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In mathematical physics, spacetime algebra (STA) is a name for the Clifford algebra Cl1,3(R), or equivalently the geometric algebra G(M4), which can be particularly closely associated with the geometry of special relativity and relativistic spacetime.

It is a vector space that allows not only vectors, but also bivectors (directed quantities associated with particular planes, such as areas, or rotations) or blades (quantities associated with particular hyper-volumes) to be combined, as well as rotated, reflected, or Lorentz boosted. It is also the natural parent algebra of spinors in special relativity. These properties allow many of the most important equations in physics to be expressed in particularly simple forms, and can be very helpful towards a more geometric understanding of their meanings.



The spacetime algebra may be built up from an orthogonal basis of one time-like vector   and three space-like vectors,  , with the multiplication rule


where   is the Minkowski metric with signature (+ − − −).

Thus,  ,  , otherwise  .

The basis vectors   share these properties with the Dirac matrices, but no explicit matrix representation need be used in STA.

This generates a basis of one scalar  , four vectors  , six bivectors  , four pseudovectors   and one pseudoscalar  , where  .

Reciprocal frameEdit

Associated with the orthogonal basis   is the reciprocal basis   for  , satisfying the relation


These reciprocal frame vectors differ only by a sign, with  , and   for  .

A vector may be represented in either upper or lower index coordinates   with summation over  , according to the Einstein notation, where the coordinates may be extracted by taking dot products with the basis vectors or their reciprocals.


Spacetime gradientEdit

The spacetime gradient, like the gradient in a Euclidean space, is defined such that the directional derivative relationship is satisfied:


This requires the definition of the gradient to be


Written out explicitly with  , these partials are


Spacetime splitEdit

Spacetime split – examples:
where   is the Lorentz factor

In spacetime algebra, a spacetime split is a projection from four-dimensional space into (3+1)-dimensional space with a chosen reference frame by means of the following two operations:

  • a collapse of the chosen time axis, yielding a 3D space spanned by bivectors, and
  • a projection of the 4D space onto the chosen time axis, yielding a 1D space of scalars.[3]

This is achieved by pre- or post-multiplication by the timelike basis vector  , which serves to split a four vector into a scalar timelike and a bivector spacelike component. With   we have


As these bivectors   square to unity, they serve as a spatial basis. Utilizing the Pauli matrix notation, these are written  . Spatial vectors in STA are denoted in boldface; then with   the  -spacetime split   and its reverse   are:


Multivector divisionEdit

The spacetime algebra is not a division algebra, because it contains idempotent elements   and nonzero zero divisors:  . These can be interpreted as projectors onto the light-cone and orthogonality relations for such projectors, respectively. But in general it is possible to divide one multivector quantity by another, and make sense of the result: so, for example, a directed area divided by a vector in the same plane gives another vector, orthogonal to the first.

Spacetime algebra description of non-relativistic physicsEdit

Non-relativistic quantum mechanicsEdit

Spacetime algebra allows the description of the Pauli particle in terms of a real theory in place of a matrix theory. The matrix theory description of the Pauli particle is:[4]


where   is the imaginary unit with no geometric interpretation,   are the Pauli matrices (with the 'hat' notation indicating that   is a matrix operator and not an element in the geometric algebra), and   is the Schrödinger Hamiltonian. In the spacetime algebra the Pauli particle is described by the real Pauli–Schrödinger equation:[4]


where now i is the unit pseudoscalar  , and   and   are elements of the geometric algebra, with   an even multi-vector;   is again the Schrödinger Hamiltonian. Hestenes refers to this as the real Pauli–Schrödinger theory to emphasize that this theory reduces to the Schrödinger theory if the term that includes the magnetic field is dropped.

Spacetime algebra description of relativistic physicsEdit

Relativistic quantum mechanicsEdit

The relativistic quantum wavefunction is sometimes expressed as a spinor field, i.e.[citation needed]


where   is a bivector, and[5][6]


where, according to its derivation by David Hestenes,   is an even multivector-valued function on spacetime,   is a unimodular spinor (or “rotor”[7]), and   and   are scalar-valued functions.[5]

This equation is interpreted as connecting spin with the imaginary pseudoscalar.[8]   is viewed as a Lorentz rotation which a frame of vectors   into another frame of vectors   by the operation  ,[7] where the tilde symbol indicates the reverse (the reverse is often also denoted by the dagger symbol, see also Rotations in geometric algebra).

This has been extended to provide a framework for locally varying vector- and scalar-valued observables and support for the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics originally proposed by Schrödinger.

Hestenes has compared his expression for   with Feynman's expression for it in the path integral formulation:


where   is the classical action along the  -path.[5]

Spacetime algebra enables a description of the Dirac particle in terms of a real theory in place of a matrix theory. The matrix theory description of the Dirac particle is:[9]


where   are the Dirac matrices. In the spacetime algebra the Dirac particle is described by the equation:[9]


Here,   and   are elements of the geometric algebra, and   is the spacetime vector derivative.

A new formulation of general relativityEdit

Lasenby, Doran, and Gull of Cambridge University have proposed a new formulation of gravity, termed gauge theory gravity (GTG), wherein spacetime algebra is used to induce curvature on Minkowski space while admitting a gauge symmetry under "arbitrary smooth remapping of events onto spacetime" (Lasenby, et al.); a nontrivial derivation then leads to the geodesic equation,


and the covariant derivative


where   is the connexion associated with the gravitational potential, and   is an external interaction such as an electromagnetic field.

The theory shows some promise for the treatment of black holes, as its form of the Schwarzschild solution does not break down at singularities; most of the results of general relativity have been mathematically reproduced, and the relativistic formulation of classical electrodynamics has been extended to quantum mechanics and the Dirac equation.

See alsoEdit


  • A. Lasenby, C. Doran, & S. Gull (1998), "Gravity, gauge theories and geometric algebra", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 356 (1737): 487–582, arXiv:gr-qc/0405033, Bibcode:1998RSPTA.356..487L, doi:10.1098/rsta.1998.0178
  • Chris Doran and Anthony Lasenby (2003), Geometric Algebra for Physicists, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-48022-1
  • David Hestenes (1966), Space–Time Algebra, Gordon & Breach
  • David Hestenes and Sobczyk, G. (1984), Clifford Algebra to Geometric Calculus, Springer Verlag, ISBN 90-277-1673-0
  • David Hestenes (1973), "Local observables in the Dirac theory", Journal of Mathematical Physics, 14 (7), Bibcode:1973JMP....14..893H, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1063/1.1666413
  • David Hestenes (1967), "Real Spinor Fields", Journal of Mathematical Physics, 8 (4): 798–808, Bibcode:1967JMP.....8..798H, doi:10.1063/1.1705279
  1. ^ a b A. N. Lasenby, C. J. L. Doran: Geometric algebra, Dirac wavefunctions and black holes. In: Peter Gabriel Bergmann, Venzo De Sabbata (eds.): Advances in the interplay between quantum and gravity physics, Springer, 2002, ISBN 978-1-4020-0593-0, pp. 256-283, p. 257
  2. ^ A. N. Lasenby, C. J. L. Doran: Geometric algebra, Dirac wavefunctions and black holes. In: Peter Gabriel Bergmann, Venzo De Sabbata (eds.): Advances in the interplay between quantum and gravity physics, Springer, 2002, ISBN 978-1-4020-0593-0, pp. 256-283, p. 259
  3. ^ John W. Arthur: Understanding Geometric Algebra for Electromagnetic Theory (IEEE Press Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory), Wiley, 2011, ISBN 978-0-470-94163-8, p. 180
  4. ^ a b See eqs. (75) and (81) in: D. Hestenes: Oersted Medal Lecture
  5. ^ a b c See eq. (3.1) and similarly eq. (4.1), and subsequent pages, in: D. Hestenes: On decoupling probability from kinematics in quantum mechanics, In: P.F. Fougère (ed.): Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990, pp. 161–183 (PDF)
  6. ^ See also eq. (5.13) of S. Gull, A. Lasenby, C. Doran: Imaginary numbers are not real – the geometric algebra of spacetime, 1993
  7. ^ a b See eq. (205) in: D. Hestenes: Spacetime physics with geometric algebra, American Journal of Physics, vol. 71, no. 6, June 2003, pp. 691 ff., DOI 10.1119/1.1571836 (abstract, full text)
  8. ^ Hestenes David (2003). "Oersted Medal Lecture 2002: Reforming the mathematical language of physics" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 71: 104. Bibcode:2003AmJPh..71..104H. doi:10.1119/1.1522700.
  9. ^ a b See eqs. (3.43) and (3.44) in: Chris Doran, Anthony Lasenby, Stephen Gull, Shyamal Somaroo, Anthony Challinor: Spacetime algebra and electron physics, in: Peter W. Hawkes (ed.): Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 95, Academic Press, 1996, ISBN 0-12-014737-8, p. 272–386, p. 292

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