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SPAR, originally DESPAR, is a Dutch multinational group that manages independently owned and operated food retail stores.[1] It was founded in the Netherlands in 1932,[2] by Adriaan van Well, and now consists of more than 12,770 stores in 48 countries. The company's name is an acronym of the slogan "Door Eendrachtig Samenwerken Profiteren Allen Regelmatig", which was used by van Well to describe the brand and translates as "Everyone works better together".[3]

Spar
Private
IndustryRetail
Founded1932; 87 years ago (1932)
Headquarters,
Number of locations
12 770 (worldwide)
Area served
Worldwide
(48 countries as of 2017)
ProductsGrocers' shops, convenience shops, discount shops, hypermarkets and more
RevenueIncrease 34.5 billion (2017)
Number of employees
350,000
Websitewww.spar-international.com

Its headquarters are located in Amsterdam. The company operates a partnership programme and has a presence in most European countries, as well as many others throughout Asia, Africa and Oceania.

In fiscal year 2017, SPAR achieved 34.5 billion ($40.1 billion) in global sales, which represented a 5.3 percent increase over 2016.[4]

EtymologyEdit

The name was originally DE SPAR, an acronym of the Dutch phrase Door Eendrachtig Samenwerken Profiteren Allen Regelmatig[note 1] (English: "through united co-operation everyone regularly profits"). The acronym was chosen in order to resonate with the verb sparen, which (related to English spare) means "save [money]" in Dutch and some other languages, among them German[5] and Scandinavian languages (with variants such as spara or spare). The acronym ended up meaning "the fir", after which the logo was chosen. As the organisation expanded across Europe, the name was abbreviated by dropping the DE prefix.[citation needed] There are some international naming variants:

  • In Hungary, 17 stores owned by Spar located at Lukoil filling stations operate under the name Despar.[6]
  • In Italy, the name is still Despar, though in keeping with the international branding, the Spar section of the logo is highlighted, and the larger shops are still called Eurospar and Interspar.
  • In Austria, Despar is Spar's Italian food shop brand.[7]

HistoryEdit

 
SPAR shop in Moerkapelle, Netherlands

Spar was founded in 1932 in the South Holland town of Zegwaart (now Zoetermeer). In 1953 an International Spar office opened in Amsterdam to control and further develop the organisation throughout Europe and other continents. Many Spar shops are in Europe, but they can also be found in a number of countries outside of Europe, such as Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Nigeria, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Swaziland, Mozambique, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Australia,[8][failed verification] Mauritius, China, India, Japan (closed 2016), Vanuatu, Greenland and Angola.

A Spar shop may be owned independently, by a franchisee, or be part of a chain, depending on the model applied in any given country. The owners of the parent company vary from country to country and may include the shop owners themselves. The name and the current logo was most recently revised in 1968 by Raymond Loewy and has remained unchanged ever since.[9]

 
Spar

In the United Kingdom Spar has become known primarily as a convenience shop.[citation needed]

In Ireland the Spar brand is known for neighbourhood shops and also the subformat Eurospar acting as mini-supermarkets.[citation needed]

Spar opened in the Republic of Vanuatu on 1 December 2009, ending Au Bon Marché's grocery monopoly.[citation needed]

Since 1996, the company has been a major sponsor of the European Athletic Association and its events.[10]

In 1997, Spar was introduced to most United Kingdom military bases by the Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes (Naafi), where it sells a variety of civilian and military products.[11]

The Dutch Spar is a member of Superunie, an inventory purchasing organization for a number of otherwise unaffiliated supermarket brands.[citation needed]

In July 2014 Spar Group South Africa opened its first supermarket in Angola but no expansion of the brand is planned for this market. In August 2014 the group acquired 80% of the BWG Group, which had outlets in Ireland and southwest England.[12]

In 2015 Ahold bought all Czech shops and converted them into Albert super- and hypermarkets, however it had to get rid of some shops in order not to have a monopoly.[citation needed]

The first SPAR shop in Oman was inaugurated in January 2015 in Muscat.[citation needed] Spar Oman plans to open more shops in the coming months as part of its expansion plans in Oman.[citation needed] Spar opened its first store in Qatar in 2017, with the second store opening in 2018. A further two stores are planned for 2018.[13]

In 2017 Ceylon Biscuits Limited in Sri Lanka acquired a license to operate Spar brand in Sri Lanka as Spar Lanka. This is a joint venture of Ceylon Biscuits Limited and SPAR Group Ltd South Africa.[14] They opened the first store in Thalawathugoda, Colombo. The future plan is to open 50 outlets in the country by 2023.[15]

Shop typesEdit

 
Spar shop in Laiwu, China

In most, but not all countries, SPAR operates shops of different types and sub-brands. SPAR Express, SPAR Neighbourhood, EUROSPAR and INTERSPAR.[16]

 
Interspar shop in Hungary
EuroSPAR/SuperSPAR

The Eurospar name is used in Europe and Superspar in South Africa. These are mid-sized supermarkets. They are designed to fit in a niche between convenience shops and traditional supermarkets.[17]

InterSPAR

These are hypermarkets and compete directly against major international chains such as Real, Carrefour, and Tesco.[18][19]

Spar Express
 
A filling station with a Spar Express shop in Wattens, Austria

This is the smallest type of shop. They are designed for small sites and filling station forecourts, airports and train stations. They are called Kwikspar in South Africa.[20]

Spar Drive-Thru

There was a drive-through Spar on the Cliftonville Road in Belfast, Northern Ireland. This has now been converted to a Centra shop, and retained the drive-through for a while afterhand, but now no longer has one.[21]

Spar Gourmet

Some small Spar shops in Austria are called Spar Gourmet, since the Austrian Spar Group took over the supermarket chains Julius Meinl in 2000. The standard range is extended to local and global delicacies.[22]

International statistics (2017)Edit

Country Sales (in millions)[23] No. of shops[23] Sales area (m²)[23] Sales per area Average shop
size (m²)[23]
Year Nationwide owner
  Albania €37.6 30 20,536 €1,831/m² 685 2016 Balfin Group[24]
  Angola 1 2014 The SPAR Group Ltd.
  Australia €200.7 130 46,105 €4,353/m² 355 1994 SPAR Australia
  Austria €6,700.0 1,556 1,178,429 €5,686/m² 757 1954 Spar Austria Group[25]
  Azerbaijan €19.4 7 5,466 €3,546/m² 781 2014 AZretail MMC
  Belarus 3 2017 Almi Group's Unifood CJSC
  Belgium €998.2 320 155,408 €6,423/m² 486 1947 Colruyt and Lambrechts
  Botswana €161.1 30 3,092 €5,209/m² 1,031 2004 The SPAR Group Ltd.
  Cameroon €8.4 3 24 €3,494/m² 2,400 2014 Spar Cameroon
  China €1,836.8 408 1,090,346 €1,685/m² 2,672 2004 Spar China
  Croatia €596.7 104 142,385 €4,191/m² 1,38))(2 2004 Spar Austria Group[25]
  Cyprus 2017
  Denmark €487.5 147 95,737 €5,092/m² 651 1954 Spar Denmark
  France €961.1 860 251,204 €3,858/m² 292 1955 Casino
  Georgia €27.0 107 6,519 €4,135/m² 155 2014 Foodmart
  Germany €318.2 466 37,310 €8,529/m² 80 1953 Edeka
  Greece (2014) €525.6 184 141,107 €3,725/m² 767 1969 Veropoulos
  Hungary €1,817.3 519 416,079 €4,368/m² 802 1992 SPAR Austria Group[25]
  India €158.0 18 82,453 €1,916/m² 4,581 2014 Max Hypermarkets
  Indonesia €45.6 23 42,276 €1,078/m² 1,838 2015 Ramayana Lestari Sentosa
  Ireland €1,237.8 453 116,452 €10,629/m² 257 1963 BWG Foods
  Italy €3,375.7 1,218 738,890 €4,569/m² 607 1959 SPAR Austria Group[25]
  Kosovo 3 2019 SPAR Kosova J.S.C.
  Malawi €6.5 3 2850 €2,290/m² 950 2014 SPAR Malawi
  Malta 2017
  Mauritius €24.4 6 5,700 €4,273/m² 950 2000 Casino
  Mozambique €40.1 9 10,241 €3,915/m² 1,138 2012 The SPAR Group Ltd.
  Namibia €160.9 29 31,967 €5,034/m² 1,102 2004 The SPAR Group Ltd.
  Netherlands €471.9 261 94,547 €4,991/m² 362 1932 SPAR Holding B.V.
  Nigeria €115.5 12 39,385 €2,933/m² 3,282 2009 SPAR Nigeria
  Norway €1,534.3 291 180,325 €8,508/m² 620 1984 NorgesGruppen
  Oman €27.3 24 8,286 €3,300/m² 345 2014 Khimji Ramdas
  Pakistan 2 2017 Galaxy Group[26]
  Poland €244.5 250 67,648 €3,615/m² 271 1995 SPAR Polska
  Portugal €72.3 131 32,395 €2,233/m² 247 2006 Novo Retalho
  Qatar 3 8,530 2015 Al Wataniya International Holding
  Russia €1,713.3 466 376,049 €4,556/m² 807 2000 SPAR Russia
  Saudi Arabia 4 2016 SPAR Saudi Arabia
  Seychelles €5.3 1 895 €5,916/m² 895 2015
  Slovenia €783.9 121 161,316 €4,859/m² 1,403 1992 SPAR Austria Group[25]
  South Africa €4,836.2 839 976,197 €4,954/m² 1,164 1963 The SPAR Group Ltd.
  Spain €1,389.5 1,088 438,181 €3,171/m² 403 1959 SPAR Española
  Sri Lanka 1 2017 Ceylon Biscuits Limited & SPAR SA
  Switzerland €515.0 183 70,469 €7,309/m² 385 1989 SPAR Handels AG
  Thailand €5.2 33 4,810 €1,089/m² 146 2016
  Ukraine €9,635 23 4,778 €1,835/m² 281 2001 Volwest LLC
  United Arab Emirates €130.8 25 23,714 €5,515/m² 949 2011 SPAR United Arab Emirates
  United Kingdom €3,236.9 2,620 384,094 €8,427/m² 147 1959 SPAR UK
  Zambia €53.2 14 27,614 €1,972/m² 1,972 2003 SPAR Zambia
  Zimbabwe €115.7 35 26,011 €4,447/m² 743 1969 Originally SPAR Rhodesia now SPAR Zimbabwe
  Bermuda €865.5 5 5,098 €5,331/m 5 1987 SPAR Bermuda
  New Caledonia €920.16 16 16,067 €16,621/m 16 2001 SPAR New Caledonia
  Suriname €721.20 20 20,099 €20,986/m 20 1994 SPAR Suriname
  The Bahamas 5 1999 SRAR Bahamas
  Central African Republic 1991 SPAR Central African Republic
  Mali 2014 SPAR Mali
  Egypt 2017 SPAR Egypt

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "About us". SPAR International. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Spar boss brings in Subway and Greggs to snatch grocery spend from retail giants". Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  3. ^ "History". SPAR International. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  4. ^ "2017 Review". SPAR International. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch". LEO. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  6. ^ "DESPAR" (in Hungarian). Lukoil Magyarország. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  7. ^ "DESPAR" (in German). SPAR Österreich. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  8. ^ "SPAR Australia opens first Vanuatu shop: AUS". Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  9. ^ "SPAR". Raymond Loewy Foundation. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  10. ^ "Athletics, Sprints & Sports Days". SPAR. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Naafi allies with Spar". The Grocer. 22 March 1997. Naafi has chosen Spar as its retail partner to convert its 200 UK shops into a "world class operation for the next millennium". The contract, worth nearly £500 million over the next five years, was awarded after extensive trials with Costcutter and Londis.[dead link]
  12. ^ Mark Allix (12 August 2014). "Spar buys stake in Irish supermarkets". BusinessLIVE. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ Aguilar, Joey (2 April 2018). "Spar's flagship store opens at Tawar Mall". Gulf Times.
  14. ^ "SPAR Sri Lanka". Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  15. ^ "* Spar continues expansion with entry into Sri Lanka". Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  16. ^ Eric Pfanner (12 November 2004). "An international grocery giant is emerging from the shadows". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  17. ^ "Shop formats". Spar International. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  18. ^ Ians (28 January 2011). "SPAR to open 24 more hypermarkets in next two years". Sify. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  19. ^ Sedlák, Lubomír (3 February 2011). "CZECH: Spar looks to expand supermarket chain". just-food. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  20. ^ "Shop formats". Spar South Africa. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  21. ^ "Inquiry into Town Centre Regeneration". Northern Ireland Assembly Archive Site. 20 October 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  22. ^ "Chronologie: Von Konsum bis Rewe". Derstandard.at. 24 February 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  23. ^ a b c d "Spar Annual Report 2017" (PDF). SPAR International. Spar International. 7 May 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  24. ^ globalvanet.com. "Balfin Group brings Spar International to Albania". Europaproperty.com - Balfin Group brings Spar International to Albania. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  25. ^ a b c d e "ASPIAG Countries". ASPIAG Austria SPAR International. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  26. ^ "SPAR continues global expansion with entry into Pakistan". SPAR International. Retrieved 12 June 2019.

External linksEdit