Fore-and-aft rigs include:
- Rigs with one mast: the proa, the catboat, the sloop, the cutter
- Rigs with two masts: the ketch, the yawl
- Rigs with two or more masts: the schooner
The fore-and-aft rig began as a convention of southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea: the generally gentle climate made its use practical, and in Italy a few centuries before the Renaissance it began to replace the square rig which had dominated all of Europe since the dawn of sea travel. Northern Europeans were resistant to adopting the fore-and-aft rig, despite having seen its use in the course of trade and during the Crusades. The Renaissance changed this: beginning in 1475, their use increased and within a hundred years the fore-and-aft rig was in common use on rivers and in estuaries in Britain, northern France, and the Low Countries, though the square rig remained standard for the harsher conditions of the open North Sea as well as for trans-Atlantic sailing.:p.49 The lateen sail was more maneuverable and speedier, while the square rig was clumsy but seaworthy.
- Casson, Lionel (1995): "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World", Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-5130-8, pp. 243–245
- Knight, Austin Melvin (1910). Modern seamanship. New York: D. Van Nostrand. pp. 507–532.
- Hobson, John M. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press,2004, p. 58, ISBN 978-0-521-54724-6, ISBN 0-521-54724-5 "
- Agius, Dionisius A. (2008). Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean. BRILL. pp. 141, 160, 211–212, 382. ISBN 9004158634.
- Chatterton, Edward Keble (1912). Fore and aft. London: J. B. Lippincott. OCLC 651733391.
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