Ruqayyah bint Husayn

Ruqayyah bint Al-Ḥusayn[2] (Arabic: رُقَيَّة بِنْت ٱلْحُسَيْن, born on the 20th of Rajab, 56 AH – 5 Rabi' al-Thani, 60 / 61 AH or 676 CE; died on the 10th of Safar, 60 / 61 AH or 680 / 681 CE),[1] was the daughter of Husayn ibn Ali and Rubab bint Imra al-Qais.[3] Her brothers included Ali Zayn al-Abidin, Ali al-Akbar, and Ali al-Asghar. Her sisters included Fatimah as-Sughra and Fatimah al-Kubra, with the latter also being called 'Sakinah'.[4][5][6][7][8]

Ruqayyah ibnat Al-Husayn
رُقَيَّة بِنْت ٱلْحُسَيْن
Sayyidah Ruqayya Mosque 01.jpg
Born20 Rajab, 56 AH (676 CE)
Died10th safar, 60 / 61 AH (680 / 681 CE)[1]
Resting placeSayyidah Ruqayya Mosque, Damascus


Ruqayya (Arabic: رقيّة) is an Arabic female given name that means to "rise, ascent, ascending", "chant or recite Divine Words". It is derived either from Arabic "ruqia" meaning "rise, ascent" or from "ruqyah", meaning "spell, charm, incantation".[9] According to Najm al-Din Tabasi, the name of the fourth daughter of Husayn is Ruqayyah.[10][11] The name of Ruqayya and the events that took place for her in the ruins of Sham were mentioned in other books include Kamil Baha'i by Imad al-Din Tabari, Bihar al-Anwar by Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, and Lohoof by Sayyed Ibn Tawus.[12][13][14][15] However, in mentioning the names of the children of Husayn, Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid mentioned just two daughters named Fatimah and Sukainah for Husayn.[15] After the Battle of the Karbala, she was taken to Suriya with other members family of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, and the heads of those murdered by the forces of Yazid as a captive.[16][17]Taking hadith and history sources into consideration, a daughter of Husayn (who was named Ruqayya or Fatimah) died near the head of her father in the ruins of Sham.[18][19] According to different narrations, she was three, four, at the time of her death.[20][21]


An Iranian child in Mourning of Muharram, with a red Headband written "O Ruqayyah"

The story of Ruqayya is one of the many emotional stories that Muslims tell about Husayn and his martyrdom at the hands of Yazid's troops. The Battle of Karbala and the subsequent events at the court of Yazid are explained and mourned annually during the commemoration of the 10th of Muharram, also known as "'Ashura'".

Journey to Iraq and ShaamEdit

Hall of Yazid Mahal where Ruqayya died weeping over her father's head

She accompanied her father when he traveled from Mecca to Kufah in Iraq. On the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH (680 CE), Husain and 72 of his family members and companions were forced to camp in the plains of Karbala by Yazid's army of 30,000 men.[22] Yazid ibn Muawiyyah was the practical Caliph who desired religious authority by obtaining the allegiance of Husain, but the Imam would not give up his principles.[23] After being deprived of food and water for 3 days, on the 10th of Muharram, the Imam's household was attacked, a number of his companions were killed, and the survivors were made captives. The survivors included the Imam's sisters, wife, and daughters, including Sukayna, relatives of companions of the Imam, and his son, Ali Zaynul-Abidin, who did not participate in the battle, due to an illness. Sukayna, as with others, had been grieved over the killings.[24] They had also suffered from thirst.[25]

The survivors were marched by Yazid's army from Karbala to Kufah, where Sukayna received water from a sympathetic woman, and then to Damascus in Shaam. There was a lack of pity on the captors' part during the journey. Even at these times of hardship and misery, Ruqayyah was sympathetic to others, such as her mother, whom she consoled her mother on the death of Ali al-Asghar.[25][26][27]


Zaynab, Ruqayyah, and the other survivors of Husayn's army, most of them women and children, were marched to Damascus, Yazid's capital, where they were held captive.[28][29][30]


According to Shia Islamic narrations that are commemorated every year on the occasion of Ashura, after enduring the Battle of Karbala and the torturous journey to Damascus that followed it, Ruqayya died at the age of four weeping over her father's head in Yazid palace hall where prisoner were initially stayed and, her body was originally buried at nearby site. Centuries later, an ʿĀlim (Arabic: عَالِم, Scholar) had a dream in which Ruqayya asked him to move her body from the grave to another site, due to water pouring into her grave. He and some people opened the grave, and saw that ground water was indeed entering the grave, besides that her body was still intact.Ruqqaya's body was moved from its original burial place, the dungeon, and reburied where her Mosque is now located.[31][32]

The mosque was built around the mausoleum in 1985 and exhibits a modern version of Iranian architecture, with substantial amount of mirror and gold work. There is a small mosque area adjoining the shrine room, along with a small courtyard in front. This mosque is found a short distance from the Umayyad Mosque and the Al-Hamidiyah Souq in central Damascus.[32]

Family treeEdit

Nuh (Noah)[33]
Ibrahim (Abraham)[34]
Isma'il Ishmael[34] Is-haq (Isaac)
'Adnan (b.122 BC)

. . . . . .

Ya'qub (Jacob)
'Abd al-Mutallib[35] 'Isa (Jesus) Musa (Moses)
'Abdullah (d.570 AD)[35] Abu Talib (d.620 AD)[36]
Muhammad (d.632 AD)[37]
Fatimah (d.11 AH)[38] ʿAli (d.661 AD)[38]
Al-Husain (d.680 AD)[2]
Sakinah / Ruqayyah (d.680 AD)[39]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "3". Nafasul Mahmoom. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2005. pp. 388–389.
  2. ^ a b Arne, Ambros; Stephan, Procházka (2004). A Concise Dictionary of Koranic Arabic. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag. p. 136. ISBN 3-89500-400-6.
  3. ^ Shaykh Abbas Qummi. Nafasul Mahmoom. p.298.
  4. ^ Archived October 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Archived March 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "(A.S.) Network". Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  7. ^ Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "The Role of Women in Karbala". Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  9. ^ "Definitions for ruqayya". definitions.
  10. ^ Tabasi, Najm al-Din. Ruqayya bnt. al-Ḥusayn. p. 8-9.
  11. ^ "Ruqayyah bint Al-Husayn". quranreading.
  12. ^ Majlisi, Allama Muhammad Baqir (December 2014). Behar al-Anwar, Volumes 44 & 45. Islamic Seminary Incorporated, The; 1st edition (December 1, 2014). pp. 115–161. ISBN 978-0991430819.
  13. ^ al-Tabari, Imad al-Din. Kamil Baha'i. p. 523.
  14. ^ "Ruqayya bent. al-Ḥusayn". fthimamand.
  15. ^ a b Bayhaqi, Abu'l-Hasan (2013). Lubab al-ansab wa-al-alqab wa-al-a'qab. Turath For Solutions, 2013. pp. 350–355. ISBN 9789957694760.
  16. ^ Tahmasebi Beldaji, Asghar (April 2013). "Documentary review of Quran in sermons of Zainab bint Ali". Science of Quran and Hadith. 16.
  17. ^ "Mahjubah, Volume 15". Jul 2, 2009.
  18. ^ al-Qummi, Shaikh Abbas (2005). Nafasul Mahmoom: Relating to the Heart Rending Tragedy of Karbala. pp. 415–416. ISBN 978-1500796785.
  19. ^ al-Irbili, Ali b. Isa (1961). "Kashf al-ghummah fi ma'rifat al-A'immah".
  20. ^ "Hazrat Ruqayyah (A.S), the Young Heroin of Karbala".
  21. ^ Tabari, Imad al-Din. Baha al-Din's al-Kamil. p. 523.
  22. ^ Wellhausen, Julius (1901). Die religiös-politischen Oppositionsparteien im alten Islam (in German). Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung. OCLC 453206240.
  23. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "HOSAYN B. ALI". Iranica. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2008.
  24. ^ Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak. Burleigh Press. pp. 101–111.
  25. ^ a b Archived February 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "The Fourth Journey – Kufa to Shaam | The Journey of Tears | Books on Islam and Muslims". 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
  27. ^ Nafs ul Mahmoom by Sheikh ‘Abbas Qummi, Behar ul Anwaar, Vol I by ‘Allamah Sayyad Mohammad Baqir Majlisi and others.
  28. ^ Hyder, Syed Akbar (20 April 2006). Reliving Karbala: Martyrdom in South Asian Memory. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 9780195345933.
  29. ^ Kendal, Elizabeth (8 June 2016). After Saturday Comes Sunday: Understanding the Christian Crisis. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2016. ISBN 9781498239875.
  30. ^ "SYRIA". mailviruskid.
  31. ^ 'Summary of the Tragedy of Sayyeda Ruqayya', Booklet at Ruqayya Mosque, 2008
  32. ^ a b "Syria". Retrieved 2016-10-14.
  33. ^ Saadia Gaon (1984b). Moshe Zucker (ed.). Saadya's Commentary on Genesis (in Hebrew). New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America. OCLC 1123632274.
  34. ^ a b "Banu Najjar". Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  35. ^ a b "Early Years". 18 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  36. ^ "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  37. ^ "Fatimah bint Muhammad". Muslim Students' Association (West) Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009.
  38. ^ a b "Husayn ibn Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica. Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī, (born January 626, Medina, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died October 10, 680, Karbalāʾ, Iraq), hero in Shiʿi Islam, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fāṭimah and son-in-law ʿAlī (the first imam of the Shiʿah and the fourth of the Sunni Rashidun caliphs).
  39. ^ "ʿALĪ B. ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 1 August 2011.


  • Momen, Moojan An Introduction to Shi'a Islam, Yale University Press, 1985.

External linksEdit