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Thérèse Raquin [teʁɛz ʁakɛ̃] is an 1868 novel by French writer Émile Zola, first published in serial form in the literary magazine L'Artiste in 1867. It was Zola's third novel, though the first to earn wide fame. The novel's adultery and murder were considered scandalous and famously described as "putrid" in a review in the newspaper Le Figaro.
|Written by||Émile Zola|
|Date premiered||1867 / 1873|
|Genre||Naturalism, theatrical naturalism, psychological novel|
Thérèse Raquin tells the story of a young woman, unhappily married to her first cousin by an overbearing aunt, who may seem to be well-intentioned but in many ways is deeply selfish. Thérèse's husband, Camille, is sickly and egocentric and when the opportunity arises, Thérèse enters into a turbulent and sordidly passionate affair with one of Camille's friends, Laurent.
In his preface, Zola explains that his goal in this novel was to "study temperaments and not characters". Because of this detached and scientific approach, Thérèse Raquin is considered an example of naturalism.
Thérèse Raquin was first adapted for the stage as an 1873 play written by Zola himself. It has since then been adapted numerous times as films, TV miniseries, musicals and an opera, among others.
Thérèse Raquin is the daughter of a French sea-captain and an Algerian mother. After the death of her mother, her father brings her to live with her aunt, Madame Raquin and her valetudinarian son, Camille. Because her son is "so ill", Madame Raquin dotes on Camille to the point where he is selfish and spoiled. Camille and Thérèse grow up side-by-side and Madame Raquin marries them to one another when Thérèse is 21. Shortly thereafter, Camille decides that the family should move to Paris so he can pursue a career.
Thérèse and Madame Raquin set up shop in the Passage du Pont Neuf to support Camille while he searches for a job. Camille eventually begins working for the Orléans Railway Company, where he meets up with a childhood friend, Laurent. Laurent visits the Raquins and, whilst painting a portrait of Camille, decides to take up an affair with the lonely Thérèse, mostly because he cannot afford prostitutes anymore. However, this soon turns into a torrid love affair.
They meet regularly and secretly in Thérèse's room. After some time, Laurent's boss no longer allows him to leave early and so the lovers have to think of something new. Thérèse comes up with the idea of killing Camille and they become infatuated with the idea of being able to be together permanently whilst married. It seems Camille is the only obstacle in this. They eventually drown him during a boat trip, though in defending himself, Camille succeeds in biting Laurent on the neck. Madame Raquin is in shock after hearing the disappearance of her son; everybody believes that the drowning was an accident and that the couple actually attempted to save Camille. Laurent is still uncertain about whether Camille is truly dead and frequently visits the mortuary, which he persists in despite it disturbing him, until he finally finds the dead body there. Thérèse has nightmares and becomes far more nervous, along with the previously calm and rooted Laurent. Despite their feelings towards one another being greatly changed, they plot to find a way to marry without raising suspicion and therefore reap the rewards of their actions. Thérèse acts very subdued around family and acquaintances and Laurent publicly shows great concern and care for her, so Michaud—one of the regular visitors of the family—comes up with the idea that Thérèse should marry again and that the ideal husband would be Laurent. They finally marry but they are haunted by the memory of the murder. Laurent's bite scar acts as a reminder for both of them of what has happened. They have hallucinations of the dead Camille in their bed every night, preventing them from touching each other and quickly driving them even more insane. They oscillate between trying desperately to rekindle their passion in order to get rid of the corpse hallucinations (and trying to 'heal' the bite scar), and despising each other. Laurent, who was previously an untalented artist, is suddenly struck with surprising talent and skill, but he can no longer paint a picture (even a landscape) which does not in some way resemble the dead man. Therefore, sickened, he gives this up. They also have to look after Madame Raquin, who has suffered a stroke after Camille's death. Madame Raquin suffers a second stroke and becomes completely paralyzed (except for her eyes), after which Thérèse and Laurent accidentally reveal the murder in her presence during one of their many arguments.
Madame Raquin, who was previously blissfully happy, is now filled with rage, disgust and horror. During an evening's game of dominoes with friends, Madame Raquin manages to move her finger with an extreme effort of will to trace words on the table: "Thérèse et Laurent ont ...". The complete sentence was intended to be "Thérèse et Laurent ont tué Camille" (Thérèse and Laurent killed Camille). At this point her strength gives out and the words are interpreted as "Thérèse and Laurent look after me very well".
Thérèse and Laurent find life together intolerable. Laurent has taken to beating Thérèse, something she deliberately provokes in order to distract her from her life. Thérèse has convinced herself that Madame Raquin has forgiven her and spends hours kissing her and praying at the disabled woman's feet. The couple argue almost constantly about Camille and who was responsible for his death and thus they live in an endless, waking nightmare. Due to this, they begin to rashly plot to murder the other. At the climax of the novel, the two are about to kill one another when each of them realizes the plans of the other. They each then break down sobbing, in silent agreement of what they should do next, and reflect upon their miserable lives. After having embraced one last time, they each commit suicide by taking poison supplied by Laurent, all in front of the watchful and hate-filled gaze of Madame Raquin.
- Thérèse Raquin – the eponymous protagonist, is the wife of Camille and the orphaned daughter of Madame Raquin's brother and an unknown African woman.
- Camille Raquin – Thérèse's husband and first cousin.
- Madame Raquin – Camille's mother and Thérèse's aunt. She works as a shopkeeper to support her family.
- Laurent LeClaire – a childhood friend and coworker of Camille who seduces Thérèse.
- Michaud – the police commissioner and friend of Madame Raquin
- Olivier – Michaud's son who works at the police prefecture
- Suzanne – Olivier's wife
- Grivet – an elderly employee of the Orléans Railroad Company, where Camille works
- François – the Raquins' cat
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Punishment and imprisonmentEdit
Throughout the book there are references to chains, cages, tombs and pits. These contribute to the impression that Laurent and Thérèse are in a state of remorse and are plagued by guilt. The book mentions how they are always clawing at the chains that bound them together. The shop that Thérèse owns is compared to a tomb, where Thérèse watches corpses walk by in the day.
In his preface to the second edition, Zola writes that he intended to "study temperaments and not characters". To his main characters, he assigns various humors according to Galen's four temperaments: Thérèse is melancholic, Laurent is sanguine, Camille is phlegmatic and Madame is choleric. For Zola, the interactions of these types of personalities could only have the result that plays out in his plot.
Also in his preface, Zola calls both Thérèse and Laurent "human brutes" and the characters are often given animal tendencies. Zola would take up this idea again in his La Bête humaine (1890).
Literary significance and receptionEdit
Thérèse Raquin is generally considered to be Zola's first major work. Upon its release in 1867, Thérèse Raquin was a commercial and artistic success for Zola; this led to a reprint in book form in 1868. It gained additional publicity when critic Louis Ulbach (pen name: Ferragus) called Thérèse Raquin "putrid" in a long diatribe for Le Figaro; Zola capitalized on this for publicity and referred to it in his preface to the second edition.
Zola adapted the novel into a play, Thérèse Raquin, first staged in 1873. It was not performed in London until 1891, under the auspices of the Independent Theatre Society, since the Lord Chamberlain's Office refused to license it.
Stage productions of Zola's play include:
- 2006 for the Royal National Theatre, London, adaptation written by Nicholas Wright
- 2007 production of the Nicholas Wright adaptation by Quantum Theatre in Pittsburgh; staged in the empty swimming pool of the Carnegie Free Library of Braddock
- 2008 production at Riverside Studios, London, adaptation by Pauline McLynn
- 2009 production at Edinburgh Fringe Festival performed by pupils of the Cheltenham Ladies' College (adapted by Fiona Ross)
- 2014 production touring from Bath, adapted by Helen Edmundson
- 2014 production at Theatre Works, Melbourne, Australia; adapted and directed by Gary Abrahams
- 2015 Edmundson adaptation at the Roundabout Theater at Studio 54 (New York City)
- 2017 revival of the 2014 Gary Abrahams adaption touring Australia nationally
Neal Bell adapted the novel into a play under the same title. It was first produced at New York University by Playwrights Horizons Theatre School on December 3, 1991, directed by Edward Elefterion, with Katie Bainbridge as the title role. Its first professional production was at the Williamstown Theatre Festival on June 30, 1993, directed by Michael Greif, with Lynn Hawley as Thérèse. On July 10, 1994, Michael Greif, in conjunction with La Jolla Playhouse in California, put up the West Coast premiere with Paul Giamatti in the role of Camille. Its professional New York premiere was on October 27, 1997, at the Classic Stage Company, directed by David Esbjornson, with Elizabeth Marvel as Thérèse. The Los Angeles premiere was directed by Charlie Stratton, with Leslie Hope as Thérèse.
A 2014 UK musical, Thérèse Raquin, with music by Craig Adams and book and lyrics by Nona Shepphard, featured Julie Atherton as Thérèse, Tara Hugo as Madame, Jeremy Legat as Camille and Ben Lewis/Greg Barnett as Laurent. After a sold out run at The Finborough Theatre the Theatre Bench production transferred to Park Theatre in Finsbury Park and was nominated for a West End Frame award. A cast recording was released in 2015.
Film and televisionEdit
Film and television adaptations of the novel include:
- Thérèse Raquin (1915), Italian silent film, directed by Nino Martoglio
- Thérèse Raquin (1928), German film
- Thérèse Raquin (1950), BBC adaptation starring Sonia Dresdel as Thérèse
- Thérèse Raquin (1953), with Simone Signoret
- Thérèse Raquin (1956), German TV movie
- Thérèse Raquin (1965) Swedish TV movie
- Thérèse Raquin (1966), German TV movie
- Teresa Raquin (1977), Mexican TV series
- Thérèse Raquin (1979) Belgian TV movie
- Thérèse Raquin (1980), BBC series starring Kate Nelligan as Thérèse, Brian Cox as Laurent, and Alan Rickman as Vidal (Laurent's artist friend, who is unnamed in the novel)
- Thérèse Raquin (1985), Italian miniseries
- Thirst (2009), Korean horror film which borrowed a number of plot elements from Thérèse Raquin
- In Secret (2013), American film starring Elizabeth Olsen as Thérèse, Jessica Lange as Madame Raquin, Oscar Isaac as Laurent and Tom Felton as Camille; directed by Charlie Stratton
- 1867, France, Lacroix, December 1867, hardback
- 1887, Translation by Ernest Alfred Vizetelly
- 1962, Penguin Classics translation by L. W. Tancock
- 1992, Oxford World's Classics translation by Andrew Rothwell
- 1995, Penguin Classics translation by Robin Buss
- 2013, Vintage (Random House) translation by Adam Thorpe
- Zola, Émile. "Préface de la deuxième édition." Thérèse Raquin. Paris: Livre de Poche, 1997.
- Pearce JM (1987). "The locked in syndrome". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 294 (6566): 198–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.294.6566.198. PMC 1245219. PMID 3101806.
- Ferragus. "La littérature putride." Le Figaro, January 23, 1868.
- Raquin at the Roundabout
- Bell, Neal. Thérèse Raquin. New York: Broadway Play Publishing INC., 1998.
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