Rolls-Royce Trent 800
The Rolls-Royce Trent 800 is a high-bypass turbofan produced by Rolls-Royce plc, one of the engine options for the early Boeing 777 variants. Launched in September 1991, it first ran in September 1993, was granted EASA certification on 27 January 1995, and entered service in 1996. It reached a 40% market share, ahead of the competing PW4000 and GE90, and the last Trent-powered 777 was delivered in 2010. The Trent 800 has the Trent family three shaft architecture, with a 280 cm (110 in) fan. With a 6.4:1 bypass ratio and an overall pressure ratio reaching 40.7:1, it generates up to 413.4 kN (92,940 lbf) of thrust.
|Boeing 777 nacelle|
|National origin||United Kingdom|
|First run||September 1993|
|Major applications||Boeing 777|
|Developed from||Trent 700|
|Developed into||Trent 500|
By 1990, as Boeing was studying the enlarged 767-X, Rolls-Royce was proposing its Trent engine with a larger 110 in (280 cm) fan driven by a new, bigger LP turbine, a modified IP compressor and no exhaust mixer. It would attain 75,000 to 85,000 lbf (330 to 380 kN), to be certified in early 1995 for a mid-1995 introduction, with growth potential to 90,000–95,000 lbf (400–420 kN) with a new HP core. After being rebutted by British Airways, Rolls-Royce launched the Trent 800 in September 1991 with a £250 million ($432.5 million) order from Thai Airways to power 15 Boeing 777s, certification was then planned for 1995 and first deliveries for January 1996.
Certification was applied for on 2 April 1992. By September 1992, its fan was to be tested in December and a full test was planned for September 1993. Certification was granted by the EASA on 27 January 1995. The first Boeing 777 with Trent 800 engines flew on 26 May 1995 and ETOPS approval was granted by the FAA on 10 October 1996. The Trent 800 entered service on the Boeing 777 in 1996, with Thai Airways on 31 March.
In 1995, the Trent 800 won a large order from Singapore Airlines, a traditional Pratt & Whitney customer. In 1996, Rolls-Royce had a 32% market share, above GE but behind PW. By June 1998, the 33 aircraft fleet had a Trent 800 dispatch reliability over 99.96%. By July 1999, Rolls had won 45% of all engine orders for the 777.
The Trent 800 later reached a 40% share of the engine market on the 777 variants for which it is available. The Singapore order was followed by large orders from American Airlines and Delta Air Lines. British Airways announced in September 1998 that it was returning to Rolls-Royce for its second batch of 777s, and did so again in April 2007. Other major operators include Air New Zealand and Kenya Airways.
As of 2014 Rolls-Royce is offering an upgraded version of the engine, known as the Trent 800EP. It incorporates technology from Trent 1000 and Trent XWB engines including elliptical leading edges on intermediate- and high-pressure compressor blades. Rolls-Royce claims that it provides a 0.7% fuel-burn benefit.
The Trent 800 is an axial flow, high bypass turbofan with three coaxial shafts. The fan is driven by a 5-stage axial LP turbine (3300 rpm), the 8-stage IP compressor (7000 rpm) and the 6-stage HP compressor (10611 rpm) are each powered by a single stage turbine. It has an annular combustor with 24 fuel nozzles and is controlled by an EEC. The engine has a 6.4:1 bypass ratio in cruise and an overall pressure ratio of 33.9 to 40.7:1 at sea level, for a 340.6-413.4 kN (76,580-92,940 lbf) take-off thrust. The 280 cm (110 in) fan has 26 diffusion bonded, wide chord titanium fan blades.
Rolls-Royce claims it is the lightest Boeing 777 engine, citing a 8,000 lb (3.6 t) weight saving over the GE90 and 5,400–6,500 lb (2.4–2.9 t) over the PW4000. The Trent 800 weighs 6.078 t (13,400 lb) dry, while the GE90 is 17,400 lb (7.89 t), and the PW4000 is 16,260 lb (7.38 t).
On 17 January 2008, a British Airways Boeing 777-236ER, operating as BA038 from Beijing to London, crash-landed at Heathrow after both Trent 800 engines lost power during the aircraft's final approach. The subsequent investigation found that ice released from the fuel system had accumulated on the fuel-oil heat exchanger, leading to a restriction of fuel flow to the engines. This resulted in Airworthiness Directives mandating the replacement of the heat exchanger. Rolls-Royce developed a modification to prevent the problem recurring that involved replacing a face plate that had many small protruding tubes with one that is flat.
Engines on displayEdit
A Trent 800 is on display at the Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust Collection, Derby.
A Trent 800 is on display at the Imperial War Museum Duxford, in the first hall.
Specifications (Trent 800)Edit
Data from EASA
- Type: Three-shaft high bypass turbofan engine
- Length: 4,568 mm (179.8 in)
- Diameter: 280 cm (110 in)
- Dry weight: 6,078 kg (13,400 lb)
- Compressor: Eight-stage IP axial compressor, six-stage HP axial compressor
- Combustors: Single annular combustor with 24 fuel injectors
- Turbine: Single-stage HP turbine, single-stage IP turbine, five-stage LP turbine
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- "Rolls-Royce to Enlarge Trent Engine Fan For 767-X But Retain Much Commonality". Aviation Week. 16 April 1990. p. 21-22.
- "Rolls-Royce Launches Trent 800 Engine With Order to Equip Thai Airways 777s". Aviation Week. 16 September 1991. p. 21-22.
- "Type-Certificate Data Sheet No. E.047" (PDF). EASA. 21 February 2019.
- "Chronology Of The Boeing 777 Program". Boeing. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007.
- "Powerful partner in Japan". Rolls-Royce. 2006. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007.
- Guy Norris (11 September 1996). "A coming of age". Flight International.
- Guy Norris/ (3 June 1998). "Rolls-Royce completes Trent 8104 design and waits for 777-X". Flightglobal.
- Michael Harrison (8 July 1999). "Blow to Rolls as Boeing picks US rival". The Independent.
- "Rolls-Royce Trent 800". Rolls-Royce.
- Sean Broderick (29 September 2017). "Trent 800 Aftermarket To Waver Slightly Through 2021". MRO network.
- Thierry Dubois (15 July 2014). "Rolls-Royce Upgrades In-service Trent Engines". AINonline. Retrieved 3 August 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Type Certificate Data Sheet E00049EN" (PDF). FAA. 23 June 2016.
- "TCDS E46NE" (PDF). FAA. 23 January 2012.
- "Rolls-Royce to modify Trent as tests replicate BA 777 icing". Flight International. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 500, 700, and 800 Series Turbofan Engines" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2015.
- "Rolls-Royce: Trent 800 fix only part of broader icing issue". Flight International. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Kaminsky-Morrow, David (9 February 2010). "Rolls-Royce: Trent modification will 'eliminate' fuel-ice risk". FlightGlobal. Retrieved 1 April 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
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