New York State Route 895
New York State Route 895 (NY 895; formerly Interstate 895 or I-895) is a short expressway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. Its south end is at a merging with the Bruckner Expressway (I-278) in the Hunts Point neighborhood, and its north end is at the Cross Bronx Expressway (I-95), with a short continuation connecting with local West Farms streets. NY 895 runs along the Arthur V. Sheridan Expressway for its entire route; the expressway is locally known as the Sheridan Expressway or simply The Sheridan.
|Arthur V. Sheridan Expressway|
Map of the Bronx in New York City with NY 895 highlighted in red
|Maintained by NYSDOT|
|Length||1.29 mi (2.08 km)|
|South end||I-278 in Hunts Point|
|North end||I-95 in West Farms|
The highway opened to traffic in 1963, and it received an Interstate route designation in 1970. The expressway was co-named for the Bronx Borough Commissioner of Public Works Arthur V. Sheridan, who died in a motor car crash in 1952. I-895 was supposed to connect back to I-95, its parent route, further north in Eastchester. However, due to community opposition, this extension was never built. As a result, I-895 saw relatively little use, since it ran parallel to the longer Bronx River Parkway.
In the 1990s, community groups began advocating for I-895 to be demoted to a boulevard. These groups cited the Sheridan Expressway's negative impact on the community. In the 2000s and 2010s, the city and state investigated ways to integrate the Sheridan with the neighboring community. I-895 was downgraded to a state route in September 2017, in preparation for its conversion into Sheridan Boulevard. The conversion of NY 895 into Sheridan Boulevard began in September 2018, and the boulevard is expected to be complete by late 2019.
NY 895 begins at exit 49 on I-278, also known as the Bruckner Expressway, in the Hunts Point neighborhood of the Bronx. The 6-lane highway heads northward, paralleling the Bronx River and the Amtrak-owned Northeast Corridor railroad tracks. There is one grade-separated interchange, which is for Westchester Avenue, about 0.6 miles (1.0 km) north of the split from the Bruckner Expressway.
The road then curves slightly to the northwest, and a frontage road begins to parallel the highway on the east side until it terminates at a cul-de-sac in East Tremont. North of Jennings Street, the bidirectional West Farms Road also parallels the highway on its west side. The Sheridan crosses under East 174th Street and officially ends at an interchange with the Cross Bronx Expressway (I-95) in East Tremont. The roadway continues beyond the Cross Bronx as a short connector to local West Farms streets.
For its entire route, NY 895 parallels the Bronx River, which is located to the highway's east. Amtrak's Northeast Corridor also runs parallel to both the Bronx River and NY 895, crossing the Bronx River north of Westchester Avenue.:22 The New York City Subway's Whitlock Avenue station, served by the 6 train, is located above and adjacent to the expressway south of Westchester Avenue.:57
In 1941, the New York City Planning Department and city planner Robert Moses proposed a short expressway route to connect the Bronx Crosstown Highway (now the Cross Bronx Expressway) and the Southern Boulevard Express Highway (now the Bruckner Expressway).:10 The new highway would be an alternative to the Bronx River Parkway that could be used by commercial vehicles, since these vehicles were banned from parkways in New York. The route was originally named the Bronx River Expressway. In August 1952, following the death of Arthur V. Sheridan, Bronx borough president James J. Lyons proposed renaming the planned highway after Sheridan. The law enacting the name change was signed by mayor Vincent R. Impellitteri on February 18, 1953.
|Length||1.29 mi (2.08 km)|
Construction began in 1958.:10 The highway was built parallel to the Bronx River on the former site of Starlight Park, an amusement park that was condemned to provide the right-of-way for both the Sheridan and Cross Bronx Expressways. As part of the project, a city park, also called Starlight Park, was created in its place. An additional park, Daniel Boone Playground, was also created on land condemned for the expressway. Thousands of residents were displaced by the expressway's construction.:10 A 1-acre (0.40 ha) plot at the southeast corner of the Bronx Zoo was also acquired for the highway's proposed expansion past the Cross Bronx Expressway, even though the Sheridan Expressway was ultimately not built that far.:10 The $9.5 million expressway was opened to traffic on February 6, 1963.
Over the years, the expressway has received a number of Interstate designations. It was originally designated as I-695 in late 1958. In early 1959, the highway designation was changed to I-895. Later that year, however, I-278 was rerouted to use the Sheridan Expressway. This was the designation of the highway when it opened in 1963. On January 1, 1970, I-278 was realigned to follow the Bruckner Expressway east to the Bruckner Interchange while the Sheridan Expressway was redesignated as I-895.
The Sheridan Expressway was originally planned to extend northeast to the New England Thruway (I-95) in Eastchester just north of Co-op City, creating a shortcut toward New England and a direct route to New England from the Triborough Bridge.:10:79 The extension would have been built along Boston Road (U.S. Route 1) through Bronx Park and Northeast Bronx.:10 Shortly after the opening of the first segment of the expressway, it was projected that construction of the first extension to the Bronx River Parkway would begin 1965, and the final segment to the New England Thruway in 1967. However, the project, like other Robert Moses highways, faced increasing community opposition.:10:80 It was cancelled by Governor Nelson Rockefeller in 1971, one year before its projected completion.
Because of the cancellation of the extension, the Sheridan is locally seen as a stub highway with very little utility, serving the same movements as the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87) and Bronx River Parkway. In 2011, the New York City Department of Transportation and the New York City Economic Development Corporation conducted a study of trucks entering and leaving the Hunts Point Cooperative Market, a large food market located near the Sheridan Expressway's south end. The study found that only 19% of drivers headed to or from Hunts Point Market used the Sheridan, while an average of 51% of drivers used the Bruckner Expressway and another 30% used local streets.:23
Refurbishment plan and decommissioningEdit
The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) started studying ways to reduce congestion and improve safety at the Sheridan Expressway's southern interchange with the Bruckner Expressway.:13 The NYSDOT proposed expanding the highway in the late 1990s.:13 The plan faced opposition rooted in claims of environmental justice from community groups, most notably the Southern Bronx River Watershed Alliance, which proposed an alternative that called for the expressway to be replaced with affordable housing, schools, and a park.:87 At the time, the nearby, parallel Bronx River Parkway saw twice as many daily vehicles as did the Sheridan Expressway: in 2001, I-895 carried 37,000 daily vehicles, while the Bronx River Parkway carried 60,000 to 100,000 daily vehicles. Residents also opposed a proposal to connect the expressway with Hunts Point Market to the south, saying that the NYSDOT had not consulted them about plans for the connection. Some community groups created an alliance called the Southern Bronx River Watershed Alliance (SBRWA), which began devising plans for removing the highway.:13
In 2001, the NYSDOT again started looking at ways to improve I-895, especially at the Bruckner Expressway junction, a source of congestion due to a merge in the southbound/westbound directions. Local groups advocated for the Sheridan Expressway's removal because it isolated Hunts Point from the rest of the Bronx, and proposed that new ramps from the Bruckner Expressway be built for trucks going to Hunts Point Market. However, the NYSDOT stated that removing the highway would force expressway traffic to use local streets instead. An environmental impact statement was started in 2003. In a final scoping document for the proposal in 2003, the NYSDOT conducted studies of the neighborhood and found that the best option was to make the intersection with Bruckner Expressway a full interchange, with the Sheridan Expressway able to access both directions of the expressway and vice versa. The Sheridan Expressway itself would be decommissioned, and several alternatives all proposed easier access to Hunts Point Market.
In 2008, the NYSDOT announced that it was holding talks with community officials for an alternative community plan. The plan gained momentum in July 2010. However, the state opposed the plan to demolish the highway, citing a study showing that local traffic would be worsened. At this point, the highway saw 50,000 daily vehicles. The dispute between the local community and the city and state governments led to a stalemate, what the Daily News called a "crossroads" and "a road to nowhere". On June 11, 2012, the Daily News reported that the administration of New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg was also opposed to the removal. In 2013, the city conducted a study of the Sheridan Expressway. The study recommended downgrading the expressway into an at-grade boulevard, connecting the three parks along the Sheridan Expressway waterfront, and creating or improving vehicular ramps between Sheridan Expressway, Bruckner Expressway, and the Hunts Point neighborhood.:48 The decommissioning proposal consisted of two options: retaining the separate West Farms Road parallel to Sheridan Expressway, or combining Sheridan Expressway and West Farms Road. Both proposals involved demolishing the frontage road east of the expressway.:29
In March 2017, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced that the expressway would be replaced with a boulevard. The 2017 New York State budget included $97 million for decommissioning the Interstate designation and the Sheridan Expressway, as recommended by the New York City Council and New York City Department of Transportation. Another $600 million was later added to the state budget for decommissioning the highway, bringing the total budget to nearly $700 million. The decommissioning would comprise the first phase of a project that would cost a total of $1.8 billion. On September 24, 2017, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials decommissioned Interstate 895, and the road was redesignated New York State Route 895 (NY 895). However, the signs for I-895 were not immediately replaced with NY 895 shields.
Plans call for the expressway to be demolished and converted into a lower-speed boulevard called "Sheridan Boulevard" by 2019. The new boulevard would include traffic lights at Jennings, 172nd, and 173rd Streets, with crosswalks that connect the residential area on the current expressway's west side with Starlight Park on its east. The boulevard would run parallel to West Farms Road, in a manner similar to the first of the city's two proposals for downgrading the highway. As of 2017[update], the park was only accessible via the East 174th Street bridge that crosses both the expressway and the Bronx River. The project is expected to improve pedestrian safety and access to both Starlight Park and the Bronx River shoreline. Exit ramps to Edgewater Road would be built from southbound Sheridan Boulevard, as well as from both directions of Bruckner Expressway, providing direct access to Hunts Point Market; most of the project's cost would come from building these ramps. At the time of the proposal, up to 13,000 trucks per day simply detoured through local streets to get to the market, which elicited complaints from residents.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHA)'s acting head wrote a letter to NYSDOT officials in June 2018, stating that the NYSDOT "provide[d] adequate justification" to downgrade the former I-895 into a boulevard. The federal government approved the conversion of NY 895 into a boulevard on September 19, 2018. The NYSDOT immediately announced that work would begin on decommissioning the highway within a week, and that the project would be complete by late 2019.
|Hunts Point||0.00||0.00||I-278 west – Robert F. Kennedy Bridge||Exit 49 on I-278|
|0.20||0.32||Bruckner Boulevard||Northbound entrance only|
|Edgewater Road – Hunts Point Market||Proposed interchange|
|0.61||0.98||Westchester Avenue – Hunts Point Market||No southbound entrance|
|West Farms||1.29||2.08||I-95 south (Cross Bronx Expressway) – George Washington Bridge, Trenton||No northbound entrance; exit 4A on I-95|
|1.40||2.25||West Farms Road||Southbound exit ramp in planning stages|
|1.50||2.41||East 177th Street / East Tremont Avenue to I-95 north / Bronx River Parkway||At-grade intersection|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
- "Expressway Link To Open Feb. 6" (PDF). Times Union. Albany, NY. January 6, 1963. p. A3. Retrieved February 20, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.
- State of New York Department of Transportation (January 1, 1970). Official Description of Touring Routes in New York State (PDF). Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering (September 24, 2017). "Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering" (PDF) (Report). Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 3, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- "2008 Traffic Volume Report for New York State" (PDF). New York State Department of Transportation. June 16, 2009. p. 247. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- Microsoft; Nokia (August 14, 2015). "Overview map of NY 895/Sheridan Expressway" (Map). Bing Maps. Microsoft. Retrieved August 14, 2015.
- Google (January 9, 2016). "Sheridan Expressway" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- "The Sheridan Expressway Study: Reconnecting the Neighborhoods Around the Sheridan Expressway and Improving Access to Hunts Point" (PDF). City of New York. December 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- "Starlight Park: History". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- "Lyons for Expressway Change". The New York Times. August 21, 1952. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- Moses, Robert (November 11, 1945). "New Highways for a Better New York; We have started a program, says Mr. Moses, which will give us a less congested and more comfortable and accessible city". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- "Sheridan Expressway – Historical Sign". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- "Call It Sheridan Expressway" (PDF). New York Post. February 18, 1953. Retrieved February 20, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.
- "Chapter 2: Greenway Route from South to North" (PDF). Bronx River Greenway Strategic Plan. Bronx River Alliance. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- "Photo Report on Progress of Cross Bronx Expressway" (PDF). New York Post. April 30, 1950. Retrieved February 27, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.
- "Daniel Boone Playground: History". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
- "PARK LAND SLICED BY CITY ROAD JOBS; Five Areas Affected, but an Over-All Gain in Play Sites Is Expected From Work HEARING ON CAFE TODAY Moses Makes New Appeal for Central Park Spot as 2 More Groups Oppose It PARK LAND SLICED BY CITY ROAD JOBS" (PDF). The New York Times. July 28, 1960. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- "Expressway to Open" (PDF). Yonkers Herald Statesman. February 4, 1963. Retrieved February 20, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.
- 30 Years of Progress: 1934-1965 (PDF). New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. June 9, 1964. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Bullard, R.D.; Johnson, G.S.; Torres, A.O. (2004). Highway Robbery: Transportation Racism & New Routes to Equity. South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-704-0. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "Moses' Postwar Highway Plan To Affect North Bronx Sector" (PDF). The Daily Argus. North Bronx. April 5, 1945. Retrieved February 20, 2017 – via Fultonhistory.com.
- Muoio, Danielle (July 9, 2017). "A hated, mile-long highway shows an overlooked problem with America's infrastructure - but it could soon come crumbling down". Business Insider. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "Southern Bronx River Watershed Alliance Stand On Sheridan During Rush Hour" (PDF) (Press release). Southern Bronx River Watershed Alliance. July 21, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Dolnick, Sam (July 12, 2010). "Plan to Remove Bronx Expressway Gains Traction". The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Lakhman, Marina (January 3, 1999). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: EAST TREMONT; The Greening of a Highway". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- O'Grady, Jim (November 11, 2001). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: BRONX UP CLOSE; Sheridan's Fork in the Road: Either Fix It or Kill It". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- Copage, Eric V (August 22, 1999). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: HUNTS POINT; Face-Off Over Highway Link". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "Final Public Scoping Document for the New York State Department of Transportation's Bruckner-Sheridan Interchange Reconstruction EIS". New York State Department of Transportation. September 4, 2003. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "Conclusion of Public Scoping and Alternative Design Refinement Process" (Press release). New York State Department of Transportation. August 7, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- Dolnick, Sam (July 13, 2010). "Local Traffic Would Worsen Without Sheridan, Study Shows". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Beekman, Daniel (July 20, 2010). "Sheridan at crossroads: Local advocates want expressway closed, but DOT warns of traffic snafus". Daily News. New York. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Deekman, Daniel (June 11, 2012). "Transportation officials nix Sheridan Expressway removal". Daily News. New York. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- Durkin, Erin (March 19, 2017). "Cuomo announces Sheridan Expressway to be demolished in favor of pedestrian boulevard in the Bronx". New York Daily News. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- McGeehan, Patrick (March 19, 2017). "Cuomo Plots Demise of Bronx's Unloved Sheridan Expressway". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- Sheridan Blvd Overall Plan. governor.ny.gov. New York State Department of Transportation. 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Rivoli, Dan (September 19, 2018). "Feds pave way to transform the Bronx's Sheridan Expressway". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Rivoli, Dan (September 19, 2018). "Feds pave way to transform the Bronx's Sheridan Expressway". nydailynews.com. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- "Bronx County Inventory Listing" (CSV). New York State Department of Transportation. August 7, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
- "Close Up Views Ramp". New York State Department of Transportation. March 19, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2018.