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The Struve Geodetic Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, which yielded the first accurate measurement of a meridian.[1]

Struve Geodetic Arc
Hammerfest Meridianstein.jpg
The northernmost station of the Struve Geodetic Arc is located in Fuglenes, Norway.
Struve Geodetic Arc-zoom-fr.svg
Map of the Struve Geodetic Arc where red points identify the World Heritage Sites.
General information
TypeEnsemble of memorable sites
LocationEstonia, Belarus, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Moldova, Russia, Sweden, and Ukraine
Coordinates59°3′28″N 26°20′16″E / 59.05778°N 26.33778°E / 59.05778; 26.33778Coordinates: 59°3′28″N 26°20′16″E / 59.05778°N 26.33778°E / 59.05778; 26.33778
OpenedGeodetic Arc
Design and construction
ArchitectFriedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
Official nameStruve Geodetic Arc
Criteriaii, iii, vi
Reference1187
Inscription2005 (29th Session)
Tartu Old Observatory, the first point of the arc.
Point Z that is situated on Hogland, Russia.
alt text
The commemorative plaque of the arc in Felshtyn, Ukraine
The Geodetic Point in Rudi, Moldova

The chain was established and used by the German-born Russian scientist Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve in the years 1816 to 1855 to establish the exact size and shape of the earth. At that time, the chain passed merely through two countries: Union of Sweden-Norway and the Russian Empire. The Arc's first point is located in Tartu Observatory in Estonia, where Struve conducted much of his research.[1]

In 2005, the chain was inscribed on the World Heritage List as a memorable ensemble of the chain made up of 34 commemorative plaques or built obelisks out of the original 265 main station points which are marked by drilled holes in rock, iron crosses, cairns, others.[1]

Measurement of the triangulation chain comprises 258 main triangles and 265 geodetic vertices. The northernmost point is located near Hammerfest in Norway and the southernmost point near the Black Sea in Ukraine. This inscription is located in ten countries, the most of any UNESCO World Heritage.[1]

ChainEdit

NorwayEdit

SwedenEdit

FinlandEdit

[2]

RussiaEdit

EstoniaEdit

LatviaEdit

LithuaniaEdit

BelarusEdit

19 topographic points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are located in Belarus.[3]

MoldovaEdit

UkraineEdit

ResultsEdit

HistoricalEdit

At publication in 1858, the flattening of the earth was estimated at one part in 294.26. The earth's equatorial radius was estimated at 6,378,360.7 metres.[1]

In 2005 the work was repeated using satellite navigation. The new flattening estimate was one part in 298.257 222 101 and the equatorial radius was 6,378,136.8 metres.[1]

An earlier survey, in 1740, had given flattening at one part in 178 and an equatorial radius of 6,396,800 metres.[1]

ModernEdit

Northernmost point: Hammerfest (Fuglenes): 70° 40′ 11.23″ N[1]

Southernmost point: Ismail (Staro-Nekrassowka): 45° 20′ 02.94″ N[1]

Difference in Geodetic Latitude: 25° 20′ 08.29″[1]

Distance in kilometres: 2,821.853 ± 0.012[1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage,Dronningensg 13, P.O.Box 8196, Dep. 0034, Oslo, Norway (2005), Norwegian Points on The Struve Geodetic Arc (pamphlet)
  2. ^ "Mapscroll". Mapscroll.fi. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  3. ^ "Landmarks, historic and cultural, and natural sites of the Republic of Belarus on the UNESCO World Heritage List". Land of Ancestors. National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2013.

External linksEdit