- This article is about Telephus the son of Heracles. The name also refers to the father of Cyparissus.
In Greek mythology, Telephus (//; Greek: Τήλεφος, Tēlephos, "far-shining") was the son of Heracles and Auge, daughter of king Aleus of Tegea; and the father of Eurypylus. He was adopted by the Teuthras king of Mysia, in Asia Minor, whom he succeeded as king. He was wounded by Achilles when he and the Achaeans came to his kingdom on their way to sack Troy and bring Helen back to Sparta.
Birth to adulthoodEdit
Telephus' mother was Auge, the daughter of Aleus, the king of Tegea, a city in Arcadia, in the Peloponnese of mainland Greece. His father was Heracles, who had seduced or raped Auge, a priestess of Athena. When Aleus found out, he tried to dispose of mother and child, but eventually both ended up in Asia Minor at the court of Teuthras, king of Mysia, where Telephus is adopted as the childless king's heir.
There were three versions of how Telephus, the son of an Arcadian princess, came to be the heir of a Mysian king. In the oldest extant account, Auge goes to Mysia, is raised as a daughter by Teuthras, and Telephus is born there. In some accounts Telephus arrives in Mysia as an infant with his mother, where Teuthras marries Auge, and adopts Telephus. In others, while Auge (in various ways) is delivered to the Mysian court, Telephus is left behind in Arcadia, having been abandonded on Mount Parthenion, either by Aleus, or by Auge when she was being taken to the sea by Nauplius, where she was supposed to be drowned. However Auge is instead taken to Mysia, where she again becomes wife to the king. Meanwhile, Telephus is suckled by a deer and found, and raised by King Corythus, or his herdsmen. Seeking knowledge of his mother, Telephus consulted the Delphic oracle which directed him to Mysia, where he was reunited with Auge and adopted by Teuthras.
A surviving fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women (6th c. BC), representing perhaps the oldest tradition, places Telephus' birth in Mysia. In this telling Telephus' mother Auge had been received at the court of Teuthras in Mysia (possibly at the command of the gods) and raised by him as a daughter. And It is in Mysia that Heracles, while seeking the horses of Laomedon, fathers Telephus.
All other surviving sources have Telephus born in Arcadia. The oldest such account (c. 490–480 BC), by the historian and geographer Hecataeus, says that Heracles used to have sex with Auge whenever he came to Tegea. We are told this by the 2nd century geographer Pausanias, who goes on to say, perhaps drawing upon Hecataeus, that when Aleus discovered that Auge had given birth to Telephus, he had mother and child shut up in a wooden chest and cast adrift on the open sea. The chest made its way from Arcadia to the Caicus river plain in Asia Minor, where the local king Teuthras married Auge.
Sophocles, in the fifth century BC, wrote a tragedy Aleadae (The sons of Aleus), which apparently told the circumstances of Telephus' birth. The play is lost and only fragments now remain, but a declamation attributed to the fourth century BC orator Alcidamas probably used Sophocles' Aleadae for one of its sources. According to Alcidamas, Auge's father Aleus had been warned by the Delphic oracle that if Auge had a son, then this grandson would kill Aleus' sons, so Aleus made Auge a priestess of Athena, telling her she must remain a virgin, on pain of death. But Heracles passing through Tegea, being entertained by Aleus in the temple of Athena, became enamored of Auge and while drunk had sex with her. Aleus discovered that Auge was pregnant and gave her to Nauplius to be drowned. But, on the way to the sea, Auge gave birth to Telephus on Mount Parthenion, and according to Alcidamas, Nauplius, ignoring his orders, sold mother and child to the childless Mysian king Teuthras, who married Auge and adopted Telephus. Alcidamas' version of the story must have diverged from Sophocles in at least this last respect. For, rather than the infant Telephus being sold to Teuthras, as in Alcidamas, an Aleadae fragment seems to insure that in the Sophoclean play, as in many later accounts (see above), the new-born Telephus was instead abandoned (on Mount Parthenion?), where he is suckled by a deer.
Euripides wrote a play Auge (408 BC?) which also dealt with Telephus' birth. The play is lost, but a summary of the plot can be pieced together from various later sources, in particular a narrative summary, given by the Armenian historian Moses of Chorene. A drunken Heracles, during a festival of Athena, rapes "Athena's priestess Auge, daughter of Aleus, as she conducted the dances during the nocturnal rites." Auge gives birth secretly in Athena's temple at Tegea, and hides the new-born Telephus there. The child is discovered, and Aleus orders Telephus exposed and Auge drowned, but Heracles returns and apparently saves the pair from immediate death, and the play perhaps ended with the assurance (from Athena to Heracles?) that Auge and Telephus would be wife and son to Teuthras.
Strabo, gives a version of the story similar to Pausanias', saying that, after discovering "her ruin by Heracles", Aleus put Auge and Telephus into a chest and cast it into the sea, that it washed up at the mouth of the Caicus, and that Teuthras married Auge, and adopted Telephus.
Later accounts by the 1st century BC Historian Diodorus Siculus and the 1st or 2nd century AD mythographer Apollodorus provide additional details and variations. Diodorus, as in Alcidamas' account, says that Aleus gave the pregnant Auge to Nauplius to be drowned, that she gave birth to Telephus near Mount Parthenion, and that she ended up with Teuthras in Mysia. But in Diodorus' account, instead of being sold, along with his mother, to Teuthras, Telephus is abandonded by Auge "in some bushes", where he is suckled by a doe, and found by herdsmen. They give him to their king Corythus, who raises Telephus as his son. When Telephus grows up, wishing to find his mother, he consults the oracle at Delphi, which sends him to king Teuthras in Mysia. There he finds Auge and, as before, is adopted by the childless king, and made his heir. Apollodorus, as in Euripides' Auge, says that Auge delivered Telephus secretly in Athena's temple, and hid him there. Apollodorus adds that an ensuing famine, was declared by an oracle to be the result of some impiety in the temple, and a search of the temple caused Telephus to be found. Aleus had Telephus exposed on Parthenion, where as in Sophocles' Aleadae, he is suckled by a doe. According to Apollodorus, he was found and raised by herdsman. As in Diodorus' account, Telephuis consults the oracle at Delphi, is sent to Mysia, where he becomes the adopted heir of Tethras.
According to the mythographer Hyginus (whose account is apparently taken from an older tragic source, probably Sophocles' Mysians), after Auge abandoned Telephus on Mount Parthenion she fled to Mysia where, as in the Catalogue of Women, she became the adopted daughter (not wife) of Teuthras. When Telephus goes to Mysia on the instruction of the oracle, Teuthras promises him his kingdom and his daughter Auge in marriage if he would defeat his enemy Idas. This Telephus did, with the help of Parthenopaeus, a childhood companion who had been found as a baby on Mount Parthenion at the same time as Telephus, and was raised together with him. Teuthras then gave Auge to Telephus, but Auge still faithful to Heracles, attacked Telephus with a sword in their wedding chamber, but the gods intervened sending a serpent to separate them, causing Auge to drop her sword. Just as Telephus was about to kill Auge, she called out to Heracles for rescue and Telephus then recognized his mother.
The silence of TelephusEdit
Presumably Sophocles' Aleadae (The Sons of Aleus) told how Telephus, while still in Arcadia, prior to going to Mysia in search of his mother, killed Aleus' sons, thereby fulfilling the oracle. Ancient sources confirm the killing, however virtually nothing is known of how this may have come about.
The murder of his uncles would have caused Telephus to become religiously polluted, and in need of purification, and apparently, Greek religious practice required criminal homicides to remain silent until their blood-guilt could be expiated. Aristotle in the Poetics, in a reference to Telephus' appearance in a tragedy called Mysians, mentions "the man who came from Tegea to Mysia without speaking". And indeed, the silence of Telephus was apparently "proverbial". The comic poet Alexis writes about a voratious dinner quest who like "Telephus in speechless silence sits, / Making but signs to those who ask him questions", presumably too intent on eating to converse. And another comic poet Amphis, complains about fishmongers who "mute they stand like Telephus", going on to say that the comparison of the fishmongers to Telephus is apt since "they all are homicides".
King in MysiaEdit
Attacked by the GreeksEdit
Telephus was made the heir of Teuthras' kingdom of Teuthrania in Mysia, and eventually succeeded Teuthras as its king. During Telephus' reign, in a prelude to the Trojan War, the Greeks attacked Telephus' city mistaking it for Troy. Telephus routed the Greeks, killing Thersander, son of Polynices, and forcing the Greeks back to their ships.
But Telephus was tripped by a vine and wounded in the thigh by Achilles' spear. According to Apollodorus, and a scholiast on Homer's Iliad, Telephus was tripped while fleeing from Achilles' attack. The scholiast says that Dionysus caused the vine to trip Telephus because Telephus had failed to properly honor him. Dionysus' involvement is attested by an early fifth century red-figure calyx krater. Philostratus and Dictys Cretensis give detailed elaborations of all these events.
Wound and healingEdit
The Mysians were victorious, and the Greeks returned home, but Telephus' wound would not heal. Telephus consulted the oracle of Apollo which told him that only the wounder could be the healer (ὁ τρώσας καὶ ἰάσεται). So Telephus went to Argos, where the Greeks were assembling for a second expedition to Troy, to seek a cure, and there was healed by Achilles. In return Telephus agreed to guide the Greeks to Troy. Apollodorus and Hyginus tell us that rust scraped from Achilles spear was the healing agent. The healing of Telephus was a frequent theme in Augustan age and later Roman poetry.
There is no mention of the battle in Mysia in the Iliad or the Odyssey. However, the Cypria (late 7th century BC?), one of the poems of the Epic Cycle, told the story. According to Proclus' summary of the Cypria, the Greeks mistook Mysia for Troy, Telephus killed Thersander, but was wounded by Achilles. Telephus, guided by an oracle, came to Argos, where Achilles cured him in return for Telephus guiding the Greeks to Troy. Pindar (c. 522–443 BC), knew the story of Telephus' wounding by Achilles' spear, presumably after being tripped by a vine: "Achilles, who stained the vine-covered plain of Mysia, spattering it with the dark blood of Telephus".
Each of the three tragedians, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides wrote plays, all now lost, telling Telephus' story. Euripides' play Telephus (438 BC), dramatized Telephus' trip to Argos seeking a cure for his festering wound. In Euripides' account, Telephus disguised himself as a beggar dressed in rags. After his disguise was revealed, Telephus seized the Greek king Agamemnon's infant son Orestes to use as a hostage. But it was discovered that Telephus was a Greek by birth, and Telephus agreed to guide the Greek army to Troy, in return for Achilles' healing his wound.
Later sources, probably provide additional information about these earlier sources. Apollodorus gives a version of the Mysian expedition, probably drawn directly from the Cypria. Apollodorus' account agrees with Proculus' summary, but gives more of the story. Telephus killed many Greeks in addition to Thersander, but was tripped by a vine while fleeing from Achilles. Apollo told Telephus that his wound "would be cured when the one who wounded him should turn physician". So Telephus went to Argos "clad in rags" (as in Euripides' Telephus) and, promising to guide the Greeks to Troy, begged Achilles to cure him, which Achilles did by using rust scraped from his spear. Telephus then showed the Greeks the way to Troy. The A scholia on Iliad 1.59, agrees with Proclus' and Apollodorus' accounts, but attributes the vine-tripping to Dionysus, angry because of unpaid honors, and adds that in addition to leading the Greeks to Troy, Telephus also agreed not to aid the Trojans in the coming war.
Hyginus account seems to be based, in part at least, on one or more of the tragedians lost plays. Hyginus tells of the wounding by Achilles, the wound's festering, and Telephus' consulting of the Apollo's oracle, with the answer that "the only thing that could cure him was the very same spear by which he had been wounded." So Telephus sought out Agamemnon, and on the advice of Agamemnon's wife Clytemnestra, Telephus snatched their infant son Orestes from his cradle, threatening to kill him if the Greeks did not heal him." As the Greeks had also received an oracle saying that they would not be able to take Troy without Telephus' aid, they asked Achilles to heal Telephus. But Achilles protested he did not know anything about medicine. However Odysseus pointed out that Apollo did not mean Achilles, but that the spear itself would be the cure. So they scraped rust from the spear into the wound, and Telephus was cured. The Greeks then asked Telephus to join them in sacking Troy, but Telephus refused because his wife Laodice was the daughter of Priam, the king of Troy. However, Telephus did promise to be the Greeks guide to Troy.
The earliest mention of Telephus, which occurs in Homer's Odyssey (c. 8th century BC), says that Telephus had a son Eurypylus, who died at Troy. Nothing is said there about who Eurypylus' mother was, but all ancient sources that do mention Eurypylus' mother say that she was Astyoche, who was (usually) Priam's sister. Eurypylus led a large force of Mysian to fight on the side of Troy during the final stages of the Trojan War. Eurypylus was a great warrior, and killed many opponents, including Machaon and Nireus, but was finally killed by Achilles' son Neoptolemus. The irony of Achilles' son killing Telephus' son using the same spear that Achilles had used to heal Telephus, apparently figured in Sophocles' lost play Eurypylus. According to Servius, Eurypylus had a son, Grynus, who became king in Mysia and was known as the eponym of Gryneion and the founder of Pergamon.
Two other offspring of Telephus are given, without naming a mother. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, some claimed that Telephus was the father of Tyrrhenus, the legendary founder of Tyrrhenia, and Plutarch says that, according to one account, Telephus was the father of Roma, from whom the city of Rome took its name.
Three other wives are given for Telephus, with no mention of offspring. According to Hyginus (as mentioned above) Telephus' wife was Priam's daughter Laodice. According to Diodorus Siculus, Telephus married Agriope a daughter of Teuthras. While Philostratus says that Hiera, the leader of a contingent of Mysian women cavalry, killed in battle by Nireus, was the wife of Telephus, The Amazon-like Hiera, on horseback, leading the Mysian women into battle, had already been portrayed on the 2nd century BC Telephus frieze of the Pergamon Altar.
Aristophanes extensively parodied Euripides' play Telephus. In the Acharnians, the comic hero of the play, Dicaeopolis, modelled on the Euripidean Telephus, takes as hostage a charcoal basket, and borrows Telephus' beggar costume from Euripides (who appears as a character in the play), to wear as a disguise.
In Women at the Thesmophoria, a kinsman of Euripides (who again is a character in the play), disguises himself (as a women). When he is exposed, he grabs an infant (which turns out to be a wineskin) as hostage, and takes refuge at an altar.
In the artsEdit
Telephus features in Sophocles' The Assembly of the Achaeans.
Telephus' story is the subject of the Telephus Frieze that forms a part of the famous Pergamon Altar.
- See for example, Knight, p. 433. According to the mythographic tradition, Telephus' name derived from his being suckled by a doe, e.g. Apollodorus, 2.7.4 (Frazer note 2 to 2.7.4: 'Apollodorus seems to derive the name Telephus from θηλή, “a dug,” and ἔλαφος, “a doe."'). See also Huys, p. 295 ff.; Webster, pp. 238–239; Hyginus, Fabulae 99; Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.11; Moses of Chorene, Progymnasmata 3.3 (= Euripides, Auge test. iib, Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 266, 267): "He got his name from circumstances". According to Kerényi his name was "more accurately ... Telephanes, 'he who shines afar'" (Kerényi, p. 337). The feminine form is Telephassa, of whom Kerényi writes, "She bore the lunar name Telephassa or Telephae, 'she who illuminates afar', or Argiope 'she of the white face'". (Kerényi, p. 27).
- Gantz, p. 431. For general discussions see Hard, pp. 543–544; Gantz, 428–431.
- Hesiod (Pseudo), Catalogue of Women fr. 165 (Merkelbach–West numbering) from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri XI 1359 fr. 1 (Most, pp. 184–187; Stewart, p. 110; Grenfell and Hunt, pp. 52–55); Hyginus, Fabulae 99, 100.
- Alcidamas, Odysseus 16; Euripides, Auge (Collard and Cropp 2008a, p. 261, Webster, pp. 238—240); Strabo, 12.8.2, 12.8.4, 13.1.69; Moses of Chorene, Progymnasmata 3.3 (= Euripides, Auge test. iib, Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 266, 267).
- Apollodorus, 2.7.4, 3.9.1. Compare with Moses of Chorene, Progymnasmata 3.3 (= Euripides, Auge test. iib, Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 266, 267) which says that Aleus "ordered Telephus to be cast out in a deserted place".
- Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.9, 11. Compare with Hyginus, Fabulae 99 which has Auge abandoning Telephus on Parthenion while fleeing to Mysia. Telephus was probably also abandoned on Mount Parthenion (by either Aleus or Auge) in Euripides's lost play Telephus (see Gantz, p. 429), since in Telephus fr. 696, Collard and Cropp 2008b, pp. 194, 195, Telephus says he was born on Mount Parthenion but later "came to the plain of Mysia, where I found my mother and made a home."
- Almost certainly in Sophocles, Aleadae (see Gantz, p. 429; Huys, p. 293; Sophocles, Aleadae fr. 89 (Lloyd-Jones, pp. 40, 41), and probably also in Euripides, Auge (see Huys, p. 293; Collard and Cropp 2008a, p. 261; Webster, p. 239). See also Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.11; Ovid, Ibis 255–256; Hyginus, Fabulae 99, 252; Apollodorus, 2.7.4; Pausanias, 8.48.7, 8.54.6; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 6.139–142; Moses of Chorene, Progymnasmata 3.3 (Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 266, 267). In the Telephus frieze from the Pergamon Altar, Telephus is shown being suckled by a lioness (Heres, p. 85).
- Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.11.
- Apollodorus, 3.9.1; compare with Hyginus, Fabulae 99.
- Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.11; Apollodorus, 3.9.1; Hyginus, Fabulae 100.
- Euripides, Telephus fr. 696 (Collard and Cropp 2008b, pp. 194, 195; Page, pp. 130, 131; Webster, p. 238); Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.12; Apollodorus, 3.9.1. See also Palatine Anthology, 3.2 (Paton, pp. 150–153).
- Hard, p. 544; Gantz, p. 428; Hesiod (Pseudo), Catalogue of Women fr. 165 (Merkelbach–West numbering) from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri XI 1359 fr. 1 (Most, pp. 184–187; Stewart, p. 110; Grenfell and Hunt, pp. 52–55).
- Stewart, p. 110.
- Compare with Hyginus, Fabulae 99, 100 which also have Auge adopted by Teuthras.
- Gantz, p. 428.
- Stewart, p. 110; Gantz, p. 428; Hecataeus, fr. 29 Jacoby (= Pausanias, 8.4.9). Strabo, 13.1.69, gives a similar account, which he attributes to Euripides (see below).
- Lloyd-Jones, pp. 32–40 (frs. 77–89); Jebb, Headlam and Pearson, Vol. 1 pp. 46 ff. (frs. 77–89).
- Gantz, pp. 428–429; Jebb, Headlam and Pearson, Vol. 1 pp. 46–47.
- Alcidamas, Odysseus 14-16 (Garagin and Woodruff, p. 286). Alcidamas is the only source for the oracle given to Aleus (see Jebb, Headlam and Pearson, Vol. 1, p. 47).
- Gantz, p. 429; Huys, p. 293; Jebb, Headlam and Pearson, Vol. 1 p. 47; Sophocles, Aleadae fr. 89 (Lloyd-Jones, p. 40, 41).
- Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 259–277; Huys, pp. 81–82; Gantz, pp. 429–430; Webster, pp. 238–240.
- Euripides, Auge fr. 272b (= 265 N), Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 274, 275, has Heracles say: "As it is, wine made me lose control. I admit I wronged you, but the wrong was not intentional."
- Euripides, Auge test. iib, Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 266, 267 (= Moses of Chorene, Progymnasmata 3.3). Pompeian frescoes (which show Auge being raped while washing clothing) and Pausanias, 8.47.4, place the rape at a spring, and this version of events may reflect Euripides' Auge. See Collard and Cropp 2008a. p. 262, Euripides, Auge test. iia (Hypothesis), Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 264, 265, with n. 1; Rosivach, p. 44 with n. 126; Kerényi, p. 338).
- Collard and Cropp 2008a, p. 260; test. iii, Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 266, 267 (= Tzetzes On Aristophanes, Frogs 1080); fr. 266, Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 270, 271 (= Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 220.127.116.11). See also Euripides' Telephus, fr. 696, which has Telephus say that Auge "bore me secretly" (Collard and Cropp 2008b, pp. 194, 195; cf. Page, pp. 130, 131).
- Collard and Cropp 2018a, p. 261; Gantz, p. 430; Huys, p. 82; Webster, p. 240; Euripides, Auge test. iib, Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 266, 267 (= Moses of Chorene, Progymnasmata 3.3).
- See Strabo, 13.1.69, which attributes this to Euripides. If so then this would have presumably been in Euripide's Auge (see Gantz, p. 429; Webster, p. 238) however Strabo's attribution may be erroneous (see Collard and Cropp 2008a, p. 261); see also 12.8.2, 12.8.4.
- Gantz, p. 430.
- Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.7–12.
- Apollodorus 2.7.4, 3.9.1.
- Apollodorus, 3.9.1. This may also have been in Euripides, Auge, see fr. 267 (Collard and Cropp 2008a, pp. 260, 270, 271): "A city that is sick is clever at seeking out errors", which may refer to a search for the cause of the famine.
- Apollodorus, 3.9.1.
- Gantz, p. 430; Jebb, Headlam and Pearson, Vol. 2, pp. 70–72.
- As in Diodorus Siculus, 4.33.9, 11.
- Hyginus, Fabulae 99.
- Hyginus, Fabulae 100. Compare with Aelian, On Animals 3.47, which attributes this story of near-incest by Telephus to "the tragic dramatists and their predecessors, the inventors of fables".
- Lloyd-Jones, p. 33; Gantz, p. 429; Jebb, Headlam and Pearson, Vol 1. pp. 47–48; Frazer's note 1 to Apollodorus, 2.7.4; Hyginus, Fabulae 244. Sophocles' Aleadae frs. 84, 86, and 87 (Lloyd-Jones, pp. 36–39) hint at the possibility of a scene in which the uncles impugned Telephus' origins.
- Sommerstein, p. 150–151; Lloyd-Jones, p. 216—217; Kerényi, p. 339; Frazer's note 2 to Apollodorus, 2.7.4; Margoliouth, p. 217; Aeschylus, Eumenides 448—450; Compare with Herodotus 1.35.
- Aristotle, Poetics 1460a 30–32. Both Aeschylus and Sophocles wrote plays about Telephus, called Mysians, but since Sophocles, Mysians fr. 411 seems to imply that Telephus has spoken, that play is generally ruled out, see Sommerstein, p. 150–151; Lloyd-Jones, p. 216—217; Jebb, Headlam and Pearson, Vol 2, p. 71; Post, p. 16.
- Frazer's note 1 to Apollodorus, 2.7.4; Lloyd-Jones, p. 216.
- Quoted by Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists 10.18, Vol. II p. 664
- Quoted by Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists 6.5, Vol. I p. 356.
- Hesiod (Pseudo), Catalogue of Women fr. 165 (Merkelbach–West numbering) from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri XI 1359 fr. 1 (Most, pp. 184–187; Stewart, p. 110; Grenfell and Hunt, pp. 52–55); Strabo, 12.8.4, 13.1.69; Apollodorus, 3.9.1.
- For a discussion of the expedition in Mysia and the wounding and healing of Telephus, see Hard, pp. 446–447; Gantz, pp. 576–580. Principal texts include: Proclus, Summary of the Cypria; Archilochus, POxy LXIX 4708; Hesiod (Pseudo), Catalogue of Women fr. 165 (Merkelbach–West numbering) from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri XI 1359 fr. 1 (Most, pp. 184–187; Stewart, p. 110; Grenfell and Hunt, pp. 52–55); Pindar, Isthmean 5.38–40, 8.49–50, Olympian 9.72; Hyginus, Fabulae 101; Apollodorus, E.3.17; Pausanias, 1.4.6, 9.5.14. Although Archilochus, Proclus, Apollodorus, and Pausanias all agree that the attack was a mistake, Philostratus, On Heroes 23.5–9, has a character doubt that the Greeks came to Mysia "in ignorance".
- Gantz, p. 579; Apollodorus, E.3.17; A scholia on Iliad 1.52 (cited by Gantz). According to Dictys Cretensis, 2.3, Telephus is "doggedly pursuing" Odysseus when Achilles wounds him. In Philostratus, On Heroes, 23.24–25, a character says that, according to the dead Trojan War hero Protesilaos (who communicates from beyond the grave), Telephus was wounded by Achilles when Telephus had lost his shield while fighting Protesilaos, and so was "unprotected".
- Platter, p. 148; Gantz, p. 579; Frazer's note to Apollodorus, E.3.17.
- Gantz, pp. 579–580.
- Philostratus, On Heroes, 23.2–30, Dictys Cretensis, 2.1–6.
- Beazley archive 207332; British Museum 1836,0224.28.
- Proclus, Summary of the Cypria; Hyginus, Fabulae 101; Apollodorus, E.3.20; Dictys Cretensis, 2.10; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 4.172–177; 8.150–153.
- But compare with Homer, Iliad 1.71–72 where Calchas guides, the Greeks.
- See also Pliny, Natural History 25.19, 34.45.
- See for example: Horace, Epodes 17.8–10; Propertius, 2.1.63–64; Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto 2.2.26, Metamorphoses 12.111–112, 13.170–172, Tristia 1.1.99–100, 2.19–20, 5.2.15–16; Pentadius, De Fortuna 29-30; Seneca, Troades 215–218. Compare with Shakespear's Henry VI, Part 2 5.1.100–101: "Whose smile and frown, like to Achilles' spear/Is able with the change to kill and cure".
- Gantz, p. 576.
- Gantz, p. 576; Proclus, Summary of the Cypria.
- Gantz, p. 578; Frazer's note to Apollodorus, E.3.17; Pindar, Isthmean 8.49–50. See also Isthmean 5.38–40, and Olympian 9.69–79.
- Gantz, p. 578.
- Gantz, p. 578; Collard and Cropp 2008b, pp. 185–191; Webster, pp. 43–48, 302. An important source for the plot of Euripides' Telephus is Aristophanes' parodies of the play (see below).
- Gantz, p. 579; Apollodorus, E.3.17–20, along with Frazer's notes.
- Gantz, p. 579.
- Hyginus, Fabulae 101, translation by Smith and Stephen M. Trzaskoma, pp. 131–132.
- Compare with Dictys Cretensis 2.5 (Frazer, p. 40), which says that he refused because his wife Astyoche was a daughter of Priam.
- Beazley Archive 320038; LIMC Eurypylos I 3.
- Homer, Odyssey 11.519–521. See also Little Iliad fr. 7 West (West, pp. 130, 131) = Pausanias 3.26.9; Proclus, Summary of the Little Iliad; Apollodorus, E.5.12. For discussions of Eurypylus, see Gantz, pp. 640–641; Hard, p. 472. For Telephus genealogy see Parada, s.v. Telephus p. 172.
- Fowler 2013, p. 542; Gantz, p. 640; Acusilaus, fr. 40 Fowler = FGrH 2F40 = Schol. Odyssey 11.520 (Fowler 2001, pp. 25–26, Dowden, p. 58); Sophocles, Eurypylus (Lloyd-Jones, pp. 82–95), fr. 211 has Astyoche call Priam her brother (Lloyd-Jones, pp. 92, 93); Servius, On Virgil's Eclogues 6.72; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 6.136. Apollodorus, 3.12.3 has Astyoche as Priam's sister, but Apollodorus never names Eurypylus' mother, while Dictys Cretensis 2.5 (Frazer, p. 40) has Astyoche as Eurypylus' mother, but says that she was Priam's daughter.
- Apollodorus, E.5.12; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 6.120.
- Little Iliad fr. 7 West (West, pp. 130, 131) = Pausanias 3.26.9; Hyginus, Fabulae 113; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 6.407–428. Compare with Apollodorus, E.5.1, which has Penthesilea kill Machaon.
- Hyginus, Fabulae 113; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 6.368–389.
- Homer, Odyssey 11.519–521; Hyginus, Fabulae 112; Strabo, 13.1.7; Apollodorus, E.5.12; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 8.195–216.
- Gantz, p. 641; Sophocles, Eurypylus frs. 210.24, 26–29 (Lloyd-Jones, pp. 86, 87 with note a, 88, 89), 211.10–13 (Lloyd-Jones, pp. 94, 95). According to Proclus, Summary of the Little Iliad, Eurypylus received his father's spear from Odysseus upon his arrival at Troy.
- Dignas, p. 120; Grimal, s.v. Grynus, p. 176; Servius on Virgil's Eclogues 6.72.
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- Heres, pp. 86–89.
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- Jovian asteroid 5264 Telephus
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