Sydney Trains A & B sets

The Sydney Trains A & B sets, also referred to as the Waratah trains, are classes of electric multiple units that currently operate on the Sydney Trains network. Based on the M sets, the Waratahs were manufactured by a joint consortium between CRRC and Downer Rail, with initial construction taking place overseas in Changchun before final assembly at Downer Rail's Cardiff Locomotive Workshops. The sets were named after the Waratah flower, which is the state's floral emblem.

A & B sets
In service
  • 2011–present (A sets)
  • 2018–present (B sets)
AssemblyCardiff, Australia
Built atChangchun, China
ReplacedS and C sets
  • 2010–2014 (A sets)
  • 2017–2021 (B sets)
Entered service
  • 1 July 2011 (2011-07-01) (A sets)
  • 7 September 2018 (2018-09-07) (B sets)
Number built
  • 7912 A sets
  • 41 B sets
Number in service
  • 78 A sets
  • 41 B sets
Number scrapped11 carriages (8-car set A2,[a] car D6342 of set A42,[b] 2 prototype motor cars)
Formation8 car sets
Fleet numbers
  • A1, A3-A78, A80
  • B1-B41
  • 880 seated (896 including 16 wheelchair spaces)
  • 1200 nominal peak
  • 2150 fully loaded (single destination/special event)
Operator(s)Sydney Trains
Line(s) served
Car body constructionStainless steel
Train length163.1 m (535 ft 1+14 in)
Car length
  • 20,732 mm (68 ft 14 in) (D)
  • 20,243 mm (66 ft 5 in) (N)
  • 20,332 mm (66 ft 8+12 in) (T)
Width3,035 mm (9 ft 11+12 in)
Height4.41 m (14 ft 5+58 in)
Floor height
  • 1.27 m (50 in) (rail top to floor)
  • 1.97 m (77+12 in) (between floor and roof)
DoorsPlug-style, 2 per side
Wheel diameter940 mm (37 in)
Wheelbase2.3 m (7 ft 6+12 in)
Maximum speed130 km/h (81 mph)
Weight407 t (401 long tons; 449 short tons)
Axle load17 t (17 long tons; 19 short tons)
Traction systemHitachi 2-level IGBTVVVF spread spectrum modulation
Traction motors16 × Hitachi 183 kW (245 hp) 3-phase AC induction motor
Power output2,928 kW (3,927 hp)
Acceleration0.8 m/s2 (2.6 ft/s2)
  • 1 m/s2 (3.3 ft/s2) (service)
  • 1.1 m/s2 (3.6 ft/s2) (emergency)
HVAC2 independent cooling units per car: 38 kW (51 hp) cooling, 24 kW (32 hp) heating
Electric system(s)1,500 V DC (nominal) from overhead catenary
Current collector(s)Pantograph
UIC classification2′2′+Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′
Braking system(s)Knorr-Bremse regenerative brake with blended electro-pneumatic wheel mounted disc brakes
Coupling system
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The initial order for 78 A sets was the largest rolling stock order in Australia's history. These 624 A set carriages make up around half of the Sydney Trains fleet and replaced two-thirds of the 498 S set carriages. Delivery commenced in July 2011 and was completed in June 2014.

An order for 24 additional trains with updated technology and a lightly revised design was placed in December 2016. These are classified as B sets, or colloquially as Waratah Series 2 trains. The delivery of the first order of sets began in September 2018 and was completed in June 2019, while a second and final order of a further 17 sets began in September 2020 and was completed in June 2021.

Public Private Partnership Edit

The A sets were delivered by a joint venture between Downer Rail and Hitachi for Reliance Rail under a Public Private Partnership (PPP).[3] As part of the PPP, Reliance Rail will also maintain the trains for a minimum of 30 years at the purpose-built Auburn Maintenance Centre facility.[4] At least 72 sets must be made available to Sydney Trains every day during the contract period.

Reliance Rail took on debts of $2.4 billion at cheap interest rates before the global financial crisis.[5] Higher interest rates and changes in the financial sector after the GFC meant the company would have difficulty refinancing its debt, leading the Government of New South Wales into talks with Reliance Rail to resolve the financial status of the project.[6] In February 2012 the Government agreed to bail out the project for $175 million by becoming the sole shareholder in 2018.[5][7][8]

Design Edit


The A sets were designed at the Downer EDI Rail design offices, then at Clyde, New South Wales & Maryborough Queensland. The sets are formed of eight carriages – a break from the previous standard Sydney practice of four car sets, which are then coupled to form eight-car trains. The configuration is: driving trailer car + motor car + motor car + trailer car + trailer car + motor car + motor car + driving trailer car.[3] This means that guards operate from the rear of the train rather than the centre and that commuters are able to walk through the entire train. The trains include external CCTV cameras to assist guards.[9]

Carriage interiors were designed by Transport Design International.[10] The inside of the train includes additional Emergency Help Points and CCTV cameras compared to older classes. Improvements to the DVAs (Digital Voice Announcements) with differential pitch of the voice allow more natural sounding speech. 'Smart' air-conditioning automatically adjusts to the outside temperature and the number of passengers on board.[11] Accessibility features include 16 wheelchair spaces, portable wheelchair ramps in the end cars, red fabric on priority seating and additional handrails compared to older trains in the fleet.[9]

The A set is the first passenger train in the world to use LED lamps for all lighting (except for headlights). In doing so, the designers managed to remove almost 800 kg (1,800 lb) in reflectors and ballasts associated with fluorescent units, as well as reducing power consumption to around a quarter of that used by fluorescents.[12] Woollen moquette fabric, a durable, vandal-resistant material, is used to cover the train's seats. The seats use specially developed shock absorbers such that the reversing feature is damped - this was a safety feature added to allow reversible seats which would contain passengers in the event of an accident.[12] Detailed design of the train was completed in July 2009.[13]

B2 (left) and A76 (right) at Revesby station

The B sets share more than 90 percent of their design with the original A sets.[14] The trains' exterior is of the same design and construction, but feature a different livery of black, orange and silver wrap applied to the cabs, and side windows.[15] Changes are more prominent internally; the B sets have upgraded computer systems and improved passenger technology, such as updated and additional digital passenger information displays throughout the interior.

Construction and delivery Edit

A sets Edit

A4 at Ashfield station

The joint venture between Downer EDi Rail and Hitachi was established to design, manufacture and commission the A sets.[3] The stainless steel bodies were partially constructed by CNR Changchun Railway Vehicles in China before being shipped to Downer EDI's Cardiff Locomotive Workshops facility in New South Wales for final assembly, testing and commissioning.[3] The manufacturing facility at Cardiff received an upgrade of over $20 million to cater for the needs of the project.[3] Other infrastructure works included the construction of the Auburn Maintenance Centre and new substations at various locations around the network.[16]

A four car pre-production test train was built to test the train sub-systems and compatibility with the Sydney suburban network.[3] This was intended to allow any issues with the train to be corrected before the production trains entered service.[3] The test train was expected to perform trial runs from mid 2009,[3] but did not begin network testing until April 2010.[17] The pre-production train concluded testing in August 2010.[18] The first production set began network testing in August 2010[18] and by November 2010, three sets were undergoing testing.[19]

The first trains were scheduled to be introduced in late 2010, but a series of delays pushed back their introduction.[20][21] The first train intended for service (A3) was delivered to then-operator CityRail for acceptance on 20 April 2011.[22] CityRail had 20 business days to accept or reject the train, but a decision was postponed by two weeks to allow Downer EDi to correct further defects.[23] CityRail rejected the train due to safety concerns and a number of defects.[24] The defects included; 'milky' effect windscreens – apparent when under direct sunlight, poor-quality steel welding as evident in the indents seen on some areas of the carriage exterior, gaps in the plastic moulding, handrails not lining up with stairs and software problems.[8][25]

Once the majority of the problems were resolved by Downer EDi, CityRail allowed A3 to commence service, though operating under special conditions.[26] It entered service on 1 July 2011,[27] operating its maiden run from Redfern to Macarthur via the City Circle and Airport. Initially, it operated two return services from the city to Macarthur via the Airport line during the off-peak period on weekdays, and all day on the Airport & East Hills and South lines on weekends. On 14 October 2011, A3 became the first Waratah set to operate during peak hours.[28] As more Waratahs became available, the trains were progressively rolled out to most lines of the Sydney suburban network. On 2 June 2014, it was announced that the final A set (A80) had been delivered.[16]

Originally, the Waratahs were intended to replace all 500 S set carriages,[29] but in February 2013 it was revealed that some S sets would still be required in order to provide services on the South West Rail Link.[30] An option existed to extend the order, but in March 2013 the government indicated it would not take this up.[31]

B sets Edit

B3 departing Panania

Despite proceeding with the intercity train order, the New South Wales Government announced on 1 December 2016 that 24 new suburban trains had been ordered. Known as the Sydney Growth Trains during development, the trains are officially classified as B sets.[32][33]

The $1.7 billion contract was awarded to Downer EDI (now Downer Group). CRRC Changchun manufactured and assembled the trains in China on Downer's behalf.[14] Upon arrival in Australia, the trains were taken to Downer's facility at Cardiff, where commissioning works were performed.[32][15][34][35]

Downer Rail will maintain the trains for a minimum of 25 years. As many as 45 additional sets may be added to the order at a future date.[14][36][37][38] The trains were originally to be based at the Mortdale Maintenance Centre, but in late 2017 it was decided that the trains would instead be based alongside the A sets at the Auburn Maintenance Centre. Nevertheless, work to upgrade the Mortdale Maintenance Centre continued.[39][40]

Revamped LCD destination boards on a B set. Screens are also incorporated above the stairwell

The B sets incorporate improved air conditioning, accessibility and internal lighting, with new and revised features such as LCD Indicators and LCD video screens as well as more than 90 internal and external CCTV cameras.[41][42] Upgrades to the train's computer systems are the most significant changes between the original A sets and the updated B sets. There are also various external livery and colour changes that differentiate the newer B sets from the original A sets.[43]

The first B set to be delivered was unveiled to the media in March 2018.[44][45] Set B2 was the first to enter revenue service on 7 September 2018, beginning with a run from Granville to Liverpool.[46] On 18 September 2018, B2 became the first Waratah Series 2 to operate during peak hours. By June 2019, all the 24 B sets were delivered and had replaced the 48 remaining S sets.[41][33][47][48]

In February 2019, a further 17 B sets were ordered, with the first two trains delivered to Australia in July 2020.[49] The first of the 17 entered service in September 2020.[50] By September 2020, B25 commenced service, making it the first arrival of the second and final order of the B sets. Further deliveries allowed for the retirement of the C sets. From April 2022, a software update was progressively rolled out across the digital destination boards of the B sets.

In service Edit

Formation Edit

The train's guards' compartment is located in the last driving carriage

The 625 carriages form 78 eight car sets (numbered A1, A3 to A78 and A80) with 1 spare driving car. Individual vehicles are numbered as follows:

  • A1: D6301-N5301-N5501-T6501-T6601-N5601-N5401-D6401
  • A3: D6303-N5303-N5503-T6503-T6603-N5603-N5403-D6403

up to

  • A41: D6341-N5341-N5541-T6541-T6641-N5641-N5441-D6441
  • A42: D6379[c]-N5342-N5542-T6542-T6642-N5642-N5442-D6442
  • A43: D6343-N5343-N5543-T6543-T6643-N5643-N5443-D6443

up to

  • A78: D6378-N5378-N5578-T6578-T6678-N5678-N5478-D6478
  • A80:[d] D6380-N5380-N5580-T6580-T6680-N5680-N5480-D6480
The inter-carriage doors feature a new mechanism for opening during an emergency, in response to Justice McInerney's Report into the Waterfall rail accident recommending the development of alternative emergency exits for passengers

The spare driving car is D6479. This was one of the first four carriages delivered, along with D6379 and scrapped duplicates of N5342 and N5442, and was part of the four car testing and development train. Car D6379 is now on set A42 replacing D6342.

The 328 B set carriages form 41 eight carriage sets.[51] Individual vehicles are numbered as follows:

  • B1: D1101-N1701-N1901-T1301-T1401-N1801-N1601-D1201

up to

  • B41: D1141-N1741-N1941-T1341-T1441-N1841-N1641-D1241

The first 40 A sets were delivered to CityRail with the NSW Government's Waratah logo on each carriage. Following the formation of Sydney Trains in July 2013, these were replaced by the Sydney Trains logo and the sides of the train near the driver's cabs were covered with an orange wrap.

Waratahs currently operate on these lines:

In service incidents and accidents Edit

On 12 March 2015, set A19 was driven more than 700 m (2,300 ft) in the wrong direction at Mt Druitt. At the time of the incident, a Pacific National freight train was travelling towards the train on the same line. The cause of the incident was likely attributed to driver fatigue, and prompted a review of train crew rostering policies. No passengers were onboard A19 at the time of the incident, and no injuries were reported as both trains were stopped in time.[52]

On 20 March 2017, carriage N5508 on set A8 suffered an explosion in a traction inverter unit at Burwood. The cause was found to be a faulty capacitor in the inverter. The carriage was subsequently repaired and A8 later returned to service.[53]

On 22 January 2018, Waratah A42 hit the buffers at the end of the track on platform 2 at an approximate speed of 35 kilometres per hour (22 mph) at Richmond station just before 10am. The train then lurched backwards, causing passengers who were readying to disembark, to fall and injure themselves. The impact caused extensive frontal damage, some of the carriages to lift and gangways between carriages to become crushed. The damage was such that the train could only be moved out of the platform after several days and it needed to be split into 2/3 carriage segments to be towed to Downer Rail at Cardiff. Sixteen patients in total, including the train driver and another crew member were treated. None of the injuries were considered life-threatening.[54][55] Inspection of A42 was undertaken following the incident, with the train's event recorders taken for analysis and interviews being conducted with the train's crew.[56] A42 has since been repaired and returned to service on 27 March 2019, with the driver carriage (D6342) that hit the stop buffer replaced with a spare from the prototype train (D6379).

On 5 September 2018, A18 hit and killed a man at Riverwood while he was illegally on the tracks.[57]

Criticism Edit

Noise concerns Edit

In 2021, residents in Waverton and Wollstonecraft complained about excessive squealing made by Waratah trains, relative to other trains in the fleet, as well as their horns. Sydney Trains responded that it was working to reduce noise in the area.[58][59]

CRRC Uyghur slave labor scandal Edit

Senior public servants have made three trips to the CRRC Changchun plant in June 2017, October–November 2017 and February 2018.

In September 2018 the NSW Government approved a request for two senior executives from Transport for NSW to visit the CRRC Changchun plant at an estimated cost exceeding $15,000.[60]

In March 2020 a report from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute highlighted 82 companies directly or indirectly using Uyghur slave labour. Included in this was KTK Group, a supplier to CRRC. The report indicated that this had been occurring since 2019.

A spokesperson for Downer said the company had investigated serious allegations in early 2020, and that CRRC strongly denied the use of Uyghur labour.

CRRC would be one of 11 companies placed onto a United States blacklist in July 2020.[61]

In October 2020, former premier of New South Wales, Gladys Berejiklian stated that she was concerned over the possibility of Uyghur slave labour being used. She would state that "Obviously we’re concerned with that and if there’s anything further we need to do I’m sure Transport for NSW will take that action," which prompted much opposition from the state opposition and union groups.[62]

Notes Edit

  1. ^ Replaced by A80 due to an acid spill
  2. ^ Replaced by D6379 following January 2018 crash at Richmond
  3. ^ Replacement for D6342
  4. ^ Replacement for A2

References Edit

  1. ^ "Stainless Steel Double-deck EMU for Australia". CRRC. Archived from the original on 5 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  2. ^ "Environmental Product Declaration for Sydney Growth Trains" (PDF). Environmental Product Declaration Australasia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 December 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Rolling Stock Public-Private Partnership For Rail Corporation of New South Wales Archived 1 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine Downer EDi Rail
  4. ^ "Reliance Rail project page". Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  5. ^ a b Aston, Heath (29 January 2012). "Taxpayers' train bailout". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  6. ^ Haynes, Rhys (15 August 2011). "Waratah still long way off its peak". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Baird launches $175m train bailout". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 February 2012. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  8. ^ a b Budd, Henry (13 May 2012). "Waratah trains still bugged by problems". The Daily Telegraph.
  9. ^ a b Sydney's new train Archived 2 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Reliance Rail.
  10. ^ "Waratah NSW Railcorp". Transport Design International. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  11. ^ "The 'Waratah' train: some fast facts". CityRail Xpress. 93. 5 August 2009.
  12. ^ a b "Key customer features". CityRail. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  13. ^ "Detailed design complete for Sydney's new train" (PDF) (Press release). RailCorp. 1 July 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  14. ^ a b c "Downer awarded Sydney Growth Trains contract". Downer Group. 1 December 2016. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  15. ^ a b "Waratah Series 2 train arrives". YouTube. Transport for NSW. 4 April 2018. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  16. ^ a b "NSW Government delivers final Waratah train: all Sydney services air-conditioned". Transport for NSW. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  17. ^ "Project update: beginning of Waratah train fleet safety & reliability testing program" (Press release). Reliance Rail. 27 April 2010.
  18. ^ a b "Waratah train begins network testing" (PDF). CityRail Xpress. 143. 18 August 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
  19. ^ Downer Statement on Waratah Trains Archived 10 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Downer EDI. 3 November 2010.
  20. ^ "Waratah carriages delayed again". Australian Associated Press. 3 November 2010. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  21. ^ "Downer EDI takes $250mln charge on Waratah". Australian Associated Press. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  22. ^ Downer Presents First Waratah to Railcorp Downer EDI 20 April 2011
  23. ^ Saulwick, Jacob (24 May 2011). "Waratah trains stalled again". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  24. ^ Haynes, Rhys (3 June 2011). "Waratah trains a commuter threat". The Daily Telegraph.
  25. ^ Henderson, Hartley (4 July 2011). "What if Australia had made the Waratah trains?". Manufacturers' Monthly. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  26. ^ Saulwick, Jacob (15 June 2011). "Late Waratah trains held up over contract changes". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  27. ^ Saulwick, Jacob (2 July 2011). "Preening Waratah makes its entrance". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  28. ^ Where the Waratah train is operating Cityrail
  29. ^ Where the Waratah train is operating Sydney Trains
  30. ^ New Trains Won't Run on All Rail Lines Archived 12 April 2013 at Channel 7 20 February 2013
  31. ^ Commuters stuck with old trains on new rail link Archived 18 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine Sydney Morning Herald 15 March 2013
  32. ^ a b "Movement of Sydney Growth Trains (SGT) B Set cars between Woodville Junction and Sulphide Junction" (PDF). Transport for NSW. Asset Standards Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  33. ^ a b "New air conditioned trains arrive". Transport for NSW. 22 March 2018. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  34. ^ O'Sullivan, Matt (1 December 2016). "$1.7 billion in new Waratah trains for Sydney commuter network". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  35. ^ "'Sydney Growth Trains' Enter Revenue Service". Railway Digest: 18. October 2018.
  36. ^ McNally, Lucy (1 December 2016). "Sydney trains to receive $1.5b boost for services to western suburbs". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  37. ^ "Rail revolution: 'More Trains, More Services' to bust congestion". Transport for NSW. 1 December 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  38. ^ "More Trains, More Services" (PDF). Transport for NSW. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  39. ^ "Fleet update – June 2017" (PDF). Transport for NSW. June 2017. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  40. ^ "Sydney Growth Trains Mortdale Maintenance Centre December 2017 Work Notification" (PDF). Transport for NSW. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  41. ^ a b O'Sullivan, Matt (22 March 2018). "New Waratah trains finally signal end to Sydney's 'sweat sets'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  42. ^ Waratah Series 2 EMUs enter service in Sydney Archived 14 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Railway Gazette International 14 September 2018
  43. ^ James, Michael (November 2018). "The Waratah Series Two has arrived". Railway Digest: 28–31.
  44. ^ O'Sullivan, Matt (12 July 2018). "All aboard: first new passenger trains set to enter service in Sydney". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  45. ^ New trains face final test ahead of launch Archived 1 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine Transport for NSW
  46. ^ With summer just around the corner we're a step closer tonight to a fully air conditioned fleet for Sydney's busy rail network. 7 News has an exclusive look at the first of a new batch of Waratah trains which took to the tracks. Archived 7 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine 7 News Twitter 7 September 2018
  47. ^ End of the line for Sydney's 'sweat set' trains Archived 27 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Sydney Morning Herald 27 June 2019
  48. ^ End of the line for the S-Set trains Archived 27 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Transport for NSW 27 June 2019
  49. ^ "New Waratah trains arrive in Newcastle". 7 July 2020. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  50. ^ Sydney's stretched rail network in store for $900m in new trains Archived 6 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine Sydney Morning Herald 6 February 2019.
  51. ^ "Rolling stock contracts & deliveries" Railway Digest March 2018 page 49
  52. ^ "Wrong running direction involving passenger train 165-S, Mt Druitt, NSW on 12 March 2015". Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Archived from the original on 22 February 2023. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  53. ^ Rail Safety Investigation Report, Burwood 20 March 2017 Archived 28 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine Office of Transport Safety Investigations
  54. ^ "Sydney train crash: Multiple injuries following incident at Richmond station". Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  55. ^ Rail safety investigations & reports Archived 20 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Australian Transport Safety Bureau
  56. ^ "Investigation: RO-2018-004 - Collision of Waratah passenger train". Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  57. ^ Man struck and killed by train at Riverwood Archived 6 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine St George & Sutherland Shire Leader. (2018) Accessed 23 November 2020.‌
  58. ^ Howden, Saffron (24 November 2015). "Fix the 'wheel squeal', Sydney Trains told". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  59. ^ Gladstone, Nigel (8 May 2015). "No quick fixes for train noise". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  60. ^ Rabe, Matt O'Sullivan, Tom (6 October 2020). "Senior NSW bureaucrats' flying visits to now-blacklisted Chinese company". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  61. ^ "Chinese supplier of Australian train parts accused of using Uighur labour vows to fight US blacklisting". the Guardian. 28 July 2020. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  62. ^ Rabe, Tom (7 October 2020). "Premier 'concerned' over Uighur labour links to Sydney's new trains". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.

External links Edit