The Someș (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈsomeʃ]; Hungarian: Szamos; German: Somesch or Samosch) is a left tributary of the Tisza in Hungary and Romania. It has a length of 415 km (258 mi) (including its source river Someșul Mare), of which 50 km are in Hungary.[6]: 19  The Someș is the fifth largest river by length and volume in Romania.[7] The hydrographic basin forms by the confluence at Mica, a commune about 4 km upstream of Dej, of Someșul Mare and Someșul Mic rivers. Someșul Mic (formed by the confluence of Someșul Rece with Someșul Cald) originates in the Apuseni Mountains, and Someșul Mare springs from the Rodna Mountains.[8]

The Someș at Letca, Sălaj County
The Someș marked in fuchsia color
EtymologyDisputed. Either from the Hungarian "Szamos", or from Slavic, or directly from Dacian. Various assuptions connect it to Dacian[1] Samus ("agitated", "whirling", "piebald") or Latin Samum (accusative), or the French river Somme, or Celtic Samo ("calm") or the proto-Indo European s(w)om-isyo ("rich in catfish"). The Hungarian form was probably adopted by Slavic mediation.[2]
CountriesRomania and Hungary
Physical characteristics
 • locationConfluence of Someșul Mare and Someșul Mic
 • coordinates47°8′41″N 23°54′48″E / 47.14472°N 23.91333°E / 47.14472; 23.91333
 • location
 • coordinates
48°06′50″N 22°20′22″E / 48.1140°N 22.3394°E / 48.1140; 22.3394
 • elevation
122 m (400 ft)
Length415 km (258 mi)
Basin size18,146 km2 (7,006 sq mi) 19,108.8 km2 (7,377.9 sq mi)[3]
 • locationVásárosnamény, Hungary (near mouth)
 • average130 m3/s (4,600 cu ft/s) 138.593 m3/s (4,894.4 cu ft/s)[4]
Basin features
ProgressionTiszaDanubeBlack Sea
 • leftSomeșul Mic, Sălaj
 • rightSomeșul Mare, Lăpuș

Someșul Mare has a length of 130 km and an area of 5,033 km2 and a slight asymmetry in favor of the left side of the basin.[9] For the entire basin of Someș, the asymmetry on left becomes pronounced between Dej and Ardusat to change in the opposite direction after receiving the Lăpuș on the right side. The valley of Someșul Mare has much auriferous alluvium that, until the early 20th century, were brought to the surface using traditional tools. Specialists say that in the Someșul Mare were found grains of gold of 21 carats.[10]

The Someș drains a basin of 18,146 km2 (7,006 sq mi),[6]: 22  of which 15,740 km2 (6,080 sq mi) in Romania.[11] Its basin comprises 403 rivers with a total length of 5,528 km, or 7% of the total length of the country. Basin area represents 6.6% of the country area and 71% of the area of Someș–Tisza hydrographic basin.[9]

To prevent flooding, the Someș is dammed in the lower course. In the spring of 1970, due to heavy rains, the Someș flooded part of Satu Mare and surrounding plains. The discharge exceeded 3,300 m3/s compared to that year's average of 210 m3/s.[12]

Tributaries Edit

The following rivers are tributaries to the river Someș:

References Edit

  1. ^ Ion Grumeza, University Press of America, 2009, Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe, p. 87
  2. ^ Kiss, Lajos. Földrajzi nevek etimológiai szótára. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 594. ISBN 963-05-2277-2.
  3. ^ "Rivers Network". 2020.
  4. ^ "Rivers Network". 2020.
  5. ^ "Capitolul 3 - Apă" (PDF). Agenția Națională pentru Protecția Mediului (in Romanian).
  6. ^ a b Analysis of the Tisza River Basin 2007, IPCDR
  7. ^ Ghinea, Dan (2002). Enciclopedia geografică a României (in Romanian) (III, revised and enlarged ed.). Bucharest: Editura Enciclopedică.
  8. ^ Diaconu, Constantin; Stănculescu, Sorin (1971). Rîurile României: monografie hidrologică (in Romanian). Bucharest: Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology.
  9. ^ a b "Plan de apărare împotriva inundațiilor și ghețurilor, secetei hidrologice, accidentelor la construcțiile hidrotehnice și poluărilor accidentale al bazinului hidrografic Someș-Tisa". A. N. "Apele Române" (in Romanian).
  10. ^ Sabău, Cristiana (15 August 2011). "În Someșul Mare sunt granule de aur". (in Romanian).
  11. ^ 2017 Romanian Statistical Yearbook, p. 13
  12. ^ "Râul Someș". Enciclopedia României (in Romanian).