Izirtu was the capital[1][2] of the Mannai state,[3][4] which existed from the 9th century BC to the 6th century BC.


According to researchers, Izirtu was located near the plat of Ziwiyeh in the modern city of Saqqez in northwestern Iran. Izirtu, like other Manna cities, was surrounded by defensive fortifications. The city had two- and three-story buildings, as well as temples. In 716 BC, Sargon II ,[5] the ruler of Assyria, captured and burned Izirtu. However, the city was soon rebuilt. In 650 BC, the Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal again conquered and destroyed Izirtu.


  1. ^ Dandamaev, Muhammad A.; Lukonin, Vladimir G. (2004-11-11). The Culture and Social Institutions of Ancient Iran. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-61191-6.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ States of the World – Manna
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ https://iranicaonline.org/articles/assyria-i “The sixth expedition in 716 is described in the annals and more in detail on Sargon’s stele found in western Iran. About that time the Manneans ceased to obey Iranzu, who must have perished during the rebellion in Manna, as he is no longer mentioned in the texts. While Sargon was continuing his campaign, two Mannean princes overthrew Aza, son of Iranzu. Sargon immediately intervened and set upon the throne in the place of Aza, who had probably died by that time, Ullusunu, another son of Iranzu. However, Ullusunu immediately seceded and attempted to form an alliance with Rusa. Sargon captured Izirtu, the capital of Manna, and after quelling the rebellion restored the throne to Ullusunu, who surrendered.”