Sensitive urban zone
A sensitive urban zone (French: Zone urbaine sensible, ZUS) is an urban area in France defined by the authorities to be a high-priority target for city policy, taking into consideration local circumstances related to the problems of its residents.
On the 26th of December 1996, 750 ZUS were founded by the décret n°96-1156. The 751th ZUS «Nouveau Mons» in Mons-en-Baroeul was founded on the 24th of August 2000 by the décret n°2000- 796. On the 31st of July 2001, the décret n°2001-707 has changed the périmeter of Grigny's ZUS.
Social problems within the zonesEdit
Nearly five million people live in zones of difficulty with many problems:
A law passed November 14, 1996 created sensitive urban zones (ZUS) and urban tax-free zones (ZFU). 752 of these zones were created in France, including 718 in mainland France. The law of November 14, 1996 (which implements a renewed urban policy) distinguishes three levels of intervention:
- Sensitive urban zones (Zones urbaines sensibles, ZUS)
- Urban renewal zones (Zones de redynamisation urbaine, ZRU)
- Urban tax-free zones (Zones franches urbaines, ZFU)
The three levels of intervention (ZUS, ZRU and ZFU), characterized by fiscal and social measures of increasing importance, target the difficulties encountered in these districts with differing degrees of response. Contrary to generally accepted ideas, these sensitive districts are in the center of cities and not just the outskirts.
The situation in these areas in difficulty was (until recently) difficult to evaluate precisely, based on many statistics which were inadequate in certain areas, scattered or badly collected. To remedy these problems and more accurately measure the effect of policy implementation, the National Observatory of Sensitive Urban Zones (ZUS) was created in a law passed on August 1, 2003.
These ZUS are distributed throughout 490 communes and include 4.7 million inhabitants. Among them a subset of 416 zones of urban renewal (ZRU) was created, including 396 in mainland France. The ZRU contain 3.2 million inhabitants, and present unique challenges. Almost all departments are affected; the only exceptions are nine strongly agricultural departments.
In 2010, Raphaël Stainville of French newspaper Le Figaro called certain neighborhoods of the southern city Perpignan "veritable lawless zones", saying they had become too dangerous to travel in at night. He added that the same was true in parts of Béziers and Nîmes. In 2012, Gilles Demailly, the mayor of the French city Amiens, in the wake of several riots, called the northern part of his city a lawless zone, where one could no longer order a pizza or call for a doctor. The head of a local association said institutional violence had contributed to the tensions resulting in the no-go zone.[verify] In 2014, Fabrice Balanche, a scholar of the Middle East, labelled the northern city of Roubaix, as well as parts of Marseille, "mini-Islamic states", saying that the authority of the state is completely absent there. In 2005 France's domestic intelligence network, the Renseignements Generaux, identified 150 "no-go zones" around the country where police would not enter without reinforcements. Christopher Dickey, writing in Newsweek, said the situation had arisen due to racism towards immigrants.
January 2015 controversyEdit
In January 2015, after the Charlie Hebdo shooting, several items on Fox News labeled the ZUS as "Islamic no-go zones". French media agencies denied these claims. After complaints Fox News issued an apology, saying that there was "no credible information to support the assertion there are specific areas in these countries that exclude individuals based solely on their religion."
- "Insee - Définitions et méthodes - Zone urbaine sensible". insee.fr. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Atlas des Zones urbaines sensibles". ville.gouv.fr. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "La carte des ZUS commentée par Christophe Guilluy", 20minutes.fr, June 1, 2006
-  Archived April 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "???". lesechos.fr. Archived from the original on 5 December 2004. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Stainville, Raphaël (August 3, 2010). "Insécurité : "C'était intenable, nous sommes partis" (fr)". Le Figaro.
- Marie-Laure Combes, Aurélien Fleurot (August 15, 2012). "Amiens-Nord, une "zone de non-droit"? (fr)". Europe1. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Des "mini Etats islamiques" en France (fr)". Radio Télévision Suisse. September 25, 2014.
- Christopher Dickey, Europe's Time Bomb, Newsweek, 2005-11-20
- Karl de Vries. "Paris attacks prompt fears France's Muslim 'no-go' zones incubating jihad". Fox News. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Eating & Drinking in the No-Go Zones". Paris by Mouth. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- See also
- Daniel Pipes, The 751 No-Go Zones of France, 2006 - 2015;
- many video at Fox News, including:
- Sean Hannity & Robert Spencer (and others), Fox News, 2015-01-08,   ;
- Neil Cavuto & Nolan Peterson, French 'no-go zones' in question after Paris terror attacks, 2015-01-09;
- Sean Hannity & Robert Spencer (and Danny Coulson), Robert Spencer: 'No-Go Zones' Are Incubators of Islamic Jihad Archived 2015-01-18 at the Wayback Machine, Fox News, 2015-01-09,  ;
- Elisabeth Hasselbeck & Nolan Peterson, Hundreds of 'No-Go Zones' Across France Are Off-Limits to Non-Muslims , Fox News, 2015-01-10, Fox & Friends;
- Sean Hannity & Nigel Farage, Nigel Farage says Europe has suffered from 'moral cowardice'  , Fox News, 2015-01-12;
- Nolan Peterson, The next French Revolution, 2015-01-07 ;
- Nolan Peterson, NSJI fellow speaks on Fox News about French “no-go zones”, Medill School of Journalism, 2015-01-12;
- Karl de Vries, Paris attacks prompt fears France's Muslim 'no-go' zones incubating jihad, Fox News, 2015-01-12, include quotes of Soeren Kern & Robert Spencer;
- Rowan Scarborough, Muslims segregated from French society in growing Islamist mini-states, Washington Times, 2015-01-07, include quotes of Soeren Kern & Robert Spencer;
- Steven Swinford, Nigel Farage: Ghettos in French cities have become no-go zones for non-Muslims, The Telegraph, 2015-01-13;
- O'Reilly: "France Brought A Lot Of This Terrorism On Itself", Media Matters for America, 2015-01-09;
- Mathieu Dehlinger, Sur Fox News, un expert évoque des zones interdites aux non-musulmans en plein Paris, France Télévisions, 2015-01-13;
- Robin Andraca, Pendant ce temps, Fox News explore l'Afghanistan parisien, Arrêt sur images, 2015-01-13;
- Pierre Lemerle, Pour Fox News, Paris s'apparente à Bagdad, lexpress.fr, 2015-01-13;
- D'après Fox News, la charia règne à Paris, Le Point, 2015-01-13;
- VIDEO. Attentat à «Charlie Hebdo»: Fox News évoque des «zones interdites» aux non-musulmans à Paris, 20 minutes (France), 2015-01-03;
- Charlie Hebdo: quand Fox News s'emballe sur des "zones de non-droit" à Paris, Metro, 2015-01-13;
- Sharia Law Muslim 'No-Go' Zones, Snopes, 2015-01-12;
- Dina Rickman, Nigel Farage was on Fox News and was as bad as Steve Emerson, The Independent, 2015-01-14;
- Rajeev Syal, Nigel Farage tells Fox News there are no-go zones for non-Muslims in France, The Guardian, 2015-01-13;
- Tim Dowling, News from Fox, and the no-go zone of the brain. Steven Emerson’s ‘Muslim-only’ Birmingham comments provoked mirth. But what about his Googling of France?, The Guardian, 2015-01-14;
- La Tour Eiffel cernée par un califat islamiste, selon Fox News !, France 24, 2015-01-14;
- Guillaume Gendron, Pour Fox News, Paris c'est Bagdad, Libération, 2014-01-14;
- François de la Taille, Fox News parle de zones interdites aux non-musulmans en France, BFMTV, 2015-01-14;
- Fox News/Afghanistan parisien: le journaliste s'explique (mais maintient), Arrêt sur images, 2015-01-15;
- four video at Le Petit Journal (Canal+):
- Alexandre Hervaud, «No-go zones» islamistes de Paris: l’expert de Fox News s'excuse, Libération, 2015-01-15;
- Joshua Keating, The French Ambassador to the United States Is Subtweeting America, Slate, 2015-01-15;
- Jean-Marie Pottier, Charlie Hebdo: l'ambassadeur de France aux Etats-Unis n'apprécie pas du tout la couverture médiatique américaine, Slate, 2015-01-16;
- Zack Beauchamp, Fox News informs surprised Parisians they've been conquered by Muslims, vox.com ;
- Carol Matlack, Debunking the Myth of Muslim-Only Zones in Major European Cities, Businessweek, 2015-10-14;
- Aldo Guerrero, The Only 'No-Go Zones' Are Found in Fox News' Fantasyland, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, 2015-01-15;
- Are there really 'no-go zones' in Paris?, The Local, 2015-01-15;
- French TV: Laughing At The Credibility Of The Fox News Clowns And #FoxNewsFacts, News Corpse, 2015-01-15;
- Robert Mackey, Fox News Apologizes for False Claims of Muslim-Only Areas in England and France, The New York Times, 2015-01-18;
- "Fox News apologizes for European Muslim population errors". Fox News. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Fox News apologises for terror pundit's 'Birmingham totally Muslim' comments". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Fox News corrects, apologizes for 'no-go zone' remarks". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 April 2015.