Social Democratic Party (Iran)

The Social Democratic Party (Persian: فرقه اجتماعیون عامیون, romanizedFerqa'ye Ejtemāʿīyūn-e ʿāmmīyūn) was a political party formed by Persian emigrants in Transcaucasia with the help of local revolutionaries, maintaining close ties to the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and Hemmat Party.[1][2]

Social Democratic Party
LeaderNariman Narimanov[1]
FounderHaydar Khan Amo-oghli[2][3]
Founded1904[2] or 1905[1]
DissolvedFebruary 1910[1]
Succeeded byDemocrat Party[2]
HeadquartersBaku, Caucasus[2]
NewspaperIran-e No[1]
Political positionLeft-wing
1st Iranian Majlis (1906)
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It was the first Iranian socialist organization.[4]

The party created its own mélange of European socialism and indigenous ideas and upheld liberalism and nationalism. It maintained some religious beliefs[1] while being critical of the conservative ulama[1] and embracing separation of church and state.[3]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Afary, Janet (December 9, 2011) [December 15, 1998]. "EJTEMĀʿĪŪN-E ʿĀMMĪŪN (Mojāhed), FERQA-YE". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica. Fasc. 3. Vol. VIII. New York City: Bibliotheca Persica Press. pp. 286–288. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton University Press. pp. 76–77, 104. ISBN 0-691-10134-5.
  3. ^ a b Ettehadieh, Mansoureh (October 28, 2011) [December 15, 1992]. "CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION v. Political parties of the constitutional period". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica. Fasc. 2. Vol. VI. New York City: Bibliotheca Persica Press. pp. 199–202. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  4. ^ Cronin, Stephanie (2013). Reformers and Revolutionaries in Modern Iran: New Perspectives on the Iranian Left. Routledge/BIPS Persian Studies Series. Routledge. p. 252. ISBN 978-1134328901.