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Siege of Louisbourg (1758)

The Siege of Louisbourg was a pivotal operation of the Seven Years' War (known in the United States as the French and Indian War) in 1758 that ended the French colonial era in Atlantic Canada and led directly to the loss of Quebec in 1759 and the remainder of French North America the following year.[4]

Siege of Louisbourg
Part of the French and Indian War
British burninng warship Prudent and capturing Bienfaisant. Siege of Louisbourg 1758. Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, M55.7.1.jpg
Siege of Louisbourg (1758): British burning warship Prudent and capturing Bienfaisant.
Date8 June–26 July 1758
LocationLouisbourg, present-day Nova Scotia, then the French province of Île-Royale
Coordinates: 45°55′17″N 59°58′13″W / 45.92139°N 59.97028°W / 45.92139; -59.97028
Result Decisive British victory[1][2]
Belligerents
 Great Britain
British America
 Kingdom of France
Mi'kmaq militia
Acadian militia
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of Great Britain Jeffery Amherst
Kingdom of Great Britain Edward Boscawen
Kingdom of Great Britain James Wolfe
Kingdom of Great Britain Charles Lawrence
Kingdom of Great Britain Edward Whitmore
Kingdom of France Chevalier de Drucour (POW)
Kingdom of France Jean Vauquelin
Kingdom of France Marquis Charry des Gouttes
Kingdom of France Beaussier de l'Isle
Strength
14,000 soldiers
12,000 sailors and marines
150 transport vessels
40 men-o-war
3,500 soldiers
3,500 sailors and marines
5 ships of the line
Casualties and losses
172 killed
355 wounded[3]
102 killed
303 wounded
6,600 surrendered[3]
4 ships of the line burned, 1 taken

Contents

BackgroundEdit

The British government realized that with the Fortress of Louisbourg under French control, the Royal Navy could not sail up the St. Lawrence River unmolested for an attack on Quebec. After an expedition against Louisbourg in 1757 led by Lord Loudon was turned back due to a strong French naval deployment, the British under the leadership of William Pitt resolved to try again with new commanders.

 
Major General Jeffery Amherst was tasked with the capture of the French Fortress of Louisbourg.

Pitt assigned the task of capturing the fortress to Major General Jeffery Amherst. Amherst's brigadiers were Charles Lawrence, James Wolfe and Edward Whitmore, and command of naval operations was assigned to Admiral Edward Boscawen. The chief engineer was John Henry Bastide who had been present at the first siege of Louisbourg in 1745 and was chief engineer at Fort St Philip, Minorca, in 1756 when the British had surrendered the fort and island to the French after a long siege.

As they had in 1757, the French planned to defend Louisbourg by means of a large naval build-up. However, the British blockaded the French fleet sailing from Toulon when it arrived in Cartagena, and defeated a French relief force at the Battle of Cartagena.

The French consequently abandoned their attempt to reinforce Louisbourg from the Mediterranean, and only 11 ships were available to oppose the British off Louisbourg. Most of the cannons and men were moved inside the fort and five ships (Appolon, Fidèle, Chèvre, Biche, Diane) were sunk to block the entrance to the harbour.[5] On 9 July, Echo tried to slip out of the harbour under the cover of a dense fog, but was intercepted and seized by HMS Scarborough and HMS Junon. This left the French with only five half-empty ships in the harbour : Célèbre (64), Entreprenant (74), Capricieux (64), Prudent (74) and Bienfaisant (64).

British forces assembled at Halifax, Nova Scotia where army and navy units spent most of May training together as the massive invasion fleet came together. After a large gathering at the Great Pontack, on 29 May the Royal Navy fleet departed from Halifax for Louisbourg.

Order of battleEdit

 
A map of Louisbourg during the siege.

The fleet consisted of 150 transport ships and 40 men-of-war. Housed in these ships were almost 14,000 soldiers, almost all of whom were regulars (with the exception of four companies of American rangers). The force was divided into three divisions: Red, commanded by James Wolfe, Blue, commanded by Charles Lawrence and White commanded by Edward Whitmore. On 2 June the British force anchored in Gabarus Bay, 3 miles (4.8 km) from Louisbourg.

The French commander (and governor of Île-Royale (New France), the Chevalier de Drucour, had at his disposal some 3,500 regulars as well as approximately 3,500 marines and sailors from the French warships in the harbour. However, unlike the previous year, the French navy was unable to assemble in significant numbers, leaving the French squadron at Louisbourg outnumbered five to one by the British fleet. Drucour ordered trenches to be prepared and manned by some 2,000 French troops, along with other defences, such as an artillery battery, at Kennington Cove.

SiegeEdit

 
Brigadier General James Wolfe at the siege of Louisbourg.

Weather conditions in the first week of June made any landing impossible and the British were only able to mount a bombardment of the improvised shore defenses of Gabarus Bay from a frigate. However, conditions improved, and at daybreak on 8 June Amherst launched his assault using a flotilla of large boats, organized in seven divisions, each commanded by one of his brigadiers. French defenses were initially successful and after heavy losses, Wolfe ordered a retreat. However, at the last minute, a boatload of light infantry in Wolfe's division (i.e., members of Rogers Rangers) found a rocky inlet protected from French fire and secured a beachhead. Wolfe redirected the rest of his division to follow. Outflanked, the French retreated rapidly back to their fortress.

Continuing heavy seas and the difficulty inherent to moving siege equipment over boggy terrain delayed the commencement of the formal siege. In the meantime, Wolfe was sent with 1,220 picked men around the harbour to seize Lighthouse Point, which dominated the harbour entrance. This he did on 12 June. After eleven days, on 19 June, the British artillery batteries were in position and the orders were given to open fire on the French. The British battery consisted of seventy cannons and mortars of all sizes. Within hours, the guns had destroyed walls and damaged several buildings.

 
View of Louisbourg when the city was besieged by British forces in 1758.

On 21 July a mortar round from a British gun on Lighthouse Point struck a 64-gun French ship of the line, Le Célèbre , and set it ablaze. A stiff breeze fanned the fire, and shortly after Le Célèbre caught fire, two other French ships, L'Entreprenant and Le Capricieux, had also caught fire. L'Entreprenant sank later in the day, depriving the French of the largest ship in the Louisbourg fleet.

The next major blow to French morale came on the evening of 23 July, at 10:00. A British "hot shot" set the King's Bastion on fire. The King's Bastion was the fortress headquarters and the largest building in North America in 1758. Its destruction eroded confidence and reduced morale in the French troops and their hopes to lift the British siege.

Most historians regard the British actions of 25 July as the "straw that broke the camel's back". Using a thick fog as cover, Admiral Boscawen sent a cutting-out party to destroy the last two French ships in the harbour. The British raiders eliminated these two French ships of the line, capturing Bienfaisant and burning Prudent, thus clearing the way for the Royal Navy to enter the harbour. James Cook, who later became famous as an explorer, took part in this operation and recorded it in his ship's log book.[6]

CapitulationEdit

On 26 July the French surrendered. Having fought a spirited defence, the French expected to be accorded the honours of war, as they had given to the surrendering British at the Battle of Minorca. However, Amherst refused, tales of the atrocities supposedly committed by France's native allies at the surrender of Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry probably fresh in his mind[citation needed]. The defenders of Louisbourg were ordered to surrender all of their arms, equipment and flags. These actions outraged Drucour, but because the safety of the non-combatant inhabitants of Louisbourg depended upon him he reluctantly accepted the terms of surrender. The Cambis regiment refused to honour the terms of surrender, breaking its muskets and burning its regimental flags rather than hand them over to the British victors.[7] Brigadier-General Whitmore was appointed the new Governor of Louisbourg, and remained there with four regiments.[8]

AftermathEdit

 
The fall of Louisbourg brought a second wave of the Acadian expulsion, as the British engaged in a series of campaigns to expel the Acadians.

Louisbourg had held out long enough to prevent an attack on Quebec in 1758. However the fall of the fortress led to the loss of French territory across Atlantic Canada. From Louisbourg, British forces spent the remainder of the year routing French forces and occupying French settlements in what is today New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. The second wave of the Acadian expulsion began. The British engaged in the St. John River Campaign, the Cape Sable Campaign, the Petitcodiac River Campaign, the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign, and the removal of Acadians in the Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign (1758).

The loss of Louisbourg deprived New France of naval protection, opening the Saint Lawrence to attack. Louisbourg was used in 1759 as the staging point for General Wolfe's famous Siege of Quebec ending French rule in North America. Following the surrender of Quebec, British forces and engineers set about methodically destroying the fortress with explosives, ensuring that it could not return to French possession a second time in any eventual peace treaty. By 1760, the entire fortress was reduced to mounds of rubble. In 1763 the Treaty of Paris saw France formally cede Canada, including Cape Breton Island, to the British. In 1768 the last of the British garrison departed along with most of the remaining civilian inhabitants.[9]

 
English propaganda against New France and Louisbourg, 1755.

Royal Navy Fleet throughout the siegeEdit

Ship Guns Admiral Captain
HMS Namur 90 Edward Boscawen Matthew Buckle
HMS Royal William 84 Sir Charles Hardy Thomas Evans
HMS Princess Amelia 80 Admiral Philip Durell John Bray
HMS Invincible 74 John Bentley
HMS Dublin 74 George Rodney
HMS Terrible 74 Richard Collins
HMS Northumberland 70 Lord Colville
HMS Vanguard 70 Robert Swanton
HMS Orford 70 Richard Spry
HMS Burford 70 James Gambier
HMS Somerset 70 Edward Hughes
HMS Lancaster 70 George Edgcumbe
HMS Devonshire 66 William Gordon
HMS Bedford 64 Thorpe Fowke
HMS Captain 64 John Amherst
HMS Prince Frederick 64 Robert Mann
HMS Pembroke 60 John Simcoe
HMS Kingston 60 William Parry
HMS York 60 Hugh Pigot
HMS Prince of Orange 60 John Fergusson
HMS Defiance 60 Patrick Baird
HMS Nottingham 60 Samuel Marshall
HMS Centurion 54 William Mantell
HMS Sutherland 50 John Rous

[10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Primary sources

Endnotes

  1. ^ New France was doomed, Chartrand p.84
  2. ^ Brumwell p.158
  3. ^ a b Chartrand p.81
  4. ^ Johnston, A.J.B. (2007). Endgame 1758: The Promise, the Glory and the Despair of Louisbourg's Last Decade. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. 
  5. ^ "Guerre du Canada. 1756-1760. Montcalm et Lévis". TOUT GALLICA. Retrieved 1 October 2017. .
  6. ^ Hough p.21
  7. ^ Fowler, p. 171
  8. ^ Parkman, p.295
  9. ^ Chartrand p.92
  10. ^ The Naval Chronicle Vol. 07, p.202-203

BibliographyEdit

  • Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War (2000) pp 250–256
  • Brumwell, Stephen. Paths of Glory: The Life and Death of General James Wolfe. Hambledon Continuum, 2007 ISBN 9781847252081
  • Chartrand, Rene Louisbourg 1758
  • Hough, Richard. Captain James Cook: a biography. Hodder & Stoughton, 1995
  • Fowler, William M. Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle For North America. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd., 2005
  • Hitsman, J. McKay and C.C.J. Bond. "The Assault Landing at Louisbourg, 1758," Canadian Historical Review (1954) 35:314-330.
  • A.J.B. Johnson, Endgame 1758:The Promise, the Glory and the Despair of Louisbourg's Last Decade, Sydney, NS: Capre Breton University Press, 2008
  • McLennan, J.S (2000, originally 1918). Louisbourg: From its Foundation to its Fall, 1713-1758. Halifax: The Book Room Limited.
  • Warner, Oliver. With Wolfe to Quebec. Toronto: William Collins Sons and Company Ltd., 1972 ISBN 0002119420
  • The Naval Chronicle. 07. Bunney & Gold.