Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu (or the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of the Most Holy Name of Jesus) (Latin: Archidioecesis Nominis Iesu seu Cæbuana; Filipino: Arkidiyosesis ng Cebu; Cebuano: Arkidiyosesis sa Sugbo; Spanish: Arzobispado del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus) is a Roman Rite archdiocese of the Catholic Church in the Philippines and one of the ecclesiastical provinces of the Catholic Church in the country. It is composed of the entire civil province of Cebu (Cebu and the nearby islands of Mactan, Bantayan, and Camotes). It is the Mother Church of the Philippines. The jurisdiction, Cebu, is considered as the fount of Christianity in the Far East.
Archdiocese of Cebu
Archidioecesis Nominis Iesu seu Cæbuana
Arkidiyosesis sa Labing Balaan nga Ngalan ni Jesus sa Sugbo
Arquidiócesis del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de Cebú
Coat of arms
|Area||5,088 km2 (1,964 sq mi)|
- Catholics (including non-members)
|(as of 2014)|
|Parishes||164 parishes (including quasi-parishes), 2 mission stations, 5 non-parochial shrines, 1 minor basilica, 2 national shrines|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Cathedral||Cathedral of Saint Vitales, Cebu City|
|Metropolitan Archbishop||Jose Serofia Palma|
|Auxiliary Bishops||Midyphil Billones|
|Vicar General||Msgr. Vicente Rey Penagunda|
Msgr. Daniel Sanico
|Bishops emeritus||Antonio Rañola Auxiliary Bishop-Emeritus|
Emilio Bataclan Auxiliary Bishop-Emeritus
Jurisdiction of the metropolitan see
The seat of the archdiocese is the Metropolitan Cathedral and Parish of Saint Vitalis and of the Immaculate Conception, more commonly known as the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral. The archdiocese honors Our Lady of Guadalupe de Cebú as its patroness while the second Filipino saint Pedro Calungsod as its secondary patron saint. The current archbishop is the Most Reverend José Serofia Palma, DD, STh.D, who was installed on January 13, 2011. As of 2013, the archdiocese registered a total of 4,609,590 baptized Catholics. It is currently the largest archdiocese in the Philippines and in Asia having the most number of Catholics, seminarians and priests.
The history of the future Archdiocese of Cebu began with the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Cebu in 1521. The Church anchored in that year by the native Cebuanos' profession of faith in Christ, baptism, the daily celebration of the Mass, and the chaplain of the expedition, Fr. Pedro Valderrama being the legitimate pastor for their spiritual needs. However, immediately after its inception during the aftermath of Battle of Mactan, the Church of Cebu experienced decadence due to lack of shepherds to enforce and edify the natives on the faith. Most of the natives materially apostatized, while others clung unto the image of the Santo Niño (the first Christian icon in the Philippines given as a baptismal gift by Magellan). The unintended negligence lasted for 44 years until it was re-established in 1565 by the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi and Fray Andrés de Urdaneta. The remnant of the Cebuano Church in 1521, as evident in the person of Rajah Tupas, was resuscitated by the Augustinians as an Abbey nullius (an equivalent of a diocese) when the formal evangelization of the Philippines commenced with Fr. Urdaneta as the first prelate. The oversight of the natives was then succeeded to Fray Diego de Herrera who would later re-baptized Tupas and his servants in 1568. Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi established his government in Cebu, thus the first capital of the Philippines.
The Church expanded from Cebu when the remaining missionaries led by Fr. Diego de Herrera when they were forced northwest temporarily due to conflict with the Portuguese and laid the foundations of the Christian community in the Panay in around 1569.
In 1570 the second batch of missionaries reached Cebu. The island became the ecclesiastical "seat" as it was the center for evangelization. A notable missionary was Fr. Alfonso Jimenez, O.S.A., who travelled and penetrated the Camarines region through the islands of Masbate, Leyte, Samar, and Burias and founded the Church there. He was called the first apostle of the region.
By 1571, Fr. Herrera who was assigned as chaplain of Legazpi, from Panay advanced further north and founded the local Church community in Manila. There, Legazpi transferred the seat of government though Cebu remained the spiritual capital of the country.
In 1572 the Spaniards led by Juan de Salcedo marched from Manila further north with the second batch of Augustinian missionaries and pioneered the evangelization to the communities in the Ilocos (starting with Vigan) and the Cagayan regions.
Diocese of CebuEdit
On February 6, 1579, the Philippines' first diocese, the Diocese of Manila, had been established as a suffragan of the See of Mexico. On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII issued four bulls to Spain: one with the incipit Super universas orbis ecclesias elevating the See of Manila to metropolitan status; and three with the incipit Super specula militantis Ecclesiae erecting the three suffragan dioceses of Manila, which were the Diocese of Cebu, the Diocese of Nueva Cáceres, and the Diocese of Nueva Segovia. The Diocese of Cebu's first bishop was Pedro de Agurto, an Augustinian. As a diocese, Cebú had a very extensive territory which then included the whole of the Visayas, Mindanao and "more southern islands"; also it extended farther to the Pacific such as the Marianas, Carolines, and Palau.
However it lost territory repeatedly:
- on 1865.05.27 to establish then Diocese of (Santa Isabel de) Jaro (now an Archdiocese)
- on 1902.09.17 to establish Apostolic Prefecture of Mariana Islands
- on 1910.04.10 to establish Diocese of Zamboanga and Diocese of Calbayog
- on 1932.07.15 to establish Diocese of Bacolod
On April 28, 1934, it was elevated to a Metropolitan Archdiocese with the last suffragan bishop Gabriel M. Reyes promoted as its first Archbishop. On November 8, 1941, it lost territory to establish Diocese of Tagbilaran as its suffragan.
Cebu was visited by Pope John Paul II in 1981. Between November 10, 1985 to March 1, 1986, the archdiocese held its Fourth Diocesan Synod of Cebu at the Seminaryo Mayor de San Carlos. Recently, It hosted the 51st International Eucharistic Congress from January 24 to 31, 2016.
Beginnings of Philippine Christian TraditionEdit
In Cebu the first baptism was made (April 14, 1521), hence, Rajah Humabon and the rest of the natives became the very first Filipino Christians. In the island also was the first Mass in which Filipino converts participated. Also in the territory the first resistance against the Mohammedan advance from the south. The first Philippine Christian feast dedicated to the Sto. Niño was instituted and celebrated there. The first recorded confession and the last rites of an accused inhabitant transpired. The very first temples were erected (the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral and Basilica del Santo Niño) in the Philippines. The first Christian Marriage transpired with Isabel, the niece of Rajah Tupas and Andres, the Greek caulker of Legazpi, and their children baptized representing the first infant baptisms.
Cebu's Basilica Minore del Sto. Niño: Mother and Head of All ChurchesEdit
In the Apostolic Letter Ut Clarificetur, on the conferring the titles and privileges of the basilica, Pope Paul VI in 1965 described the Cebu's now Basilica del Santo Niño as the "Mother and Head of all Churches in the Philippines" (mater et caput... omnium ecclesiarum Insularum Philippinarum). The same Paul VI also named the basilica the "symbol of the birth and growth of Christianity in the Philippines."
Seat of Philippine ChristianityEdit
Pope John Paul II, in his Homily for Families in Cebu (February 19, 1981), called the island as the birthplace of the faith:
Finding myself in this important city known as the cradle of Christianity in the Philippines, I want to express my deep joy and profound thanksgiving to the Lord of history. The thought that for 450 years the light of the Gospel has shone with undimmed brightness in this land and on its people is cause for great rejoicing.
- Prelates of Cebu [note 1]
- Fray Andrés de Urdaneta, O.S.A (April 1565 - June 1565), considered as first prelate of the Philippines.
- Fray Martín de Rada, O.S.A (1569-1572)
- Fray Diego de Herrera, O.S.A (June 1565 - 1569)
- Fray Alfonso Jimenez, O.S.A (1575-1577)[note 2]
- Suffragan Bishops of Cebu
- Pedro de Agurto, O.S.A † (30 August 1595 Appointed - 14 Oct 1608 Died)
- Pedro de Arce, O.S.A. † (17 Sep 1612 Appointed - 16 Oct 1645 Died)
- Father Juan Velez † (26 Jan 1660 bishop elect - 1662 Died)
- Juan López † (23 April 1663 Appointed - 14 Nov 1672), later Metropolitan Archbishop of Manila (Philippines) (1672.11.14 – death 1674.02.12)
- Diego de Aguilar, O.P. † (16 Nov 1676 Appointed - 1 Oct 1692 Died)
- Miguel Bayot, O.F.M. † (13 May 1697 Appointed - 28 Aug 1700 Died)
- Pedro Sanz de la Vega y Landaverde, O. de M. † (26 Jan 1705 Appointed - 17 Dec 1717 Died)
- Apostolic Administrator Sebastián Foronda, O.S.A. † (2 March 1722 Appointed - 20 May 1728 Died)
- Manuel de Ocio y Campo † (20 Jan 1734 Appointed - 21 July 1737 Died)
- Protacio Cabezas † (29 Aug 1740 Appointed - 3 Feb 1753 Died)
- Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta † (18 July 1757 Appointed - 1771 Died)
- Mateo Joaquin Rubio de Arevalo † (13 Nov 1775 Appointed - 1788 Died)
- Ignacio de Salamanca † (24 Sep 1792 Appointed - Feb 1802 Died)
- Joaquín Encabo de la Virgen de Sopetrán, O.A.R. † (20 Aug 1804 Appointed - 8 Nov 1818 Died)
- Francisco Genovés, O.P. † (21 March 1825 Appointed - 1 Aug 1827 Died)
- Santos Gómez Marañón, O.S.A. † (28 Sep 1829 Appointed - 23 Oct 1840 Died)
- Romualdo Jimeno Ballesteros, O.P. † (19 Jan 1846 Appointed - 17 March 1872 Died); previously Titular Bishop of Ruspæ (1839.08.02 – 1846.01.19) & Coadjutor Apostolic Vicar of Eastern Tonking (Vietnam) (1839.08.02 – 1845.06.20), Coadjutor Bishop of Manila (Philippines) (1845.06.20 – 1846.01.19)
- Benito Romero, O.F.M. † (28 Jan 1876 Appointed - 4 Nov 1885 Died)
- Martín García y Alcocer, O.F.M. † (7 June 1886 Appointed - 30 July 1904 Resigned); emeritate as Titular Archbishop of Bostra (1904.07.30 – 1926.05.20)
- Thomas A. Hendrick † (17 July 1903 Appointed - 29 Nov 1909 Died)
- Juan Bautista Gorordo † (2 April 1910 Appointed - 19 June 1931 Resigned), succeeded ad former Titular Bishop of Nilopolis (1909.04.29 – 1910.04.02) & Auxiliary Bishop of Cebu (1909.04.29 – 1910.04.02); emeritate as Titular Bishop of Tacapæ (1931.06.19 – 1934.12.20)
- Gabriel M. Reyes † (29 July 1932 Appointed - 1934.04.28 see below)
- Metropolitan Archbishops of Cebu
- Gabriel M. Reyes † (see above 1934.04.28 - 25 Aug 1949), later Coadjutor Archbishop of Manila & Titular Archbishop of Phulli (1949.08.25 – 1949.10.13), succeeded as Metropolitan Archbishop of Manila (1949.10.13 – death 1952.10.10)
- Julio Cardinal Rosales y Ras † (17 Dec 1949 Appointed - 24 Aug 1982 retired)
- Ricardo Cardinal Vidal † (24 Aug 1982 Succeeded - 15 Oct 2010 Retired)
- Jose S. Palma (15 Oct 2010 Appointed, 13 Jan 2011 Installed)
- Pope John XXIII Seminary, Pope John Paul II Avenue, Barangay Luz, Cebu City
Rector: Rev. Fr. Allan Delima
- San Carlos Seminary College, Pope John Paul II Avenue, Barangay Luz, Cebu City
Rector: Rev. Msgr. Joseph Tan P.C., S.T.L.
- Seminario Mayor de San Carlos, Pope John Paul II Avenue, Barangay Luz, Cebu City
Rector: Rev. Msgr. Vicente Rey M. Penagunda, P.C., V.G.
- Spiritual Pastoral Formation Year House, Archbishop's Residence Compound, D. Jakosalem St., Cebu City
Director: Rev. Fr. Alvin Raypan
The Calendar of the Archdiocese of Cebu is based on the General Roman Calendar and the Philippine Standard Calendar. Below are the following additions and changes to the calendar.
- 3 January - Most Holy Name of Jesus, titular of the Archdiocese - Solemnity
- Third Sunday of January: Santo Niño de Cebú - Solemnity
- 28 January - Dedication of the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral as an Archdiocesan Cathedral - Feast (Solemnity in the Cathedral itself)
- 29 January - Saint Thomas Aquinas, priest and doctor of the Church - Memorial
- 11 February - Our Lady, Health of the Sick - Optional Memorial
- 1 April - Saint Pedro Calungsod, Cebuano martyr and Secondary Patron of the Archdiocese- Feast
- 28 April - Saint Vitalis of Milan, martyr and Titular of the Metropolitan Cathedral - Memorial (Solemnity in the Cathedral itself)
- 15 May - Saint Isidore the Laborer - Memorial
- 30 May - Saint Ferdinand III of Castile, king - Optional Memorial
- 2 August - Our Lady of the Angels of Portiuncula - Optional Memorial
- 16 August - Saint Roch - Memorial
- 19 August - Saint Ezechiel Moreno, bishop - Memorial
- 22 August - Our Lady, Queen of the Visayas, Principal Patroness of the Visayas Region - Feast
- 10 September - Saint Nicholas of Tolentino, priest - Optional Memorial
- 22 September - Saint Thomas of Villanova (Sto. Tomas de Villanueva), bishop - Memorial
- 24 September - Saints Cosmas and Damian, martyrs or Saint Wenceslaus, king martyrs- Optional Memorial
- 25 September - Saint Vincent de Paul, priest - Memorial
- 26 September - Saint Paul VI, pope (Elevated the Santo Niño Church into a Minor Basilica Status) - Memorial (Feast in the Basilica itself)
- 27 September - Commemoration of the Servant of God Teofilo Camomot, Cebu's Former Auxiliary Bishop
- 28 September - Saint Lorenzo Ruiz and Companions, martyrs - Memorial
- 18 November - Dedication of the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral as a Diocesan Cathedral - Feast (Solemnity in the Cathedral itself)
- 12 December - Our Lady of Guadalupe, Principal Patroness of the Archdiocese - Solemnity
- "Cebu—Cradle of the Philippine Church and Seat of Far-East Christianity." International Eucharistic Congress 2016, December 4, 2014, accessed December 4, 2014, http://iec2016.ph/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Cebu%E2%80%94Cradle-of-the-Philippine-Church-and-Seat-of-Far-East-Christianity.pdf
- The Church of Cebu's Basilica del Santo Niño is named by the Vatican as "mother and head of all churches in the Philippines" (mater et caput... omnium ecclesiarum Insularum Philippinarum). See http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/la/apost_letters/documents/hf_p-vi_apl_19650401_ut-clarificetur.html.
- John Kingsley Pangan, Church of the Far East (Makati: St. Pauls, 2016),
- Cebu (Archdiocese) [Catholic-Hierarchy]
- "Archdiocese of Cebu". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-07-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Carmelo D. F. Morelos, "'Go… Make Disciples!' – A Pastoral Letter on the Fourth Centenary of the Archdioceses of Manila, Cebu, Cáceres, Nueva Segovia," Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, January 29, 1994, accessed September 6, 2014, http://cbcponline.net/v2/?p=8078
- Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage Around the World, vol. 1, trans. James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 159.
- Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage Around the World, vol. 1, trans. James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 151-155.
- Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage Around the World, vol. 1, trans. James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 157.
- The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 2, eds. Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 33, note 5.
- Blair, Emma Helen; Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 vol. 2. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company. p. 168.
- Bartholomé de Letona, OSF, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 36, eds. Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 210.
- Siniculus. "Dei praesidio fultus: Philippine Bullary I".
- Siniculus. "Dei praesidio fultus: Philippine Bullary II".
- Philippine Star: "Fray Pedro de Agurto, OSA: The first Bishop of Cebu" By Fr. Ric Anthony Reyes, OSA (The Freeman) October 12, 2014
- Felipe Redondo y Sendino, Breve reseña de lo que fue y de lo que es la Diócesis de Cebú en las Islas Filipinas, trans. Azucena L. Pace (Cebu City: University of San Carlos Press, 2014), Breve Reseña, 74.
- Juan de Medina, OSA, "Historia de la Orden de San Agustin de estas Islas Filipinas," in The Philippine Islands 1493-1803, vol. 23, eds. Emma H. Blair, James A. Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 185.
- Résumé of Documents, 153.
- Astrid Sala-Boza, "The Contested Site of the Finding of the Holy Child: Villa San Miguel or San Nicolas (Cebu El Viejo)," Philippine Quarterly of Culture Society 34, (2006): 232. www.jstor.org/stable/29792595; The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 2, eds. Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 121.
- Résumé of Documents, 140-141.
- Bartolomé de Letona, OSF (1662), “Description of the Filipinas Islands” in The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 34, eds. Emma H. Blair and James A. Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 208. "The Order of St. Augustine entered the islands in the year 565; its first superior, and first prelate of all the islands was Fray Andres de Urdaneta - a Vascongado,40 and a son of the convent and province of Mexico; he was the apostle who unfurled the gospel banner, and he planted the faith in the island of Zebu and others."
- Bibliography on Legazpi and Urdaneta], Isacio R. Rodriguez, Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints(Ateneo de Manila University:1965).
- The religious superiors, in this case the Augustinians in Cebu, functioned as ordinaries in mission territories with no diocese through the papal bull Omnimodam auctoritatem nostram made by Pope Adrian VI. Thus, consequently making the first Augustinian superiors as Prelates of Cebu. Their prelacy are more historical than canonical. The modern equivalent of this is a Territorial Superior. See more in gcatholic.org.
- The religious superiors ceased to have ordinary jurisdiction in 1579 by the establishment of the Diocese of Manila.
- Official website
- GCatholic with incumbent bio links
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Cebu
- Archdiocese of Cebu on the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines website
- Archdiocese of Cebu on [www.catholic-hierarchy.org]