Ervand Abrahamian

Ervand Abrahamian[a] (born 1940) is an Iranian-American historian of the Middle East. He is Distinguished Professor of History at Baruch College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and is widely regarded as one of the leading historians of modern Iran.

Ervand Abrahamian
Ervand Abrahamian Jan2020.jpg
Abrahamian on BBC Persian in January 2020
Born1940 (age 81–82)
Tehran, Iran
CitizenshipUnited States
OccupationHistorian
Academic background
EducationOxford University (BA 1963, MA 1968)
Alma materColumbia University (MA 1966, PhD 1969)
ThesisSocial Bases of Iranian Politics: The Tudeh Party, 1941–53 (1969)
Academic advisorsKeith Thomas[1]
InfluencesChristopher Hill, E. P. Thompson[1]
Academic work
DisciplineIranian studies, political history, social history[2]
School or traditionMarxist historiography,[2] Neo-Marxism[3][4][5]
InstitutionsBaruch College
Graduate Center, CUNY
Princeton University
New York University
Oxford University
Doctoral studentsTouraj Atabaki[6]
Main interestsQajar dynasty, 1953 coup d'état, 1979 Revolution, Islamic Republic
Notable worksA History of Modern Iran (2008)
Khomeinism (1993)
Iran Between Two Revolutions (1982)

Early lifeEdit

Ervand Vahan Abrahamian[7] was born in 1940[8] in Tehran[1] to Armenian parents.[9][10] He attended three grades at the Mehr School in Tehran and was later sent off to Rugby School (1954-59),[11] a prestigious boarding school in England.[1][10] He received his BA from Oxford University in 1963.[7] He mainly studied European history with Keith Thomas.[1]

He then moved to New York City,[12] where he studied at Columbia University and received his first MA in 1966.[7] He received a second MA from Oxford in 1968.[7] Abrahamian obtained a PhD from Columbia in 1969.[7][10] His thesis was titled "Social Bases of Iranian Politics: The Tudeh Party, 1941-53."[7] Abrahamian has stated that his "understanding of Iran [was] ... most shaped [by] the oil crisis of 1951-53 culminating in the coup."[2]

Abrahamian was an activist and a member of the Confederation of Iranian Students — National Union (CISNU) that opposed the rule of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the 1960s and 1970s.[2] As of 1976, he was one of the vice chairpersons of the Committee for Artistic and Intellectual Freedom in Iran (CAIFI), a "minor front" of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP).[13]

Abrahamian is a naturalized American citizen.[14] He is known to his friends as "Jed".[10][15]

In 1967 Abrahamian was engaged to Helen Mary Harbison, the daughter of late historian E. Harris Harbison.[16] As of 2019, he is married to Mary Nolan, Professor Emerita of History at New York University (NYU).[17][18] He has two children, Emma and Rafi.[19]

CareerEdit

Abrahamian has formerly taught at Princeton University, New York University and Oxford University.[10][8] However, he has spent most of his career at the City University of New York (CUNY). He is currently Distinguished Professor of History at Baruch College and the Graduate Center of CUNY.[20][10][8] His research interests include the history and politics of the Middle East, primarily Iran.[20][10][8]

He regularly comments on Iran's politics and economy, foreign relations of Iran, including Iran–United States relations.[10] Abrahamian is considered an authority on Iranian opposition movements,[21] including the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK).[22]

He has appeared as a guest on BBC Persian,[23] Charlie Rose,[24] Worldfocus,[25] Amanpour & Company,[26] Democracy Now!,[27] Lou Dobbs Tonight,[28] and other series and channels.

ViewsEdit

In a preface to his 1989 book, Abrahamian describes himself as "a sceptic by intellectual training; a democratic socialist by political preference; and, as far as religious conviction is concerned, an agnostic on most days — on other days, an atheist."[9][29] In 1983 he told The New York Times that he has an "independent Marxist point of view."[30] Christoph Marcinkowski wrote that Abrahamian's publications "feature more or less the left-wing political perspective of their author – especially in terms of socio-political and socio-economic analysis."[31] He has been influenced by Marxist historians Christopher Hill, Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson and others.[1] He has called Thompson a "towering figure for a number of reasons — not just for historians of Iran, but also for Marxist historians throughout the world."[1] He is generally sympathetic towards the Tudeh Party.[32] Werner has described Abrahamian as a "vivid chronicler of the history of the Iranian Left, defying any attempt to view twentieth-century Iran exclusively through an Islamicate lens."[33]

In 2007 Abrahamian called the theory of the US government being behind the September 11 attacks "absurd." He compared it to claims of Iran supporting anti-US Sunni insurgents in Iraq, calling the latter "just not possible."[28] Abrahamian opined that if the US conducts airstrikes on Iran and triggers a war, it would last 30 to 100 years.[28]

In a 1986 he objected that The New York Times obituary of Loy W. Henderson did not mention his role in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, which he described as "probably his most important contribution." He wrote to the Times: "Few ambassadors have so decisively changed the course of a country's history. What is more, he set a State Department precedent by permitting secret agents to use the embassy compound to carry out the coup. Your oversight would have amused George Orwell; it certainly would not have surprised him."[34]

In 2006 he described Iran as a "third world power."[35] In 2017 he noted that the "gradual but consistent shift to the right in recent years naturally erodes this welfare state and thereby undermines the social basis of the regime."[1] He has described the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK) as a "mystical cult."[36]

Abrahamian has said that "heroes are to be avoided."[12] He has described Donald Trump as "at heart a con man spouting out verbiage to sell a particular product."[1] He called the Trump presidency a "nightmare."[12]

PublicationsEdit

Abrahamian has authored or coauthored the following books:

  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Limited Paperback Editions, Princeton Studies on the Near East. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691101347.
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1989). Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781850430773.
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1989). The Iranian Revolution. Yale University Press.
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1993). Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520085039.
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1999). Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520922907.
  • Cumings, Bruce; Abrahamian, Ervand; Ma'Oz, Moshe (2004). Inventing the Axis of Evil: The Truth about North Korea, Iran, and Syria. New York, NY: The New Press. ISBN 9781595580382.
  • Barsamian, David; Chomsky, Noam; Abrahamian, Ervand; Mozaffari, Nahid (2007). Targeting Iran. Open Media Series, Politics, Culture and Society Series. San Francisco, CA: City Lights Books. ISBN 9780872864580.
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521821391.
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (2013). The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations. New York, NY: The New Press. ISBN 9781595588265.

Iran Between Two RevolutionsEdit

Abrahamian's' best known[1] and most cited[37] book is Iran Between Two Revolutions (1982), published by Princeton University Press. It is an account of the history of Iran from the Constitutional Revolution of 1905–06 to the Islamic Revolution of 1978–79.[38]

Initial reviews were largely positive.[39][40][41] Criticisms included disproportional focus on the Communist movement[42] and the Tudeh Party,[43] and reliance on British archives.[42] Sepehr Zabih wrote that it is constrained by the ideological bias of neo-Marxist approach of E. P. Thompson.[42] M. E. Yapp wrote: "with all its imperfections, Abrahamian's book is the most interesting and exciting book on the recent history of Iran which has appeared for many years."[43] Zabih was more reserved: "this work is a significant addition to the literature on some aspects of the Iranian communist movement. The author is well versed in the selected periods of recent Iranian history. No one with sustained interest in Iranian politics, especially those of the left, could afford to ignore this volume."[42] Gene R. Garthwaite wrote that the book made three significant contributions: "its class analysis will force all of us-Marxist and non-Marxist alike-to re-examine our ideas about Iran's twentieth-century history and will provide the basis for discussion for some time to come; it gives the best account of the development of the Tudeh party and its social, intellectual, and political bases; and it presents the most detailed account of the Pahlavi period (ca. 1921-78) and its political history."[44] Mazzaoui described it as "the best and most balanced account of the social and political developments in contemporary Persian history."[38]

Radical Islam: The Iranian MojahedinEdit

In Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin (1989) Abrahamian investigated the origins and history of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK). He concludes that the MEK has become a "religio-political sect" and a cult of personality, "at its most extreme," has been formed around its leader, Massoud Rajavi.[45] It was well received by reviewers.[46][47] Eric Hooglund called it a "very important book" that provides "detailed, objective, and erudite analysis" of the MEK. He also argued that its most important contribution is the exposition of the party's ideology.[48] Mazzaoui wrote: "There is very little to criticize in this masterfully written piece of current research. Dr. Abrahamian writes sympathetically and at times dramatically-but always as an accomplished scholar."[38]

KhomeinismEdit

Abrahamian's 1993 book on Iran's first Supreme Leader, Ruhollah Khomeini and his ideology, is entitled Khomeinism. The book consisted of five essays. He argued that Khomeinism is "best understood as a populist movement, not a religious resurgence."[49] He described Khomeini's movement as a form of Third World populism.[50][1][51] Fred Halliday called it a "superb study of political ideology in general and of the ideological evolution of the founder of the Islamic Republic in particular."[52] Baktiari had a mixed review. He noted that it is well written, but "far from well documented." However, he called it a "stimulating book that deserves wide readership."[49] Fakhreddin Azimi described it as a "lucid and provocative book."[50]

Tortured ConfessionsEdit

Abrahamian's 1999 book Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran covers political repressions against opposition movements both before and after the Islamic Revolution, ending with the mass executions of 1988. It reviews interrogation tactics and prison facilities used in 20th century Iran. It was well received by critics.[53][54][33] Mahdi praised it as a significant and timely book.[32]

A History of Modern IranEdit

A History of Modern Iran, published in 2008, was widely praised. The book narrates state building of modern Iran.[55] John Limbert called it a "scholarly, readable, and engaging study of the last century of Iranian history."[56] Philip S. Khoury went as far as to describe it as "the most intelligent and perceptive history of modern Iran available in the English language."[57]

The CoupEdit

Abrahamian's 2013 book The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations was met with mixed to favorable reviews.[58] David S. Painter opined that "Despite some problems, The Coup is a valuable corrective to previous work and an important contribution to Iranian history."[59] Mark Gasiorowski was more critical. He argued that the book does not provide any "major new revelations or insights and is misleading in several ways."[60]

RecognitionEdit

He is widely recognized a leading historian of modern Iran,[61][62][63][64][65] and, by some, as the "preeminent historian of modern Iran."[66][67][68] He has also been described as "one of the preeminent Iranian historians of his generation."[1] Mansour Farhang noted that his books are "indispensable source of information, insight and analysis for scholars and general readers as well."[69] In 1995 Fred Halliday opined in Iranian Studies that Ervand Abrahamian "has already established himself as one of the finest writers on twentieth-century Iran."[52] Eric Hooglund wrote in 2000 that Abrahamian's books have "established his reputation as the leading scholar of Iran's twentieth-century social history."[70] Reza Afshari wrote in 2002 that since the publication of the seminal Iran Between Two Revolutions (1982), Abrahamian has "become one of the most influential historians of modern Iran."[71]

He was elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2010.[72][73] He is a member of the Middle East Studies Association of North America and the American Historical Association.[10]

ReferencesEdit

Notes
  1. ^ Persian: یرواند آبراهامیان; Armenian: Երուանդ Աբրահամեան
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sadeghi-Boroujerdi, Eskandar (20 April 2017). "Iran's Past and Present: An Interview with Ervand Abrahamian". Jacobin. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Schayegh, Cyrus (February 2010), ""Seeing Like a State": An Essay on the Historiography of Modern Iran", International Journal of Middle East Studies, 42 (1): 47, doi:10.1017/S0020743809990523, JSTOR 40389584, S2CID 162461497
  3. ^ Ricks, Thomas M. (Spring 1983). "Reviewed Work: Iran between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle East Journal. 37 (2): 268–270. JSTOR 4326573. For the Iranian specialist well-acquainted with Professor Abrahamian's past and present published materials, the decision to follow the lead of E. P. Thompson's neo-Marxist approach throughout the book comes as no surprise.
  4. ^ McLachlan, Keith (Spring 1983). "Reviewed Works: Iran Since the Revolution. by Sepehr Zabih; Iran between Two Revolutions. by Ervand Abrahamian". International Affairs. 59 (2): 305–306. doi:10.2307/2620007. JSTOR 2620007. Professor Abrahamian proposes that a neo-Marxist approach to contemporary Iranian history is the only one compatible with persuasive socio-political analysis.
  5. ^ Sealy, Aaron Vahid (2011). ""In Their Place": Marking and Unmarking Shi'ism in Pahlavi Iran" (PDF). University of Michigan. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2021. Ervand Abrahamian is the most prominent neo-Marxist historian of the Pahlavi period.
  6. ^ "Touraj Atabaki". International Institute of Social History. Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Beach, Walter E. (Summer 1970). "Doctoral Dissertations in Political Science in Universities of the United States". PS – Political Science & Politics. American Political Science Association. 3 (3): 509. doi:10.1017/S1049096500029450. JSTOR 418049.
  8. ^ a b c d "Ervand Abrahamian: Biography". yalebooks.co.uk. Yale University Press London. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020.
  9. ^ a b Abrahamian, Ervand (1989). "Acknowledgements". Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin. London: I.B. Tauris. p. ix. I am an Armenian-Iranian by birth; a sceptic by intellectual training; a democratic socialist by political preference; and, as far as religious conviction is concerned, an agnostic on most days — on other days, an atheist. April 1988.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Ervand (Jed) Abrahamian". baruch.cuny.edu. Baruch College. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Lunch with Ambassador Wisner (Tu 56-57)". rugbyschool.co.uk. Rugby School. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022. New York Rugbeians [...] Historian and City University of New York Professor Ervand Abrahamian (M 54-59) ...
  12. ^ a b c "Slope Survey: Ervand Abrahamian". psreader.com. Park Slope Reader. November 20, 2019. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020.
  13. ^ McDonald, Lawrence P. (1977). Trotskyism and Terror: The Strategy of Revolution. Washington, D.C.: ACU Education and Research Institute. pp. 35-36.
  14. ^ Krastev, Nikola (November 18, 2003). "Iran: U.S. Experts See Promise Amid Troubling Trends In Relations". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Ervand Abrahamian, a U.S. citizen born in Iran, is professor...
  15. ^ Gleason, Abbott (2010). A Liberal Education. TidePool Press. p. 218. ISBN 9780975555743.
  16. ^ "Miss Harbison Engaged To Ervand Abrahamian". The New York Times. January 27, 1967.
  17. ^ "PathMakers to Peace 2019". brooklynpeace.org. Brooklyn For Peace. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022. Mary Nolan and Ervand Abrahamian {{cite web}}: Check |url= value (help)
  18. ^ "Mary Nolan". as.nyu.edu. NYU Arts & Science. Archived from the original on 18 April 2021.
  19. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (2013). The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations, dedication page
  20. ^ a b "Ervand Abrahamian". gc.cuny.edu. Graduate Center, CUNY. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020.
  21. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (June 16, 2009). "Iran's Latest Protests Are Seen as the Toughest to Stop". The New York Times. ...noted Ervand Abrahamian, an expert on Iranian opposition movements at Baruch College.
  22. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (February 16, 2020). "Highly Secretive Iranian Rebels Are Holed Up in Albania. They Gave Us a Tour". The New York Times. ...according to Professor Ervand Abrahamian, a historian of the group.
  23. ^ "تهدید ایران به گرفتن انتقام خون سلیمانی - شصت دقیقه ۱۴ دی" (in Persian). BBC Persian on YouTube. January 5, 2020.
  24. ^ "Ervand Abrahamian". charlierose.com. June 16, 2011. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013.
  25. ^ "Martin Savidge interviews Ervand Abrahamian on Iran and sanctions". worldfocusonline on YouTube. November 30, 2009.
  26. ^ "Historian Explains US and Iran's Long, Complicated History". pbs.org. 1 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Iran expert: Military confrontation is "inevitable"". Democracy Now! on YouTube. June 21, 2019.
  28. ^ a b c "General George Casey Grilled; Showdown Over Iraq; Intelligence Battle". Lou Dobbs Tonight. CNN. February 1, 2007. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021.
  29. ^ Also cited in Dabashi, Hamid (2006). "Preface". Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundatation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Transaction Publishers. p. xlviii.
  30. ^ Shribman, David (December 25, 1983). "THE MIDDLE EAST TURMOIL SPILLS INTO U.S. CLASSROOMS". The New York Times.
  31. ^ Marcinkowski, Christoph (January 2011). "Ervand Abrahamian, A History of Modern Iran". Islam and Civilisational Renewal. 2: 406–408.
  32. ^ a b Mahdi, Ali Akbar (August 2000). "Reviewed Work: Tortured Confessions: Prison and Public Recantations in Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 32 (3): 414–418. doi:10.1017/S0020743800002567. JSTOR 259518. S2CID 162676627.
  33. ^ a b Werner, Christoph (November 2000). "Reviewed Work: Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 27 (2): 239–240. JSTOR 826111. Despite the above criticism in certain points, it is highly applaudable that such a book is now in our hands and that it came out at this particular time. [..] It enriches our knowledge on modern Iran with a new and disquieting perspective.
  34. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (11 April 1986). "Credit Where Due". The New York Times.
  35. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (December 17, 2006). "How Iran's Leader Keeps the West Off Balance". The New York Times.
  36. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (June 30, 2003). "Iranian Opposition Movement's Many Faces". The New York Times.
  37. ^ "Ervand Abrahamian". scholar.google.com. Google Scholar. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  38. ^ a b c Mazzaoui, Michel M. (1991). "Reviewed Work: Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin by Ervand Abrahamian". Die Welt des Islams. 31 (1): 93–95. doi:10.2307/1570648. JSTOR 1570648.
  39. ^ Campbell, John C. (Fall 1982). "Reviewed Work: Iran: Between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian". Foreign Affairs. 61 (1): 236. JSTOR 20041415. In many ways it is an impressive achievement, drawing on previously untapped Iranian sources and material from the British and American archives.
  40. ^ Ferdows, Adele K. (July 1983). "Reviewed Work: Iran Between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle East Studies Association Bulletin. 17 (1): 42–43. doi:10.1017/S0026318400012578. JSTOR 23057451. To sum up, this is a carefully developed book that well deserves a significant place in the literature on Iranian history and politics. It hardly needs a reviewer's recommendation because it will be recognized easily for the splendid contribution it is, and it will be utilized and quoted by many scholars to come.
  41. ^ Binder, Leonard (August 1984). "Reviewed Work: Iran between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 16 (3): 405–407. doi:10.1017/S0020743800028245. JSTOR 163048. I believe that the author has done a remarkably good job and that his book will become the standard introduction to contemporary Iranian political history.
  42. ^ a b c d Zabih, Sepehr (Winter 1984), "Reviewed Work: Iran between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian", Iranian Studies, 17 (1): 93–97, doi:10.1080/00210868408701624, JSTOR 4310428
  43. ^ a b Yapp, M. E. (January 1984). "Reviewed Work: Iran between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle Eastern Studies. 20 (1): 120–123. JSTOR 4282988.
  44. ^ Garthwaite, Gene R. (December 1983). "Reviewed Work: Iran between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian". The American Historical Review. 88 (5): 1303–1304. doi:10.2307/1904978. JSTOR 1904978.
  45. ^ Afshari, Reza (July 1990). "Reviewed Work: The Iranian Mojahedin by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle East Studies Association Bulletin. 24 (1): 62–63. doi:10.1017/S0026318400022628. JSTOR 23060814.
  46. ^ Farhang, Mansour (April 1990). "Reviewed Work: Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle East Report (163): 45–46. doi:10.2307/3012564. JSTOR 3012564.
  47. ^ Bayat, Mangol (April 1991). "Reviewed Work: The Iranian Mojahedin by Ervand Abrahamian". The American Historical Review. 96 (2): 573–574. doi:10.2307/2163361. JSTOR 2163361. Ervand Abrahamian's new book is a sober, and sobering, account of the history of one of the best organized and most experienced lay Islamic political movements active in the Middle East today. [...] This book is of great importance to all historians of modern Iran and modern Islamic political movements.
  48. ^ Hooglund, Eric (1989). "Reviewed Work: The Iranian Mojahedin by Ervand Abrahamian". Iranian Studies. 22 (2/3): 155–158. JSTOR 4310684.
  49. ^ a b Baktiari, Bahman (August 1995). "Reviewed Work: Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic by Ervand Abrahamian". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 27 (3): 382–383. doi:10.1017/S0020743800062346. JSTOR 176277.
  50. ^ a b Azimi, Fakhreddin (April 1995). "Reviewed Work: Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic by Ervand Abrahamian". The American Historical Review. 100 (2): 561. doi:10.2307/2169122. JSTOR 2169122.
  51. ^ Melville, Charles P. (July 1995). "Reviewed Works: Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic by ERVAND ABRAHAMIAN; Islam and the Post-Revolutionary State in Iran by HOMA OMID". Journal of Islamic Studies. 6 (2): 306–309. doi:10.1093/jis/6.2.306. JSTOR 26195391.
  52. ^ a b Halliday, Fred (1995). "Reviewed Work: Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic by Ervand Abrahamian". Iranian Studies. 28 (3/4): 255–258. JSTOR 4310953.
  53. ^ Hajjar, Lisa (Summer 2000). "Reviewed Work: Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle East Journal. 54 (3): 468–469. JSTOR 4329514. ...an important contribution. With an encyclopedic account of abuses perpetrated over decades against those in custody... [...] This book is vital reading for anyone interested in the subjects it addresses.
  54. ^ Rejali, Darius (2000). "Reviewed Work: Forced Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". Iranian Studies. 33 (1/2): 269–272. JSTOR 4311371.
  55. ^ Ghamari-Tabrizi, Behrooz (August 2010). "Reviewed Work: A History of Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 42 (3): 529–531. doi:10.1017/S002074381000070X. JSTOR 40784845.
  56. ^ Limbert, John (Winter 2009). "Reviewed Work: A History of Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle East Journal. 63 (1): 144–145. JSTOR 25482609.
  57. ^ Khoury, Philip S. (March 2011). "Reviewed Work: A Modern History of Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". The International History Review. 33 (1): 154–156. doi:10.1080/07075332.2011.572640. JSTOR 23033152. S2CID 219643373.
  58. ^ Byrne, Malcolm (February 2014). "Reviewed Work: The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations by Ervand Abrahamian". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 46 (1): 198–200. doi:10.1017/S0020743813001451. JSTOR 43303124. S2CID 161794383.
  59. ^ Painter, David S. (December 2013). "Reviewed Work: The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations by Ervand Abrahamian". The American Historical Review. 118 (5): 1494–1495. doi:10.1093/ahr/118.5.1494. JSTOR 23784600.
  60. ^ Gasiorowski, Mark (Spring 2013). "Reviewed Work: The Coup: 1953, The CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations by Ervand Abrahamian". Middle East Journal. 67 (2): 315–317. JSTOR 43698055.
  61. ^ Balaghi, Shiva; Toensing, Chris (15 June 2006). "Let Cooler Heads Prevail on Iran". merip.org. Middle East Research and Information Project. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. As Ervand Abrahamian, a leading historian of Iran, has noted...
  62. ^ Bajoghli, Narges (May 15, 2019). "The Hidden Sources of Iranian Strength". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. As a prominent historian of Iran, Ervand Abrahamian has argued...
  63. ^ "The Iranian Revolution at 40". The Pennsylvania Gazette. University of Pennsylvania. 19 April 2019. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. ...Ervand Abrahamian, who is perhaps the most influential contemporary historian of modern Iran, offered an analysis...
  64. ^ Saffari, Siavash. "Iran Protests: Changing Dynamics between the Islamic Republic and the Poor". diverseasia.snu.ac.kr. Seoul National University Asia Center. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Among others, Ervand Abrahamian, a leading historian of modern Iran, argues...
  65. ^ Alimagham, Pouya (2020). Contesting the Iranian Revolution: The Green Uprisings. Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 9781108475440. ...Ervand Abrahamian, the eminent historian of modern Iran, noted...
  66. ^ Dabashi, Hamid (23 November 2018). "When the BBC did fake news". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. ...the preeminent historian of modern Iran, Professor Ervand Abrahamian.
  67. ^ Rad, Assal (4 November 2019). "The Hostage Crisis Is Damaging U.S.-Iran Relations Today. Yet Too Few Understand It". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Preeminent historian of modern Iran Ervand Abrahamian...
  68. ^ "Trump's actions will only embolden Iran's right-wing populists, says historian". CBC.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 10, 2020. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Ervand Abrahamian is the pre-eminent historian of modern Iran...
  69. ^ Farhang, Mansour (June 8, 2000). "'Spies' Under the Persian Rug". The Nation. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020.
  70. ^ Hooglund, Eric (September 2000). "Reviewed Work: Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". Journal of Islamic Studies. 11 (3): 388–391. doi:10.1093/jis/11.3.388. JSTOR 26198210.
  71. ^ Afshari, Reza (February 2002). "Reviewed Work: Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian". Human Rights Quarterly. 24 (1): 290–297. doi:10.1353/hrq.2002.0001. JSTOR 20069598. S2CID 145509961.
  72. ^ "Baruch College Historian Ervand Abrahamian Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences". baruch.cuny.edu. Baruch College. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020.
  73. ^ "Seventeen faculty honored". The Harvard Gazette. Harvard University. April 19, 2010. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020.

External linksEdit