|Place of origin||United States|
|Created by||J. H. Salisbury|
|Main ingredients||Ground beef|
|Ingredients generally used||Various|
Hamburg was a common embarcation point for transatlantic voyages during the first half of the 19th century and New York City was the most common destination. Various New York restaurants offered Hamburg-style American fillet, or even beefsteak à Hambourgeoise. Early American preparations of minced beef were therefore made to fit the tastes of European immigrants.
Coming from this history of ground meat dishes is the Salisbury steak, which today is usually served with a gravy similar in texture to brown sauce. James Salisbury (1823–1905), an American physician and chemist, advocated for a meat-centered diet to promote health, and the term Salisbury steak has been used in the United States since 1897.
Dr. Salisbury recommended this recipe (somewhat different from modern Salisbury steak recipes) for the treatment of alimentation (digestive problems):
Eat the muscle pulp of lean beef made into cakes and broiled. This pulp should be as free as possible from connective or glue tissue, fat and cartilage...previous to chopping, the fat, bones, tendons and fasciae should all be cut away, and the lean muscle cut up in pieces an inch or two square. Steaks cut through the centre of the round are the richest and best for this purpose. Beef should be procured from well fatted animals that are from four to six years old.
The pulp should not be pressed too firmly together before broiling, or it will taste livery. Simply press it sufficiently to hold it together. Make the cakes from half an inch to an inch thick. Broil slowly and moderately well over a fire free from blaze and smoke. When cooked, put it on a hot plate and season to taste with butter, pepper, salt; also use either Worcestershire or Halford sauce, mustard, horseradish or lemon juice on the meat if desired. Celery may be moderately used as a relish.
U.S. standards of identity (for packaged product)Edit
United States Department of Agriculture standards for processed, packaged "Salisbury steak" require a minimum content of 65% meat, of which up to 25% can be pork, except if de-fatted beef or pork is used, the limit is 12% combined. No more than 30% may be fat. Meat byproducts are not permitted; however, beef heart meat is allowed. Extender (bread crumbs, flour, oat flakes, etc.) content is limited to 12%, except isolated soy protein at 6.8% is considered equivalent to 12% of the others. The remainder consists of seasonings, fungi or vegetables (onion, bell pepper, mushroom or the like), binders (can include egg) and liquids (such as water, milk, cream, skim milk, buttermilk, brine, vinegar etc.). The product must be fully cooked, or else labeled "Patties for Salisbury Steak".
- Ranhofer, Charles (1894). The Epicurean: A Complete Treatise of Analytical & Practical Studies (1st ed.). B00085H6PE.
- Ozersky, Josh (2008). The Hamburger: A History (Icons of America) (1st ed.). London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11758-2.
- Moch, Leslie Page (2003). Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe Since 1650 (2nd ed.). Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21595-1.
- "Salisbury steak". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- The Relation of Alimentation and Disease By James Henry Salisbury
- Food Standards and Labeling Policy, USDA Archived 2011-02-05 at the Wayback Machine, FSIS, September 2005, p. 165
- Media related to Salisbury steaks at Wikimedia Commons