Spanish settlement in Argentina, that is the arrival of Spanish emigrants in Argentina, took place first in the period before Argentina's independence from Spain, and again in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the Spanish Empire was the sole colonial power in the territories that became Argentina after the 1816 Argentine declaration of independence. Thus, before 1850, the vast majority of European settlers in Argentina were from Spain and they carried the Spanish colonial administration, including religious affairs, government, and commercial business. A substantial Spanish descended Criollo population gradually built up in the new cities, while some mixed with the indigenous populations (Mestizos), with the Black African-descended slave population (Mulattoes) or with other European immigrants.
|20 million descendants (including those of mixed or partial Spanish descent)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Pampas region Mendoza|
|Rioplatense Spanish. Minority speaks Galician, Catalan and Basque.|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Spaniards, Galicians, Castilians, Catalans, Asturians, Cantabrians, Aragonese, Basque Argentines|
Since a great portion of the immigrants to Argentina before the mid-19th century were of Spanish descent, and a significant part of the late-19th century/early-20th century immigrants to Argentina were Spaniards, the large majority of Argentines are at least partly of Spanish ancestry. Indeed, the 20 most common surnames in Argentina are Spanish. However, this prevalence and the numerous shared cultural aspects between Argentina and Spain (the Spanish language, Roman Catholicism, Criollo/Hispanic traditions) has been mitigated by massive immigration to Argentina at the turn of the 20th century involving an overall majority of non-Spanish peoples from all over Europe. This has led to a hybrid Argentine culture which is among the most distinct from traditional Spanish culture in Latin America. Furthermore, a large proportion of Spanish immigration to Argentina during the 20th century was from the North Western region of Galicia, which has a separate language and distinct culture from other parts of Spain.
The interplay between Argentine and Spanish culture has a long and complex history. Spanish settlements date back to 16th century, and from then on, many Criollo Spaniards populated the area of Argentina, some of whom intermarried with non-Spaniards. Spain established a permanent colony on the site of Buenos Aires in 1580, although initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru. The Spanish further integrated Argentina into their vast empire by establishing the Vice Royalty of Rio de la Plata in 1776, and Buenos Aires became a flourishing port. Argentina would become a crucial part of the Spanish Empire in South America.
The Argentine independence movement drastically changed earlier Argentine-Spanish relations. The Argentine movement for independence from Spain began in the powerful city of Buenos Aires on May 25, 1810, and the whole new country formally declared independence from Spain on July 9, 1816, in the city of San Miguel de Tucumán. Following the defeat of the Spanish, centralist and federalist groups engaged in a lengthy conflict to determine the future of the nation of Argentina. Prior to its independence, Spaniards in Argentina who were against the rule of the Spanish Empire and desired their independence came to be known as Argentines, and those who were opposed to independence continued to be identified as Spaniards. But a few generations after independence, and particularly after recent immigration, most Argentines began to see themselves as purely Argentine out of pride in their new developing nation.
In the post-colonial period (1832-1950), there would be a further influx of Spanish immigrants to Argentina from all over Spain during the Great European immigration wave to Argentina, after the creation of the modern Argentine state. Between 1857 and 1960, 2.2 million Spanish people emigrated to Argentina, mostly from Galicia, the Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria, and Catalonia in northern Spain, while significantly smaller numbers of immigrants also arrived from Andalusia in southern Spain.
Galicians make up 70% of the Spanish post-colonial immigrant population in Argentina. The city with the world's second largest number of Galician people is Buenos Aires, where immigration from Galicia was so profound that today all Spaniards, regardless of their origin within Spain, are referred to as gallegos (Galicians) in Argentina. The Argentine stereotype about gallegos is that they are dull, stubborn and stingy.
Roughly 10-15% of the Argentine population are descended from Basque people, both Spanish and French, and are described as Basque Argentines. They gather in several Basque cultural centers in most of the large cities in the country. A common practice among Argentinians of Basque origin is to identify themselves "French-Basques". This is because of French culture being considered more "fashionable" than Spanish among the average Argentinian.
In 2013, there were 92,453 Spanish citizens born in Spain living in Argentina and another 288,494 Spanish citizens born in Argentina.
While there continues to be strong interest among the population in European affairs and their European heritage, the Argentine culture today varies considerably from the Spanish much like the American or Australian cultures vary from the British.
Spanish culture has left a great mark on modern Argentinian culture. Bilateral relations have always been of a privileged strategic nature. Meanwhile, prospective and all-round cooperation also experienced periods of acute disagreement. In recent years, Madrid diplomacy has been trying to regain its shaken prestige and influence over Argentina and its closest neighbors. The most significant preparations for this were made during the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America. However, despite some "warming" in relations between the countries, the former level of trust and contacts is not observed. Attempts at cultural cooperation face a number of obstacles, the most significant of which are two. The first is that Spain does not have a sufficient amount of free funds that must be invested in lending to the Argentine economy. And the second is the “syndrome of betrayal” that Argentines feel in relation to Spain.https://elpais.com/elpais/2017/02/24/opinion/1487960027_33325
Yale university report states that 2,080,000 Spanish immigrants entered Argentina between 1857 and 1940. Spain provided 31.4% (Italy 44.9%) of all immigrants in that period. Nevertheless, due to prior Spanish immigration occurring throughout the colonial period, around 20 million Argentines are descendants of Spanish to some degree, with the 20 most common surnames in the country being all from Spain.
Another report gives net migration data as follows:
|Spanish net migration to Argentina from 1857 to 1976|
|Year period||Spanish immigrants|
- "El estereotipo "gallego", un invento bien piola y argentino" (in Spanish). Clarín. February 4, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
El gallego es, de acuerdo al estereotipo cristalizado en la cultura argentina, bruto, tozudo, tacaño, torpe, franco, ingenuo. Puede ser el portero o el almacenero pero nunca un artista, pensador o intelectual. Y claro, se llamará indefectiblemente José o Manuel.
- (in Spanish) 
- "Argentina, en el mundo: Macri muestra en España un proyecto serio para la recuperación de su país". El País. 2017.
- "90.01.06: South American Immigration: Argentina". www.yale.edu. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- Clarin.com (November 12, 2015). "Cuáles son los 200 apellidos más populares en la Argentina". clarin.com. Retrieved April 22, 2018.