Rychvald  (Polish: Rychwałd, German: Reichwaldau) is a town in Karviná District in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 7,600 inhabitants. It lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

Rychvald
Town square
Town square
Flag of Rychvald
Coat of arms of Rychvald
Rychvald is located in Czech Republic
Rychvald
Rychvald
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 49°51′58″N 18°22′35″E / 49.86611°N 18.37639°E / 49.86611; 18.37639Coordinates: 49°51′58″N 18°22′35″E / 49.86611°N 18.37639°E / 49.86611; 18.37639
Country Czech Republic
RegionMoravian-Silesian
DistrictKarviná
First mentioned1305
Government
 • MayorDagmar Pížová (ANO)
Area
 • Total17.02 km2 (6.57 sq mi)
Elevation
220 m (720 ft)
Population
 (2022-01-01)[1]
 • Total7,614
 • Density450/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
735 32
Websiterychvald.cz

HistoryEdit

 
Starý Dvůr Castle

The village was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from 1305 as Richinwalde. The village could have been founded during the colonization by Benedictine monks from the Orlová monastery, probably at the end of the 13th century.[2][3]

Politically the village belonged initially to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg monarchy.

The village became a seat of a Catholic parish, mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among 50 parishes of Teschen deaconry as Reychenwald.[4]

In 1573, a part of the Duchy of Tetschen with Rychvald was sold to the Barský of Bašť family. Bernard Barský of Bašť had built a Renaissance castle here in 1575–1577 and chose Rychvald as his family seat. The family owned Rychvald until 1630, then several aristocratic families passed into his ownership. From the mid-18th century to 1898, it was in possession of the Moennich and the Larisch von Moennich family, who were its most notable owners. During their rule, the castle was gradually modified and reconstructed.[5]

For centuries, Rychvald was an agricultural village. In the 19th century, the region saw a boom in coal mining and the character of the village began to change.[3]

After World War I, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively organised in Frysztat County of Silesian Voivodeship.[6] It was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia.

In 1935, Rychvald was promoted to a market town. In 1985 Rychvald became a town.[3]

DemographicsEdit

As of census 2021, previously the numerous Polish minority made up only 1.3% of the population.[7]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18692,277—    
18802,603+14.3%
18903,149+21.0%
19004,556+44.7%
19106,163+35.3%
YearPop.±%
19216,406+3.9%
19307,190+12.2%
19505,963−17.1%
19616,610+10.9%
19707,051+6.7%
YearPop.±%
19807,149+1.4%
19916,645−7.0%
20016,769+1.9%
20117,093+4.8%
20217,456+5.1%
Source: Censuses[8][9]

SightsEdit

 
Church of Saint Anne

The Starý Dvůr Castle is the oldest building in Rychvald, protected as a cultural monument since 1982. Today it is in private ownership and inaccessible.[5]

The second oldest building is the Church of Saint Anne from 1595.[3]

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2022". Czech Statistical Office. 2022-04-29.
  2. ^ Panic, Idzi (2015). Śląsk Cieszyński w średniowieczu (do 1528) [Cieszyn Silesia in Middle Ages (until 1528)] (PDF) (in Polish). Cieszyn: Starostwo Powiatowe w Cieszynie. pp. 297–299, 430. ISBN 978-83-935147-8-6.
  3. ^ a b c d "O Rychvaldu" (in Czech). Město Rychvald. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
  4. ^ "Registrum denarii sancti Petri in archidiaconatu Opoliensi sub anno domini MCCCCXLVII per dominum Nicolaum Wolff decretorum doctorem, archidiaconum Opoliensem, ex commissione reverendi in Christo patris ac domini Conradi episcopi Wratislaviensis, sedis apostolice collectoris, collecti". Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte und Alterthum Schlesiens (in German). Breslau: H. Markgraf. 27: 361–370. 1893. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Zámek Rychvald – Starý Dvůr" (in Czech). Asociace majitelů hradů a zámků. Retrieved 2022-02-11.
  6. ^ "Ustawa z dnia 27 października 1938 r. o podziale administracyjnym i tymczasowej organizacji administracji na obszarze Ziem Odzyskanych Śląska Cieszyńskiego". Dziennik Ustaw Śląskich (in Polish). Katowice. nr 18/1938, poz. 35. 31 October 1938. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  7. ^ "Population Census 2021: Population by selected ethnicity". Public database. Czech Statistical Office. 2021-03-27.
  8. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Karviná" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 5–6.
  9. ^ "Population Census 2021: Population by sex". Public Database. Czech Statistical Office. 2021-03-27.

External linksEdit