Saqqez (English: /sæɡɛz/ sa-ghez; Persian: سقز [sæˈɣez]; Kurdish: سه‌قز ,Seqiz), also known as Saghez, Saqez, Saqqiz, Saqiz, and Sakīz, is a city which is the capital of Saqqez County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. According to the 2016 census, its population was 165,258.

Saqqez
سقز (Persian)
Seqiz, سەقز (Kurdish)
Seqiz (Syriac)
City
Saqqez-Kurdistan 2014 - Spring.JPG
Do Menareh Mosque 2019-10-06 20.jpg
جاده سقز به مریوان - panoramio.jpg
HajSalehBath4.jpg
تپه باستانی زیویه سقز.jpg
From top to bottom and from left to right: Saqqez in 2014, Domenareh Historical Mosque, Saqqez to Marivan road Landscape in spring, Haj Saleh Historical Bath, Ziwiyeh Castle
Official seal of Saqqez
Saqqez is located in Iran
Saqqez
Saqqez
Coordinates: 36°14′47″N 46°15′59″E / 36.24639°N 46.26639°E / 36.24639; 46.26639Coordinates: 36°14′47″N 46°15′59″E / 36.24639°N 46.26639°E / 36.24639; 46.26639
CountryIran
ProvinceKurdistan
CountySaqqez
BakhshCentral
Government
 • MayorZana Salehibabamiry
Elevation
1,476 m (4,843 ft)
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Total165,258 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Websitesaqqez.ir

EtymologyEdit

The name Saqqez derives from the Scythian word "Eskit" and then "Sakez". Before that it was Izirtu, the capital of Mannaeans. In some historical sources it has been mentioned that the name of the city is derived from the name of powerful Median ruler Cyaxares (reigned 625 – 585 BC), who turned the empire into a regional power, but other historians believe that the name of the city is derived from Sakez and is attributed to the Scythians who settled in the city during the reign of Cyaxares.[2][dubious ]

DemographicsEdit

The city is populated by Kurds who speak the Sorani dialect.[3] David D'Beth Hillel (d. 1846) stated that the city was home to a small Jewish community with one synagogue dating from around 1827.[4]

Saqqez linguistic composition
language percent
Sorani Kurdish
99%
Persian
1%

HistoryEdit

Saqqez's history goes back to the seventh millennium BC.[5] Based on historical ruins and Antiques which have been found in Saqqez, like the historical treasures of Ziwiye hoard in the Ziwiyeh Castle, experts like Roman Ghirshman believe that the modern city of Saqqez is built on the site of ancient capital of the Median empire. when Sargon II (reigned 722 – 705 BC) attacked the Median Empire and forced them to flee to Ecbatana (modern day Hamadan) and made this city his capital. On the attack of Sargon II, the ruler of Assyria, the Medes were defended and their fortifications destroyed. Thereafter, the Scythians tried to rebuild this city and they chose Saqqez, then named Eskit as their capital. This city was repeatedly attacked by Assyrians and Romans.[6]

According to Vladimir Minorsky, Saqqez is the site of the earlier medieval city of Barza.[7]: 251, 253  According to Theophanes the Confessor, who calls the city "Barzan" (Ancient Greek: βάρζαν), the Byzantine emperor Heraclius stayed at Barza for seven days in March 628 while on his way to Ganzak.[7]: 250–1  Barza was an important crossroads in the medieval period, where there was a fork in the road from Dinavar to Maragheh with one branch splitting off towards Urmia.[7]: 251, 253  In the early 9th century, Barza was the capital of a separate principality.[7]: 251 

The city was the hometown of Mahsa Amini, 22, who in 2022 died in the custody of Iran's morality police over forced hijab rules.[8]

Culture and artEdit

The city of Saqqez has been a place of culture and art since ancient times. At this city, performing arts and culture has a special place and artists have created valuable works in various fields of art such as theater, painting, sculpture, music, literature, poetry and cinema. In this city, every year at the end of the autumn season, a theater festival called The Kurdish Theater Festival is held, in which theater groups from all over Kurdistan perform their works. Also, in Saqqez, famous musicians and singers, such as Rashid Fayznejad perform their musics and songs in the Kurdish language. Also there are well-known poets in this city, such as Abdul Karim Sahib, Mullah Ghafoor Dabbaghi, Jila Hosseini, Rahim Loghmani, Malekoalkalam majdi and Sheikh Hassan Molanabad.[9][10]

 
An old golden necklace from the Ziwiye hoard kept in National Museum of Iran

GeographyEdit

GeologyEdit

The city of Saqqez is built on long plains and hills, which are crossed by the main tributaries of rivers such as Zarrineh River and Simineh River. The lowlands and heights inside the city and the view of Saqqez River that passes through the center of this city are its special features. Saqqez is located in mountainous and highlands between the irregular heights of Zagros Mountains, and this special geomorphological feature has led to relatively cold climates and long winters and sometimes frost.[11][12]

ClimateEdit

At an altitude of 1,476 metres (4,842 feet), Saqqez has a Mediterranean continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa) with hot, very dry summers and cold, snowy winters. Summers feature large diurnal temperature variation due to decreased air density at high altitude and low humidity. In 1969 Saqqez recorded a temperature of −36 °C (−33 °F), the lowest ever recorded by an Iranian weather station until Kheirabad Zanjan recorded −36.4 °C (−33.5 °F) on January 29, 1997.[13][14] Saqqez again reached −36 °C during the February 3–9 1972 Iran blizzard.

Saqqez unofficially reached −45.8 °C (−50.4 °F) in December 2006 and −42.3 °C (−44.1 °F) in January 2007, the lowest temperatures recorded in an Iranian city.[15][16] Rainfall is mild throughout the year, with late winter and early autumn having the most precipitation, and the summers being practically rainless. Due to the foehn effect, the rainfall is not as heavy as it is in the exposed sites of the Zagros to the west, such as in Sardasht, which lies on the same altitude but is more exposed to the westerly cold front systems.

Climate data for Saqqez, Iran
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
20
(68)
24
(75)
29
(84)
34.4
(93.9)
39
(102)
43
(109)
42
(108)
39
(102)
32
(90)
26
(79)
22.2
(72.0)
43
(109)
Average high °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
4.7
(40.5)
11.0
(51.8)
17.3
(63.1)
23.1
(73.6)
29.8
(85.6)
34.3
(93.7)
34.2
(93.6)
29.8
(85.6)
22.2
(72.0)
13.4
(56.1)
6.1
(43.0)
19.03
(66.25)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8
(27.0)
−0.7
(30.7)
5.1
(41.2)
10.4
(50.7)
14.8
(58.6)
19.7
(67.5)
24.1
(75.4)
23.8
(74.8)
19.1
(66.4)
13.3
(55.9)
6.5
(43.7)
0.7
(33.3)
11.2
(52.1)
Average low °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−6.7
(19.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.6
(38.5)
6.6
(43.9)
9.5
(49.1)
14.0
(57.2)
13.4
(56.1)
8.3
(46.9)
4.4
(39.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
3.24
(37.83)
Record low °C (°F) −33
(−27)
−36
(−33)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−9
(16)
−5
(23)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.8
(38.8)
4.8
(40.6)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7
(19)
−24
(−11)
−32
(−26)
−36
(−33)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.3
(2.49)
60.8
(2.39)
76.6
(3.02)
82.0
(3.23)
49.7
(1.96)
5.9
(0.23)
2.7
(0.11)
2.4
(0.09)
1.7
(0.07)
28.8
(1.13)
54.6
(2.15)
58.7
(2.31)
487.2
(19.18)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.5 8.3 10.0 9.8 7.0 1.2 0.7 0.6 0.5 4.3 6.2 8.1 65.2
Average relative humidity (%) 73 70 64 58 52 40 35 33 33 47 63 71 53
Mean monthly sunshine hours 121.5 142.2 177.4 213.1 287.1 345.1 357.4 344.3 311.1 254.3 174.1 123.4 2,851
Source 1: Synoptic Stations Statistics
Source 2: [1]

TransportationEdit

The city will be served in the future by Saqqez Airport

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home".
  2. ^ "شهرستان سقز". Islamic Azad University - Saqqez Branch (in Persian). Retrieved 13 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "Saqqez - Language distribution: Kordestan Province". Iran Atlas. Retrieved 13 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ Gerson-Kiwi, Edith (2008). "Kurdistan". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 13 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ "Saqqez in Kurdestan Province, dates back to 7th millennium BCE". Iran Daily. 9 July 2021.
  6. ^ Ghirshman, Roman (1961). Iran: from the earliest times to the Islamic conquest. Penguin Books. pp. Season 2. ISBN 0140202390.
  7. ^ a b c d Minorsky, Vladimir (1944). "Roman and Byzantine Campaigns in Atropatene". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 11 (2): 243–65. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  8. ^ "Mahsa Amini: Women take headscarves off in protest at funeral". BBC News. 17 September 2022.
  9. ^ Kurdish Theater Festival is an opportunity to pay attention to traditional cultures, Iran Theater, 2019
  10. ^ A Kurdish Artist in Saqqez Summoned by the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence, Kurdistan Human Rights, 2019
  11. ^ Dating of late Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial sediments Using OSL, Uranium series and 14 C methods in the Saqqez River, Shahid beheshti University, 2020
  12. ^ Saqqez, mapnall
  13. ^ "An extremely cold winter in Iran".
  14. ^ www.irimo.ir https://web.archive.org/web/20110615122930/http://www.irimo.ir/english/monthly%26annual/map/province/zanjan.asp. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ "Iran Lands info". Archived from the original on 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  16. ^ http://www.irimo.ir Iranian Meteorological Organisation's "Century weather stats data bank"

SourcesEdit