Slobodan Jovanović

Slobodan Jovanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Јовановић; 3 December 1869 – 12 December 1958) was a Serbian historian, lawyer, philosopher, literary critic and politician, and one of the most prominent intellectuals of his time. He was the professor at the University of Belgrade Faculty of Law (1897—1940), Rector of the University of Belgrade (1913–14 and 1920–21), and the President of the Serbian Royal Academy (1928–1931). He took part at the Paris Peace Conference (1919) as an expert for the Yugoslav Government.[1]

Slobodan Jovanović
Slobodan Jovanović, by Uroš Predić (1931).jpg
Portrait of Slobodan Jovanović by Uroš Predić, 1931
15th Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
In office
11 January 1942 – 26 June 1943
Preceded byDušan Simović
Succeeded byMiloš Trifunović
Personal details
Born(1869-12-03)3 December 1869
Novi Sad, Austria-Hungary
Died12 December 1958(1958-12-12) (aged 89)
London, United Kingdom
NationalityYugoslavian
FatherVladimir Jovanović
Occupationjurist, historian, politician

Jovanović was the Deputy Prime Minister (March 1941 - June 1942) and the Prime Minister of the Royal Yugoslav government-in-exile in London between January 1942 and June 1943. After the World War II, new Communist authorities of Yugoslavia sentenced him in absentia to 20 years in prison. Jovanović remained at liberty for the rest of his life in London.

BiographyEdit

 
Jovanović as part of a poetic circle in his youth.

Slobodan Jovanović was born in Novi Sad, then part of Austria-Hungary (present-day Serbia) on 3 December 1869 to politician Vladimir Jovanović and his wife Jelena.[2] He was reportedly the first Serbian male to be named "Slobodan" (sloboda means "freedom" in Serbian), while his sister was named Pravda ("Justice").[3] He received an excellent education in Belgrade, Munich, Zurich, and Geneva, where he graduated with a law degree. From 1890 to 1892, he took post-graduate studies in constitutional law and political science in Paris before entering the Serbian foreign service. In 1893 he was appointed political attaché with the Serbian mission to Constantinople, where he remained for a couple years.[4][5] It was at this time that he began to write and have his articles on literary criticism published in various publications throughout the land.

He eventually left the diplomatic service in favour of academia and literary pursuits and became a contributing author and literary critic for several notable newspapers of the time.[6] In 1897 he was appointed professor at the University of Belgrade's Faculty of Law.[7] During the Balkan Wars and the First World War he was the Head of Serbian War Office Press Bureau.[8] In this period Jovanović became acquainted with Dragutin Dimitrijević Apis and wrote positively of him.[9][10] Shortly after the foundation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, in 1920, Stojan Protić, acting as Prime Minister of the Temporary National Representation, appointed Jovanović as the President of a multi-ethnic constitutional drafting committee alongside Kosta Kumanudi, Bogumil Vošnjak, Ladislav Polić, and Lazar Marković which later that year presented the first draft of what would later become the Vidovdan Constitution.[11]

For more than four decades, Jovanović taught at the law faculty gaining a reputation as an authority on constitutional law and Serbian language and literature. He was Rector of the University of Belgrade in two separate occasions and Dean of Faculty of Law.[12] Jovanović joined the Serbian Royal Academy in 1908, and was its President from 1928 to 1931.[13] He was also a correspondent member of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb from 1927.

Slobodan Jovanović was a critic of Hans Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law. [14] His criticism was not simply dismissive however. His primary remarks are on the relation of Kelsen's theory to other German theorists at the time. He considered Kelsen an innovative "young" theorist, but thought that his framework was not as dissimilar to more classical theories that Kelsen, in Jovanović's opinion, tried to attack. Namely, Jovanović posited that the special position of the Basic norm for Kelsen could be reduced to the framework of more classical German theories, in which the state is a legal person from which the legal system originates, and vice versa. [15] Jovanović considered this to be a flaw of Kelsen's Legal positivism that makes it a theory that does not truly address the origins of the law, as it fails to truly separate in analysis the legal system from the state as an actor. In this way, Jovanović rejects an analysis that would fully divorce the man as a legal creature, from man as a political one. [16]

Jovanović had some influence on political life in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia due to his well established authority in the field of law and history,[17] but he entered directly political life only in 1939 when the Serbian Cultural Club was established, and he was appointed as Club's president.[18]

 
Plaque on 39b Queen's Gate Gardens

He was a pro-Western politician and when a pro-Western military coup took place in Belgrade on 27 March 1941, a pro-Western, essentially pro-British government was installed headed by General Dušan Simović. Jovanović was deputy Prime Minister in that government.[19] The Third Reich attacked the Kingdoms of Yugoslavia and Greece on 6 April, and soon defeated Yugoslav and Greek forces. Jovanović moved in mid April together with King Peter II and other cabinet ministers to Jerusalem and he reached London in July. He became prime minister of the Yugoslav government-in-exile during World War II on 11 January 1942 and remained in that position until 26 June 1943.[20]

Tried in absence in Josip Broz Tito's communist state together with general Draža Mihailović, he was sentenced to 20 years in jail which he never served, as well as the loss of political and civil rights for a period of ten years, and confiscation of all property and loss of citizenship.[21] He spent his later years in exile in London (1945–1958).[22] A memorial plaque in honour of Professor Slobodan Yovanovitch, Serbian historian, literary critic, legal scholar, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia may be found in London at 39b Queen's Gate Gardens, Kensington.[23]

After unofficial rehabilitation in 1989, his collected works were published in 1991.

LegacyEdit

 
Jovanović on a 5,000 Serbian dinar bill
 
Jovanović on a 2019 stamp of Serbia

Jovanović was decorated Order of Osmanieh and Order of Saint Sava.[24]

In Serbia, he is regarded as one of the most influential political thinkers of the turn of the century.[25] A number of his writings on a number of ideas such as Machiavellism and Platonist ideas of state are still relevant today. [26]

Leading Serbian journal Politika on the occasion of his 70th birthday concluded that "his name has been carved as the highest peak of our culture up to now".[27]

WorksEdit

His collected works were published in 17 volumes in 1939–1940. It contains the results of his unremitting labour as a writer, professor and politician for sixty years, and throws considerable light on Balkan history of the first half of the 20th century, as well as on the author himself. Although his works were not officially banned, any new issue of his books was not permitted in communist Yugoslavia until the late 1980s. Finally, a new edition of his collected works was published in Belgrade in 12 volumes in 1991.

Since 2003 his portrait has appeared on the 5000 dinar banknote, and his bust stands at the Faculty of Law in Belgrade. His official rehabilitation occurred on 26 October 2007 by a Belgrade court.[28][29] Since 10 December 2011, plateau in front of Faculty of Law in Belgrade bears his name.[30]

  • O suverenosti, Beograd 1897 [On Sovereignty, Belgrade, 1897].
  • O dvodomnom sistemu, Beograd 1899 [On Bicameral System, Belgrade, 1899].
  • Velika narodna skupština, Beograd 1900 [Great People's Assembly, Belgrade, 1900].
  • Srpsko-bugarski rat. Rasprava iz diplomatske istorije, Beograd 1901 [Serbo-Bulgarian War. A paper in diplomatic history], Belgrade 1901].
  • Svetotar Marković, Beograd 1903 [Svetozar Markovic, Belgrade 1903].
  • Osnovi pravne teorije o državi, Beograd 1906 [An Introduction to the Legal Theory on State, Belgrade, 1906].
  • Osnovi javnog prava Kraljevine Srbije, Beograd 1907–1909 [An Introduction to the Public Law of the Kingdom of Serbia, Belgrade, 1907–1909, in two volumes].
  • Makiaveli, Beograd 1907.
  • Polititčke i pravne rasprave, Beograd 1908–1910 [Political and Legal Considerations, Belgrade, 1908–1910, in two volumes].
  • Ustavobranitelji i njihova vlada, Srpska kraljevska akademija, Beograd 1912 [Constitutionalists and their Government (Belgrade: Serbian Royal Academy, 1912).
  • Universitetsko pitanje, Beograd 1914 [University Question, Belgrade, 1914].
  • Vođi francuske revolucije, Beograd 1920 [Leaders of the French Revolution, Belgrade, 1920].
  • O državi, Beograd 1922 [On State, Belgrade, 1922], his capital work[31]
  • Druga vlada Miloša i Mihaila, Beograd 1923 [The Second Rule of Milosh and Michael, Belgrade, 1923].
  • Ustavno pravo Kraljevine Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca, Beograd 1924 [Constitutional Law of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Belgrade, 1924].
  • Vlada Milana Obrenovića, Geca Kon, Beograd 1926–1927 [The Rule of Milan Obrenovich (Belgrade: Geca Kon, 1926–1927), in two volumes].
  • Vlada Aleksandra Obrenovića, Geca Kon, Beograd 1929–1931. [The Rule of Alexander Obrenovich (Belgrade: Geca Kon, 1929–1931, in two volumes].
  • Iz istorije političkih doktrina, Beograd 1935 [From the History of Political Doctrines, Belgrade, 1935].
  • Gledston, Jugo-istok, Beograd 1938 [Slobodan Jovanovic, Gladstone (Belgrade: Jugo-istok, 1938)].
  • Američki federalizam, Beograd 1939 [American Federalism, Belgrade, 1939].
  • Primeri političke sociologije, Engleska, Francuska, Nemačka 1815–1914, Beograd 1940 [Examples of Political Sociology: England, France and Germany, 1815–1914, Belgrade, 1940].
  • O totalitarizmu, Oslobođenje, Pariz 1952 [On Totalitarianism (Paris: Oslobodjenje, 1952].
  • Jedan prilog za proučavanje srpskog nacionalnog karaktera, Vindzor – Kanada 1964 [A Contribution to the Study of the Serbian National Character, Windsor /Canada/, 1964].
  • Zapisi o problemima i ljudima, 1941–1944, London 1976 [Notes on Problems and Individuals, 1941–1944, London, 1976)]
  • Slobodan Jovanovich, Tito and the Western World (reprinted from The Eastern Quarterly), London, 1952, pg. 6.
  • Slobodan Jovanovich, On the New Machiavellism (reprinted from The Eastern Quarterly), London, 1952, pg. 5.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Pattaro, Enrico; Roversi, Corrado (13 July 2016). A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence: Volume 12 Legal Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: The Civil Law World, Tome 1: Language Areas, Tome 2: Main Orientations and Topics. ISBN 9789400714793.
  2. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. SLOBODAN JOVANOVIĆ: THEORY (СЛОБОДАН ЈОВАНОВИЋ. ТЕОРИЈА).
  3. ^ "Prvi Slobodan u Srba". www.novosti.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  4. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) I – 'Propaganda' and Serbian Legation at Constantinople (Serbian, 2015)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 92 (2015), 39–59.
  5. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) II – Chief of 'Propaganda' (Serbian 2016)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 93 (2016), 7–31.
  6. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović and Political and Literary Magazines Red [The Order], Srpski pregled [The Serbian Review] and Srpski književni glasnik [Serbian Literary Herald] (Serbian: 2011)". Književna istorija.
  7. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) I – 'Propaganda' and Serbian Legation at Constantinople (Serbian, 2015)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 92 (2015), 39–59.
  8. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) I – 'Propaganda' and Serbian Legation at Constantinople (Serbian, 2015)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 92 (2015), 39–59.
  9. ^ Batakovic, Dusan T. "Slobodan Jovanović i "Crna Ruka"". Slobodan Jovanovic. Licnost I Delo , Naucni Skupovi Srpske Akademije Nauka I Umetnosti, KNJ. XC, Odeljenje Drustvenih Nauka, KNJ. 21, Beograd: SANU 1998, Pp. 225–231.
  10. ^ "Slobodan Jovanović ponovo među Srbima". Nedeljnik Vreme. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  11. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Drafting the Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1920)". Balcanica 50 (2019), 225-244.
  12. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) I – 'Propaganda' and Serbian Legation at Constantinople (Serbian, 2015)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 92 (2015), 39–59.
  13. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) I – 'Propaganda' and Serbian Legation at Constantinople (Serbian, 2015)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 92 (2015), 39–59.
  14. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "An Early Critique of Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law: Slobodan Jovanović on the Basic Norm and Primacy of International Law (English: 2014)". The Annals of the Faculty of Law in Belgrade – Belgrade Law Review LXI, No. 3 (2013), 151–167.
  15. ^ Basta, Danilo. "Slobodan Jovanović and Hans Kelsen" (PDF). Annals of the Faculty of Law in Belgrade – Belgrade Law Review XLIX, (2001), 25-43. (in Serbian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2020.
  16. ^ Basta, Danilo. "Slobodan Jovanović and Hans Kelsen" (PDF). Annals of the Faculty of Law in Belgrade – Belgrade Law Review XLIX, (2001), 25-43. (in Serbian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2020.
  17. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Danilo N. Basta, Prvi korak ka trilogiji o Slobodanu Jovanoviću (Zbornik Matice srpske za društvene nauke, 163, 2017)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Društvene Nauke.
  18. ^ Tadic, Stana. "Slobodan Jovanovic and Serbian Cultural Club". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović on General Dragoljub (Draza) Mihailović (Serbian: 2012)". Slobodan Jovanović, O istorijskoj ličnosti generala Mihailovića [General Mihailović, His Personality].
  20. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović on General Dragoljub (Draza) Mihailović (Serbian: 2012)". Slobodan Jovanović, O istorijskoj ličnosti generala Mihailovića [General Mihailović, His Personality].
  21. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) I – 'Propaganda' and Serbian Legation at Constantinople (Serbian, 2015)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 92 (2015), 39–59.
  22. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) I – 'Propaganda' and Serbian Legation at Constantinople (Serbian, 2015)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 92 (2015), 39–59.
  23. ^ "Slobodan Yovanovitch". London Remembers. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  24. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Slobodan Jovanović in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1892–1897) II – Chief of 'Propaganda' (Serbian 2016)". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Istoriju 93 (2016), 7–31.
  25. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Liberal and Conservative Political Thought in Nineteenth Century Serbia – Vladimir Jovanović and Slobodan Jovanović (English: 2011)". Balcanica.
  26. ^ Milosavljević, Boris. "Politics and Morality in Slobodan Jovanović's Theory of State (Serbian: 2011)". Anali Pravnog Fakulteta U Beogradu 59 (2011), 273–293.
  27. ^ "Sedamdeset godina zivota gospodina Slobodana Jovanovica" [Seventy years of the life of Mr. Slobodan Jovanovic], Politika, 4 December 1939, p. 9.
  28. ^ "Rehabilitacija Slobodana Jovanovića". Nedeljnik Vreme. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  29. ^ "Rehabilitovan Slobodan Jovanović". B92.net (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  30. ^ М. Четник (10 December 2011). "Slobodan Jovanović sahranjen u otadžbini". Politika. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  31. ^ Milosavljevic, Boris. "Unity of state, law and power in legal and political theory of Slobodan Jovanovic". Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Drustvene Nauke (136): 369–380. ISSN 0352-5732.

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Government offices
Preceded by
Dušan Simović
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
1942–1943
Succeeded by
Miloš Trifunović
Academic offices
Preceded by
Bogdan Gavrilović
Rector of University of Belgrade
1913–1914
Succeeded by
Đorđe Stanojević
Preceded by
Jovan Cvijić
Rector of University of Belgrade
1920–1921
Succeeded by
Bogdan Gavrilović
Preceded by
Jovan Cvijić
President of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
1928–1931
Succeeded by
Bogdan Gavrilović