Salvia hispanica

Salvia hispanica, commonly known as chia (/ˈə/), is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native to central and southern Mexico and Guatemala.[2] It is considered a pseudocereal, cultivated for its edible, hydrophilic chia seed, grown and commonly used as food in several countries of western South America, western Mexico, and the southwestern United States.[3]

Salvia hispanica
Salvia hispanica kz2.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species:
S. hispanica
Binomial name
Salvia hispanica
Synonyms[1]
  • Kiosmina hispanica (L.) Raf.
  • Salvia chia Colla
  • Salvia chia Sessé & Moc. nom. illeg.
  • Salvia neohispanica Briq. nom. illeg.
  • Salvia prysmatica Cav.
  • Salvia schiedeana Stapf
  • Salvia tetragona Moench
Chia seeds

EtymologyEdit

The word "chia" is derived from the Nahuatl word chian, meaning oily.[1]

S. hispanica is one of two plants known as "chia", the other being Salvia columbariae,[3] which is sometimes called "golden chia".[citation needed]

DescriptionEdit

Chia is an annual herb growing up to 1.75 metres (5 feet 9 inches) tall, with opposite leaves that are 4–8 cm (1+123+14 in) long and 3–5 cm (1+14–2 in) wide. Its flowers are purple or white and are produced in numerous clusters in a spike at the end of each stem.[4] Chia is hardy from USDA Zones 9–12. Many plants cultivated as S. hispanica are in fact Salvia lavandulifolia.[5]

Typically, the seeds are small ovals with a diameter around 1 mm (132 in). They are mottle-colored, with brown, gray, black, and white. The seeds are hydrophilic, absorbing up to 12 times their weight in liquid when soaked. While soaking, the seeds develop a mucilaginous coating that gives chia-based beverages a distinctive gelatinous texture.[citation needed]

Chia is grown and consumed commercially in its native Mexico and Guatemala, as well as Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Nicaragua, northwestern Argentina, parts of Australia, and the southwestern United States.[3][6] New patented varieties of chia have been bred in Kentucky for cultivation in northern latitudes of the United States.[7]

SeedsEdit

Seeds, chia seeds, dried
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy486 kcal (2,030 kJ)
42.12 g
Dietary fiber34.4 g
30.74 g
Saturated3.330
Trans0.140 g
Monounsaturated2.309
Polyunsaturated23.665
17.830 g
5.835 g
16.54 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
7%
54 μg
Thiamine (B1)
54%
0.62 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
14%
0.17 mg
Niacin (B3)
59%
8.83 mg
Folate (B9)
12%
49 μg
Vitamin C
2%
1.6 mg
Vitamin E
3%
0.5 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
63%
631 mg
Iron
59%
7.72 mg
Magnesium
94%
335 mg
Manganese
130%
2.723 mg
Phosphorus
123%
860 mg
Potassium
9%
407 mg
Sodium
1%
16 mg
Zinc
48%
4.58 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water5.80 g
Cholesterol0 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Chia is grown commercially for its seed, a food rich in omega-3 fatty acids since the seeds yield 25–30% extractable oil, including α-linolenic acid. Typical composition of the fat of the oil is 55% ω-3, 18% ω-6, 6% ω-9, and 10% saturated fat.[8]

CultivationEdit

Climate and growing cycle lengthEdit

The length of the growing cycle for chia varies based on location and is influenced by elevation.[9] For production sites located in different ecosystems in Bolivia, Ecuador and northwestern Argentina, growing cycles are between 100 and 150 days in duration.[10] Accordingly, commercial production fields are located in the range of 8–2,200 m (26–7,218 ft) altitude across a variety of ecosystems ranging from tropical coastal desert, to tropical rain forest, and inter-Andean dry valley.[10] In northwestern Argentina, a time span from planting to harvest of 120–180 days is reported for fields located at elevations of 900–1,500 m (3,000–4,900 ft).[11]

S. hispanica is a short-day flowering plant,[12] indicating its photoperiodic sensitivity and lack of photoperiodic variability in traditional cultivars, which has limited commercial use of chia seeds to tropical and subtropical latitudes until 2012.[13] Now, traditional domesticated lines of Salvia species grow naturally or can be cultivated in temperate zones at higher latitudes in the United States.[3][12] In Arizona and Kentucky, seed maturation of traditional chia cultivars is stopped by frost before or after flower set, preventing seed harvesting.[12] Advances in plant breeding during 2012, however, led to development of new early-flowering chia genotypes proving to have higher yields in Kentucky.[13]

Seed yield and compositionEdit

Seed yield varies depending on cultivars, mode of cultivation, and growing conditions by geographic region. For example, commercial fields in Argentina and Colombia vary in yield range from 450 to 1,250 kilograms per hectare (400 to 1,120 lb/acre).[11][14] A small-scale study with three cultivars grown in the inter-Andean valleys of Ecuador produced yields up to 2,300 kg/ha (2,100 lb/acre), indicating that the favorable growing environment and cultivar interacted to produce the high yields.[9] Genotype has a larger effect on yield than on protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, or phenolic compounds, whereas high temperature reduces oil content and degree of unsaturation, and raises protein content.[citation needed]

Soil, seedbed requirements, and sowingEdit

The cultivation of S. hispanica requires light to medium clay or sandy soils.[15] The plant prefers well-drained, moderately fertile soils, but can cope with acid soils and moderate drought.[13][15] Sown chia seeds need moisture for seedling establishment, while the maturing chia plant does not tolerate wet soils during growth.[13]

Traditional cultivation techniques of S. hispanica include soil preparation by disruption and loosening followed by seed broadcasting.[16] In modern commercial production, a typical sowing rate of 6 kg/ha (5.4 lb/acre) and row spacing of 0.7–0.8 m (2 ft 3+12 in – 2 ft 7+12 in) are usually applied.[11]

Fertilization and irrigationEdit

S. hispanica can be cultivated under low fertilizer input, using 100 kg/ha (89 lb/acre) nitrogen or in some cases, no fertilizer is used.[12][14]

Irrigation frequency in chia production fields may vary from none to eight irrigations per growing season, depending on climatic conditions and rainfall.[14]

Genetic diversity and breedingEdit

The wide range of wild and cultivated varieties of S. hispanica are based on seed size, shattering of seeds, and seed color.[17][18] Seed weight and color have high heritability, with a single recessive gene responsible for white color.[18]

Diseases and crop managementEdit

Currently, no major pests or diseases affect chia production.[15] Essential oils in chia leaves have repellent properties against insects, making it suitable for organic cultivation.[13] Virus infections, however, possibly transmitted by white flies, may occur.[19] Weeds may present a problem in the early development of the chia crop until its canopy closes, but because chia is sensitive to most commonly used herbicides, mechanical weed control is preferred.[13]

Decorative and novelty usesEdit

 
Chia-covered figurine

During the 1980s in the United States, the first substantial wave of chia seed sales was tied to Chia Pets. These "pets" come in the form of clay figures that serve as a base for a sticky paste of chia seeds; the figures then are watered and the seeds sprout into a form suggesting a fur covering for the figure. About 500,000 Chia Pets a year are sold in the US as novelties or house plants.[20]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  2. ^ "Salvia hispanica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d Immel, Diana L (29 January 2003). "Chia, Salvia columbariae Benth.; Plant Symbol = SACO6" (PDF). Natural Resources Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  4. ^ Anderson, A. J. O. and Dibble, C. E. "An Ethnobiography of the Nahuatl", The Florentine Codex, (translation of the work by Fr. Bernardino de Sahagún), Books 10–11, from the Period 1558–1569
  5. ^ Mark Griffiths, Editor. Index of Garden Plants. (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 2nd American Edition, 1995.) ISBN 0-88192-246-3.
  6. ^ Dunn C (25 May 2015). "Is chia the next quinoa?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  7. ^ Cheryl Kaiser, Matt Ernst (February 2016). "Chia" (PDF). University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Center for Crop Diversification Crop Profile. Retrieved 13 February 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ "Nutrition facts for dried chia seeds, one ounce". Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, SR-21. 2010.
  9. ^ a b Ayerza (h), Ricardo; Wayne Coates (2009). "Influence of environment on growing period and yield, protein, oil and α-linolenic content of three chia (Salvia hispanica L.) selections". Industrial Crops and Products. 30 (2): 321–324. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.03.009. ISSN 0926-6690.
  10. ^ a b Ayerza, Ricardo (2009). "The Seed's Protein and Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition, and Growing Cycle Length of a Single Genotype of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as Affected by Environmental Factors". Journal of Oleo Science. 58 (7): 347–354. doi:10.5650/jos.58.347. PMID 19491529.
  11. ^ a b c Coates, Wayne; Ayerza, Ricardo (1998). "Commercial production of chia in Northwestern Argentina". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 75 (10): 1417–1420. doi:10.1007/s11746-998-0192-7. S2CID 95974159.
  12. ^ a b c d Jamboonsri, Watchareewan; Timothy D. Phillips; Robert L. Geneve; Joseph P. Cahill; David F. Hildebrand (2012). "Extending the range of an ancient crop, Salvia hispanica L.—a new ω3 source". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 59 (2): 171–178. doi:10.1007/s10722-011-9673-x. S2CID 14751137.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Chia (PDF). Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky – College of Agriculture. 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  14. ^ a b c Coates, Wayne; Ricardo Ayerza (1996). "Production potential of chia in northwestern Argentina". Industrial Crops and Products. 5 (3): 229–233. doi:10.1016/0926-6690(96)89454-4.
  15. ^ a b c Muñoz, Loreto A.; Angel Cobos; Olga Diaz; José Miguel Aguilera (2013). "Chia Seed ( Salvia hispanica ): An Ancient Grain and a New Functional Food". Food Reviews International. 29 (4): 394–408. doi:10.1080/87559129.2013.818014. S2CID 85052922.
  16. ^ Cahill, Joseph P. (2005). "Human Selection and Domestication of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.)". Journal of Ethnobiology. 25 (2): 155–174. doi:10.2993/0278-0771(2005)25[155:HSADOC]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0278-0771. S2CID 85924063.
  17. ^ Cahill, J. P. and B. Ehdaie (2005). "Variation and heritability of seed mass in chia (Salvia hispanica L.)." Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52(2): 201-207. doi: 10.1007/s10722-003-5122-9. Retrieved 2014-11-29
  18. ^ a b Cahill JP, Provance, MC (2002). "Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.)". Journal of Heredity. 93 (1): 52–55. doi:10.1093/jhered/93.1.52. PMID 12011177.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ Celli, Marcos; Maria Perotto; Julia Martino; Ceferino Flores; Vilma Conci; Patricia Pardina (2014). "Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica)". Viruses. 6 (9): 3450–3457. doi:10.3390/v6093450. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 4189032. PMID 25243369.
  20. ^ Chia Pet | Arts & Culture | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-26.

External linksEdit