
- Esther Jones sang with the funk/soul band Formula 5 in the 1980s. She had a stroke in 1992 and suffered from multiple myeloma. She died at the age of 61 on December 8, 2006.
- Robbie Montgomery became a Night Tripper for Dr. John. She also sang backup for Barbra Streisand, Debbie Reynolds, Joe Cocker and Stevie Wonder. She later became a successful restaurateur and star of the reality series Welcome to Sweetie Pie's. In 2018, Montgomery released an EP, What They Call Me, her first release in 40 years.
- Claudia Lennear dated Mick Jagger whom she met during Ike & Tina's U.S. tour with the Rolling Stones in 1969. She is reportedly the inspiration for the Rolling Stones song "Brown Sugar." She also dated David Bowie and reportedly is the inspiration for his song "Lady Grinning Soul." Lennear sang backup for Joe Cocker and Humble Pie and released a solo album entitled Phew! in 1973. She also played a secretary in the 1974 Clint Eastwood movie Thunderbolt and Lightfoot. The same year, she appeared in Playboy magazine photo spread. Lennear left the music industry to become a teacher. She appeared in the Academy Award-winning documentary 20 Feet from Stardom (2013).
- P.P. Arnold left the Ikettes after Ike & Tina's UK tour with the Rolling Stones in the fall of 1966. Mick Jagger encouraged her to go solo and she had a successful career in the UK with hits such as "The First Cut Is The Deepest" and "Angel of the Morning."
- Shelly Clark formed the group Honey Cone with Edna Wright (sister of Darlene Love) and Carolyn Willis in 1968. They had a number-one pop hit "Want Ads" in 1971. Clark is married to Earth, Wind & Fire bassist Verdine White.
- Marcy Thomas later performed with Ike Turner. She became known as Lyrica Garrett and appeared on the reality show Love & Hip Hop: Hollywood with her daughter Lyrica Anderson.
- Ann Thomas left the Ikettes after she became pregnant by Ike Turner in 1968. After she gave birth to their daughter Mia Turner in 1969, she returned to work for the Ike & Tina Turner Revue; handling their wardrobe. Thomas was married to Turner from 1981 to 1989.
- Jeanette Bazzell Turner was married to Ike Turner from 1995 to 2000. She continues to perform and also works as a real estate broker.
- Audrey Madison Turner is Ike Turner's last wife. She appeared as a contestant on The X Factor in 2011. In 2016, she released the memoir Love Had Everything to Do with It, which details her volatile relationship with Turner due to his bipolar disorder.
- Shirley Alexander, a.k.a. Shirley Butler (1969–70)
- Jo Armstead (1960–c.1962)
- P.P. Arnold (1965–1966)
- Mary Bennett (April–July 1978)
- Bonnie Bramlett (c. 1963–1964), first white member
- Mary "Jean Brown" Burks (1967–1968, 1970–1972)
- Alesia "Sugar" Butler (1972–1974)
- Judy Cheeks (1975)
- Shelly Clark (c. 1966), later a member of Honey Cone
- Venetta Fields (c. 1961–1965)
- Stonye Figueroa, a.k.a. Barbara Cook (1969–1974)
- Yolanda Goodwin (1974–1976)
- Martha Graham (c. 1968)
- Vera Hamilton (1970–1971; died August 31, 2013)
- Eloise Hester (1960–?)
- Juanita Hixson (1964–?)
- Frances Hodges (1960)
- Sandra Harding (1960)
- Brenda Holloway
- Patrice Holloway
- Delores "Dee Dee" Johnson (c. 1961–1962)
- Johnnie B. Johnson-Day (early 1960s)
- Esther Jones, a.k.a. Esther Burton & Ester Bills (1968–1976; died in 2006) "longest-lasting Ikette"
- Claudia Lennear, a.k.a. Joy Lennear (1968–1970)
- Charlotte Lewis
- Kathi McDonald (c. 1969)
- Robbie Montgomery (1960–1965)
- Paulette Parker, a.k.a. Maxayn Lewis (c. 1966–1968)
- Pat Powdrill (c. 1967– 1970; died April 11, 1996)
- Vermettya Royster
- Edna "LeJeune" Richardson, a.k.a. Edna Woods (1968–1969; 1971–1976)
- Diane Rutherford-Swann (c. 1964–1966)
- Gloria Scott (c. 1965)
- Linda Shuford-Williams, a.k.a. Linda Jones (1972–1974)
- Linda Sims
- Janice Singleton (c. 1964–1966)
- Jessie Smith (c. 1961–1965)
- Maxine Smith (1965–?)
- Rose Smith (c. 1966)
- Jackie Stanton
- Gail Stevens (1972)
- The Stovall Sisters (1967)
- (Margaret) Ann Thomas (1966–1968), "non-singing Ikette"
- Marcy Thomas, a.k.a. Lyrica Garrett (1974–1975)
- Marquentta Tinsley (c. 1964–?)
- Adrienne Williams
- Carlena "Flora" Williams (c. 1963–64)
- Debbie Wilson
|Title||Album Details||Peak chart
|Fine Fine Fine||
|Soul The Hits||
|(G)Old & New||
|"—" denotes a recording that did not chart.|
- 1987: Fine Fine Fine (Kent Records)
- 2007: Can't Sit Down... 'Cos It Feels So Good: The Complete Modern Recordings (Kent Records)
|Single (A-side, B-side)||Release date||Label & Cat No,||Peak positions||Album||Notes|
|US Hot 100||US R&B|
|"I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)"
b/w "Find My Baby"
|Nov 1961||Atco – 45-6212||19||3||Non-album tracks||
|"Troubles on My Mind"
b/w "Come On and Truck"
|Apr 1962||Atco – 45-6223||—||—|
b/w "Zizzy Zee Zum Zum"
|Jul 1962||Atco – 45-6232||—||—|
|"I Had a Dream the Other Night"
b/w "I Do Love You"
|Nov 1962||Atco – 45-6243||—||—|
|"Crazy in Love"
b/w Pee Wee
|Feb 1963||Teena – 1701||—||—||
|"No Bail in This Jail (Prisoner In Love)"
b/w "Those Words"
|Apr 1963||Teena – 1702||126*||—||
|"You're Still My Baby"
b/w "I'm Leaving You"
|Apr 1963||Sony – 112||—||—||
|"Blue with a Broken Heart"
b/w "Mind In A Whirl"
|ca. 1963||Sonja – 2003||—||—||
|"Here's Your Heart"
"Here's Your Heart (Instrumental)"
|Jan 1964||Innis – 3000||—||—||
b/w "Nobody Loves Me"
|Dec 1964||Modern – 1003||107*||—||Soul The Hits|
|"Peaches 'N' Cream"
b/w "The Biggest Players"
|Feb 1965||Modern – 45x1005||36||28|
|"(He's Gonna Be) Fine, Fine, Fine"
b/w "How Come"
|May 1965||Modern – 45x1008||125*||—|
|"I'm So Thankful"
b/w "Don't Feel Sorry for Me"
|Jul 1965||Modern – 45x1011||74||12|
|"(Never More) Lonely gor You"
b/w "Sally Go Round The Roses"
|Jan 1966||Modern – 45xM 1015||122*||—|
|"Not That I Recall"
b/w "Da Doo Ron Ron"
|Jul 1966||Modern – 45xM 1024||—||—|
|"What'cha Gonna Do (When I Leave You)"
b/w "Down, Down"
|Aug 1966||Phi-Dan – 5009||—||—||Non-album tracks||
b/w "So Blue Over You"
|Mar 1968||Pompeii – 45-6667||117*||50||So Fine||
|"Make 'Em Wait"
b/w "Beauty Is Just Skin Deep"
|Nov 1968||Pompeii – 45-66683||—||—||Cussin', Cryin' & Carryin' On||
b/w "Honky Tonk Women"
|Jan 1970||Minit – 32087||57||21||Come Together||
|"I Want to Take You Higher"
b/w "Contact High"
|May 1970||Liberty – 56177||34||25||
|"Got What It Takes (To Get What I Want)"
b/w "If You Take A Close Look"
|Dec 1971||United Artists – 50866||—||—||Non-album tracks|
|"I'm Just Not Ready for Love"
b/w "Two Timin' Double Dealin'"
|Dec 1972||United Artists – 51103||—||—|
|*single did not chart on the main chart but was on the Bubbling Under Top LP's.
"—" denotes a recording that did not chart.
Filmography/Selected TV appearancesEdit
|Shindig!||Apr. 21, 1965||Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith|
|Hollywood A Go-Go||Apr. 24, 1965||Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith|
|American Bandstand||May 1, 1965||Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith|
|The Big T.N.T Show||1966
(filmed Nov. 29, 1965)
|Pat Arnold (P.P. Arnold), Gloria Scott, and Maxine Smith|
|Studio Uno||Mar. 26, 1966||Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith|
|Goodbye Again||Aug. 18 1968
(filmed Apr 1968)
|Pat Powdrill, Ann Thomas, Jean Brown, Paulette Parker (Maxayn Lewis)|
|The Hollywood Palace||Dec. 7, 1968||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear|
|Andy's Love Concert||Marc. 19, 1969||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear|
|The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour||Apr. 13, 1969||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear|
|It's Your Thing||1970||Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Vera Hamilton|
|Playboy After Dark||Feb. 3, 1970
(filmed Dec. 3, 1969)
|Pat Powdrill, Esther Jones,Claudia Lennear|
|The Ed Sullivan Show||Jan 11. 1970||Claudia Lennear, Esther Jones, Stonye Figueroa|
|The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson||Jul. 9, 1970||Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown|
|Johnny Cash Presents the Everly Brothers||Aug. 5, 1970||Esther Jones, Jean Brown|
|The Andy Williams Show||Sept. 26, 1970||Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown|
|The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson||Nov. 25, 1970||Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown|
|Taking Off||1971||Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown|
|Soul to Soul||1971||Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown|
|Beat-Club||Feb. 27, 1971||Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown|
|The Pearl Bailey Show||Mar. 27, 1971||Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown|
|Good Vibrations from Central Park||Aug, 19, 1971||Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson|
|Rollin' on the River||Mar. 4, 1972||Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson|
|Soul Train||Apr. 22, 1972||Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson|
|The Dick Cavett Show||Oct. 10, 1972||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson|
|Top à Régine||Nov. 11, 1972||Esther Jones, Gail Stevens, Edna Richardson|
|The Midnight Special||Feb. 2, 1973||Linda Sims, Linda Shuford-Williams, Alesia Butler|
|The Burns and Schreiber Comedy Hour||Jun. 22, 1973||Alesia Butler|
|In Concert||Aug. 3, 1973||Linda Sims, Linda Shuford-Williams, Debbie Wilson|
|The Midnight Special||Nov. 9, 1973||Edna Richardson, Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis|
|In Concert||Dec. 14, 1973||Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis, Debbie Wilson|
|Hits à Gogo||Dec. 14, 1973||Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis, Debbie Wilson|
|The Midnight Special||Feb. 8, 1974||Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis, Debbie Wilson|
|Don Kirshner's Rock Concert||Mar. 16, 1974||Linda Sims, Stonye Figueroa, Edna Richardson|
|Musikladen||Nov. 14, 1974||Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Yolanda Goodwin|
|Soul Train||Jan. 18, 1975||Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Yolanda Goodwin|
|The Midnight Special||Mar. 7, 1975||Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Edna Richardson|
|Cher||Apr. 27, 1975||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Yolanda Goodwin|
|Cher||Oct. 12, 1975||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Yolanda Goodwin|
|Van Dyke and Company||Oct. 30, 1975||Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Edna Richardson|
|Poiret est à vous||1975||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Judy Cheeks|
|Don Kirshner's Rock Concert||Mar. 12, 1976||Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Yolanda Goodwin|
|Ike & Tina on the Road: 1971–72||2012||Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson|
- "100 Greatest Girl Group Songs of All Time: Critics' Picks". Billboard. July 10, 2017.
- Sabol, Blair (May 1975). "I Was an lkette for a Night". Esquire.
- Baumgart, Malcom. Original sleeve note from The Ikettes — Fine, Fine Fine (1986).
- "Artist's Biographies: The Ikettes" (PDF). Billboard: 36. February 10, 1962.
- "The Ikettes Songs ••• Top Songs / Chart Singles Discography". Music VF, US & UK hits charts.
- Tina Turner, Kurt Loder (1986). I, Tina. HarperCollins. ISBN 0380700972.
- Jeannette, Cooperman (February 26, 2010). "A Conversation With Robbie Montgomery". St. Louis Mag.
- "Change Teena Singles Title, Names New Distribs" (PDF). Cash Box: 29. June 8, 1963.
- Eve Zibart, "Bonnie Bramlett Belts Them Out at Cellar Door", The Washington Post, May 11, 1978, C7.
- Hopkins, Jerry (May 31, 1969). "Interview: Delaney & Bonnie". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2019-11-10.
- Love, Darlene (1998). My Name Is Love. William Morrow and Co. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-688-15657-2 – via Internet Archive.
- Fong-Torres, Ben (October 14, 1971). "Tales of Ike and Tina Turner". Rolling Stones.
- Clemente, John (2013). Girl Groups: Fabulous Females Who Rocked the World. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-4772-7633-4.
- "Ike Turner Revue Injured In Kansas Bus Crash". Jet. 31 (12): 59. December 29, 1966.
- Bernholm, Jonas (2019-07-26), "Los Angeles", Soul Music Odyssey USA 1968, York University Libraries, retrieved 2021-02-16
- "UA Corp Absorbs Lines; UA Records Sole Disk Co" (PDF). Billboard: 3. January 23, 1971.
- "Gayle McCormick – Flesh & Blood". Discogs.
- Beckman, Don (1972-10-29). "Music: Rally for McGovern". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
- "Over-Nite Sensation". www.donlope.net. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
- "Apostrophe (')". www.donlope.net. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
- "Billboard Recommended LP's" (PDF). Billboard: 68. January 26, 1974.
- Turner, Ike (1999). Takin' Back My Name: The Confessions of Ike Turner. Virgin Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85227-850-2.
- Willam, Chris (October 10, 1988). "Ike Turner Doesn't Quite Get It Turned Around". The Los Angeles Times.
- Pareles, Jon (August 26, 1996). "Turner Revue Is Back (Minus Tina)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
- Dougherty, Steve (April 13, 1992). "A '70s Burnout Lights Up Roseanne". People.com.
- "Delaney, Bonnie & Friends Songs ••• Top Songs / Chart Singles Discography". Music VF, US & UK hits charts.
- "An Interview With Venetta Fields". Pink Floyd - A Fleeting Glimpse.
- Nevill, Brian. "Looking for Pat Powdrill," SpectroPop (2006).
- "Edna Richardson". IMDb.
- Donovan, Charles (February 28, 2018). "The Message Never Gets Old: Maxayn Lewis and the Maxayn Band". Pop Matters.
- "Esther Jones". Discogs.
- Campbell, Ruth (December 11, 2006). "Midlander, backup singer for Ike, Tina Turner, dies". Midland Reporter-Telegram.
- "What They Call Me - EP". Apple Music.
- Kasten, Roy (October 10, 2018). "Ms. Robbie Montgomery Just Released Her First New Music in 40 Years". Riverfront Times.
- Abrams, Ken (April 17, 2019). "WhatsUp Interview: Claudia Lennear, 2019 RI Music Hall of Fame Inductee". What's Up Rhode Island.
- Smith, Andy (June 22, 2014). "From Hope High to '20 Feet From Stardom' was an amazing journey". Providence Journal.
- Bronson, Fred (2003). The Billboard Book of Number One Hits. Billboard Books. ISBN 978-0-8230-7677-2.
- Michel, Sarah (September 2, 2016). "Lyrica Garrett Been That Chick! Meet The Love & Hip Hop Mom Who Got Her Start With Ike and Tina". VH1.
- Archer, Greg (June 10, 2019). "Talking Turner". Palm Springs Life.
- Starr, Michael (October 5, 2011). "Famous 'X'". New York Post.
- Cornish, Stephanie (June 18, 2016). "Ike Turner's Widow Pens Memoir on Singer's Violent Bipolar Condition". The Afro.
- The Ed Sullivan Show, 1970 and Don Kristner's Rock Concert, 1974; also 20 Feet From Stardom
- "Spotlights Turn On Her". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. June 2, 1969 – via Newspapers.com.
- Wikane, Christian John. "Her Best Is Yet to Come: The Return of Gloria Scott," PopMatters (18 March 2009).
- Seen on the cover of Ikettes (G)old and New album (right); 20 Feet from Stardom
- Pryweller, Joseph. "Moving In Different Directions: Picking Hampton Over The Bright Lights Of Calif.," Daily Press (December 21, 1990).
- Seen on the cover of Ikettes (G)old and New album (center); 20 Feet from Stardom
- The Boston Herald (Aug. 27, 1996), p. 3
- "Bubbling Under The Hot 100" (PDF). Billboard. May 11, 1963.
- "Bubbling Under The Hot 100" (PDF). Billboard. February 13, 1965.
- "Bubbling Under The Hot 100" (PDF). Billboard. June 5, 1965.
- "Bubbling Under The Hot 100" (PDF). Billboard. February 5, 1966.
- "Bubbling Under The Hot 100" (PDF). Billboard. April 20, 1968.
- "Special Merit Spotlight" (PDF). Billboard: 74. November 16, 1968.
- "The Ikettes". IMDb.
- "Television". Jet: 98. December 20, 1973.