A schooner // is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. The most common type has two masts, the foremast being shorter than the main. While the schooner was originally gaff-rigged, modern schooners typically carry a Bermuda rig.
Although mostly associated with North America, schooners were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century. They were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, and came into extensive use in New England. Schooners were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, privateering, blockade running, and offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper, bugeye, and pungy. Schooners were also popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility. They could also sail in shallow waters, and while being considerably smaller than other ships of the time period (such as frigates and galleons), they could still hold enough cannons to intimidate merchant vessels into submission.
Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast and estuaries of the Netherlands. Most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants. Following the arrival of the Dutch Stadtholder William of Orange on the British throne, the British Royal Navy built a royal yacht with a schooner rig in 1695, HMS Royal Transport. This vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner. Royal Transport was quickly noted for its speed and ease of handling, and mercantile vessels soon adopted the rig in Europe and in European colonies in North America. Schooners were immediately popular with colonial traders and fishermen in North America with the first documented reference to a schooner in the United States appearing in Boston port records in 1716. North American shipbuilders quickly developed a variety of schooner forms for trading, fishing and privateering.
Schooners were popular on both sides of the Atlantic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, long dominating yacht races such as the America's Cup, but gradually gave way in Europe to the cutter.
Schooner sail planEdit
Although a schooner may have several masts, the typical schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig. The principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were gaff rigged, and the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area and a low center of effort.
A Bermuda rigged schooner typically has four triangular sails: a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail and a jib (or genoa) forward of the foremast.[clarification needed] An advantage of the staysail schooner is that it is easily handled and reefed by a small crew, as both staysails can be self-tacking. The main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, and so does little to prepare the wind for the mainsail, but is effective when close-hauled or when on a beam reach. Although the main staysail has less area than an equivalent gaff sail, a loose-footed "fisherman" may be flown above the main staysail to maximize drive in light airs. The fisherman's staysail, a four-sided fore-and-aft sail, is not strictly a staysail, but is clewed abaft the foremast. An alternatively light-air sail is a triangular mule.
Some Bermuda schooners have (instead of a main staysail) a rectangular boomed sail clewed to the foremast; but although it can be self-tacking, it will be smaller in area than a main staysail and its use complicates flying a fisherman.[clarification needed]
Sailing vessels with a single mast will typically be sloops or cutters, either with a Bermuda or gaff mainsail. There is little justification for the cost and complexity of a second mast unless the vessel is reasonably large, say above 50 feet (15 m) LOA.
If a vessel's size requires a second mast, the sail plan will usually be a schooner, ketch or yawl, all of which are fore-and-aft rigged, although the "topsail schooner" variant carries one or more square topsails on its foremast. The two-topsail schooner variant carries square topsails on both the mainmast and the foremast. The schooner may be distinguished from both the yawl and the ketch by the disposition of its masts, and thus the placement of the mainsail. On the yawl and ketch, the mainsail is flown from the forward mast, or mainmast, and the aft mast is the mizzen-mast. A two-masted schooner has the mainsail on the aft mast, and its other mast is the foremast. Compared to a single-masted vessel, all the two-masted vessels can have a lower centre of pressure in the sail plan.
Although the ketch and, to a much lesser extent, the yawl are more popular than the schooner in Europe, the schooner is arguably more efficient. The schooner can carry a larger sail area, because of its much larger mainsail and the effective sail(s) between the masts. Also, in a schooner, all the sails work together in a complementary fashion, optimising airflow and drive. By contrast, on a ketch, or especially a yawl, the mizzen sail provides proportionately less power, being smaller than, and frequently blanketed by, the mainsail. The ketch however offers advantages in sail handling in poor weather.
Multi-masted staysail schooners usually carried a mule above each staysail except the fore staysail. Gaff-rigged schooners generally carry a triangular fore-and-aft topsail above the gaff sail on the main topmast and sometimes also on the fore topmast (see illustration), called a gaff-topsail schooner. A gaff-rigged schooner that is not set up to carry one or more gaff topsails is sometimes termed a "bare-headed" or "bald-headed" schooner. A gaff schooner may carry a square topsail atop the foremast. A schooner with no bowsprit is known as a "knockabout" schooner. A "cat-rigged" schooner not only has no bowsprit but has no headsails, and has the foremast set as far forward as possible.
While schooners were initially defined as having two masts, three-masted schooners were first introduced around 1800. In the late 19th century, additional masts were added as schooners were built with as many as six masts (e.g., the wooden six-masted Wyoming) or seven masts to carry a larger volume of cargo. The only seven-masted (steel hulled) schooner, the Thomas W. Lawson, was built in 1902, with a length of 395 ft (120 m), the top of the tallest mast being 155 feet (47 m) above deck, and carrying 25 sails with 43,000 sq ft (4,000 m2) of total sail area. It was manned by a crew of only sixteen. A two- or three-masted schooner is quite maneuverable and can be sailed by a smaller crew than some other sailing vessels. The larger multi-masted schooners were largely a cost-cutting measure introduced towards the end of the days of sail.
Essex, Massachusetts, was the most significant shipbuilding center for schooners. By the 1850s, over 50 vessels a year were being launched from 15 shipyards and Essex became recognized worldwide as North America's center for fishing schooner construction. In total, Essex launched over 4,000 schooners, most headed for the Gloucester, Massachusetts, fishing industry. Bath, Maine, was another notable center, which during much of the 19th century had more than a dozen yards working at a time, and from 1781 to 1892 launched 1352 schooners, including the Wyoming.
Schooners were used to carry cargo in many different environments, from ocean voyages to coastal runs and on large inland bodies of water. They were popular in North America. In their heyday, during the late 19th century more than 2,000 schooners carried on the Great Lakes. Three-masted "terns" were a favourite rig of Canada's Maritime Provinces. The scow schooner, which used a schooner rig on a flat-bottomed, blunt-ended scow hull, was popular in North America for coastal and river transport.
According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the later adoption of the Dutch spelling ("schoener"). Another study suggests that a Dutch expression praising ornate schooner yachts in the 17th century, "een schoone Schip", may have led to the term "schooner" being used by English speakers to describe the early versions of the schooner rig as it evolved in England and America. The Dutch word "schoone" means nice, good looking.
A popular legend holds that the first schooner was built by builder Andrew Robinson and launched in Gloucester, Massachusetts where a spectator exclaimed "Oh how she scoons", scoon being similar to scone, a Scots word meaning to skip along the surface of the water. Robinson replied, "A schooner let her be." The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745. Naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a "childish fable", but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word.
The first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconer's, Universal Dictionary of the Marine.
- Adventure, 1926 design by Thomas McManus as a "knockabout" schooner. When she retired in 1953 she was the last American dory fishing trawler left of what was a prosperous and numerous fleet of Grand Banks fishing schooners.
- Adventuress, 1913 B.B. Crowninshield design
- America, eponym of the America's Cup
- Bluenose, a Canadian racing and fishing vessel
- Brutus, one of the vessels of the First Texas Navy
- Casco, yacht which Robert Louis Stevenson chartered in 1888 for his voyage to the South Seas
- Charming Betsy, the eponym of a famous canon of statutory interpretation
- Columbia, 1923 the final development of the Gloucester fishing schooner design. Lost with all hands in August 1927. A steel replica was built by Eastern Shipbuilding in Panama City, Florida and launched in August 2014.
- Clotilde, the last ship to bring African slaves to the United States
- Delawana, a Canadian fishing vessel and race winner
- Demeter (fictional in Dracula, by Bram Stoker), a Russian schooner transporting Count Dracula from the Balkans to London
- Duncan, (fictional in In Search of the Castaways) by Jules Verne, referred to as a "yacht" but described as a two-mast topsail schooner with combined sail/steam propulsion
- Effie M. Morrissey, now Ernestina, the oldest surviving Grand Banks fishing schooner
- USS Enterprise, fired the first shots in the First Barbary War. Later rebuilt as a brig and fought in the War of 1812.
- Enterprize, the ship that brought the first European settlers to Melbourne, Australia
- Esperanto (schooner), Gloucester, Massachusetts fishing schooner, winner of the 1920 International Fisherman's Cup
- Fram, the legendary Norwegian polar ship used by both Nansen and Amundsen in their exploration of the poles
- Grace Bailey (formerly Mattie), built in 1885 as a coastal schooner, she began running passengers in 1939 out of Camden, Maine and has been since, making her the oldest continuously operated sail excursion vessel in the United States.
- Hesper and Luther Little, two of the last four-masted schooners to be built in the United States
- HMS Halifax, built as Nova Scotia Packet in 1765, well documented early colonial schooner
- USS Hannah, the first armed American naval vessel
- Hispaniola (fictional in Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island)
- Independence, one of the vessels of the First Texas Navy
- Invincible, one of the vessels of the First Texas Navy
- USS James S. Chambers (1861)
- La Amistad, ship on which a famous slave revolt occurred
- Liberty, one of the vessels of the First Texas Navy
- Liverpool Packet, a famous Nova Scotian privateer schooner
- Nellie J. Banks, Canadian rum runner
- HMS Pickle, carried the news of Nelson's victory and death at Trafalgar back to Britain
- Pride of Baltimore, a Baltimore Clipper re-creation sunk in a white squall
- Rich Harvest, a 72-foot ferrocement staysail schooner, infamous as the "offshore off-licence"
- Roseway, 1925 built in Essex, Massachusetts. The only known surviving example of a fishing schooner built specifically with racing as the objective
- RYS Royalist, sailed to Borneo by James Brooke, enabling him to become 1st White Rajah of Sarawak
- San Antonio, one of the vessels of the Second Texas Navy, and sister ship to the La Amistad, San Jacinto, and San Bernard
- San Bernard, one of the vessels of the Second Texas Navy, and sister ship to the La Amistad, San Antonio, and San Jacinto
- San Jacinto, one of the vessels of the Second Texas Navy, and sister ship to the La Amistad, San Antonio, and San Bernard
- Separación Dominicana, the first armed Dominican Navy vessel
- Thomas W. Lawson, the only seven-masted schooner
- We're Here, from Rudyard Kipling's book Captains Courageous
- Western Union, last surviving authentic working tall ship built in Florida, also the flagship of the State of Florida and the flagship of the city of Key West
- When and If, 1939 designed by John G. Alden for then Colonel George S. Patton
- Wolf, flagship of the Conch Republic. She is a steel hull Merritt Walter design.
- Wyoming, the largest wooden schooner
- Zaca, a wood-hulled schooner appropriated by the US Navy for local patrol of the San Francisco area in World War II
- Zavala, one of the vessels of the Second Texas Navy, and the first Steamship-of-War in the Western Hemisphere
- Zodiac, 1924 William Hand Jr. design.
- Gringo, 1886, Italian schooner. Rebuilt by Fernando Zuccaro in the 1990s in Argentina. Still sailing the South Atlantic
German former pilot schooner Atalanta
Canadian schooner, Pacific Grace, 2001
Amphitrite, the world's oldest seagoing yacht
Finnish schooner Linden
French topsail schooner La Recouvrance
Topsail schooner Pride of Baltimore II
French Navy two-masted schooner Étoile
US topsail schooner Californian
Dutch topsail schooner Oosterschelde
- Gulet - Turkish schooner rig
- Ketch - another two-masted rig
- Yawl - another two-masted rig
- List of schooners
- Oyster schooners
- 'The evidence of two or three old prints seems to prove that the type of vessel now called ‘schooner’ existed in England in the 17th cent., but it apparently first came into extensive use in New England.' "schooner, n.1". OED Online. March 2013. Oxford University Press.
- Cunliffe, Tom (1992). Hand, Reef and Steer. Sheridan House. p. 21. ISBN 1-57409-203-0.
- Karl Heinz Marquardt, The Global Schooner: Origins, Development, Design and Construction 1695–1845, Naval Institute Press (2003), p. 13
- Marquardt, p. 21
- Cunliffe, Tom (1992). Hand, Reef and Steer. Sheridan House. p. 22. ISBN 1-57409-203-0.
- Collins, Joseph William, "The Evolution of the Fishing Schooner" in Oppel, Frank, ed. Tales of the New England Coast, Book Sales, Inc., Secaucus, New Jersey, 1985. p.121
- Marquardt, p. 7
- has information about shipbuilding in Essex
- Reed, Parker McCobb. History of Bath and environs, Sagadahoc County, Maine: 1607–1894. Portland, Maine: Lakeside Press, 1894. page 179.
- Marquardt, p. 8
- SND: Scone
- Jamieson, John (1825). Supplement to the Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. Edinburgh University Press. p. 349.
- Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition 1989. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Editors John Simpson and Edmund Weiner. Volume 14, page 641
- Babson, John. History of the Town of Gloucester, Cape Ann, including the town of Rockport. 1860. p. 251–252.
- Howard Chapelle, The History of American Sailing Ships, Norton & Company (1935), p. 13
- The Oxford English Dictionary doubts the truth of the anecdote but endorses the likely origin of the word in Gloucester, Mass: '...The anecdote, first recorded, on the authority of tradition, in a letter of 1790 (quoted in Babson Hist. Gloucester, p. 252), looks like an invention. The etymology which it embodies, however, is not at all improbable, though there seems to be a lack of evidence for the existence of the alleged New England verb scoon or scun, ‘to skim along on the water’. Compare Scottish (Clydesdale) scon, ‘to make flat stones skip along the surface of the water’, also intr. ‘to skip in the manner described’ (Jamieson). The early examples afford strong ground for believing that the word really originated about 1713 in Massachusetts, and probably in the town of Gloucester.' "schooner, n.1". OED Online. March 2013. Oxford University Press.
- Merriam-Webster: schooner
- Dictionary.com: schooner
- William Falconer, Universal Dictionary of the Marine, London (1769), p. 257
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Schooners.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article Schooner.|
- "Sailing Ship Rigs" Infosheet Guide to Classic Sailing Rigs Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
- "A Schooner Of Science" A tall, refreshing glass of science to stave off the scurvy. '
- "Schooner". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- Transportation Photographs Collection - University of Washington Library
- Pailebots de cabotaje en el Mediterráneo occidental (in Spanish)