||This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
William Michael Griffin (born January 28, 1968), better known by his stage name Rakim, is an American rapper. One half of golden age hip hop duo Eric B. & Rakim, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential and most skilled MCs of all time.
Rakim in 1998
|Birth name||William Michael Griffin, Jr.|
|Also known as||The God MC, Kid Wizard, Rakim Allah|
January 28, 1968 |
Wyandanch, Long Island, New York, United States
|Origin||New York City, New York, United States|
|Labels||Ra Records, 4th & B'way, Island, MCA, Aftermath|
|Associated acts||Eric B., Marley Marl, Large Professor, Nas, Kool G Rap, DJ Premier, Pete Rock, Big Daddy Kane, KRS-One|
Eric B. & Rakim's classic album Paid in Full was named the greatest hip hop album of all time by MTV in 2006, while Rakim himself was ranked #4 on MTV's list of the Greatest MCs of All Time. Steve Huey of AllMusic stated that "Rakim is near-universally acknowledged as one of the greatest MCs – perhaps the greatest – of all time within the hip-hop community." The editors of About.com ranked him #2 on their list of the 'Top 50 MCs of Our Time (1987–2007)'. Rakim began his career as the emcee of the rap duo Eric B. & Rakim, who in 2011 were nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2012, The Source ranked him #1 on their list of the 'Top 50 Lyricists of All Time'.
Rakim is the nephew of the late American R&B singer and actress Ruth Brown. He grew up in Wyandanch, New York, and became involved in the New York hip hop scene at 18. Eric B. brought him to Marley Marl's house to record "Eric B. Is President".
Rakim, then known as Kid Wizard in 1985, made his first recordings live at Wyandanch High School. Rakim was initially introduced to the Nation of Islam in 1986, and later joined The Nation of Gods and Earths (also known as the 5 Percent Nation), and took the name Rakim Allah.
Pairing with Eric B. (1985–1993)Edit
First meeting in 1985, Eric B. & Rakim went on to release four studio albums before their separation in 1992. The duo were described by journalist Tom Terrell of NPR as "the most influential DJ/MC combo in contemporary pop music period", while the editors of About.com ranked them as No. 4 on their list of the 10 Greatest Hip-Hop Duos of All-Time. They were nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2011, although they did not make the final selection.
1986–87: Beginnings and classic debutEdit
After Rakim responded to Eric B.'s search for "New York's top MC", Eric B's friend and roommate Marley Marl allowed them to use his home studio. The first track they recorded—"Eric B. Is President"—was released as a single on the independent Zakia Records in 1986. After Def Jam Recordings founder Russell Simmons heard the single, the duo were signed to Island Records and began recording the album in Manhattan's Power Play Studios in early 1987.
On July 7, 1987, the duo released their debut album, Paid in Full, on the Island-subsidiary label 4th & B'way Records. The album peaked at number fifty-eight on the Billboard 200 chart and produced five singles: "Eric B. Is President", "I Ain't No Joke", "I Know You Got Soul", "Move the Crowd", and "Paid in Full".
1988–89: Sophomore peakEdit
While its singles attained moderate success, the album performed better on music charts than Eric B. & Rakim's debut album and reached number 22 on the U.S. Billboard Pop Albums chart. It has been certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipments in excess of 500,000 copies in the United States. Released during the hip hop's "golden age", Follow the Leader was well received by critics and has since been recognized by music writers as one of the most groundbreaking and influential hip hop albums of all time. American author William Jelani Cobb wrote of the album's significance, "On the heels of Paid in Full, Eric B. & Rakim delivered a full clip of album titled Follow the Leader in 1988. Featuring a broader spectrum of sounds than the James Brown samples that had defined the initial release, Follow the Leader saw Rakim at his most lyrically fierce, issuing deft and def threats on such tracks as 'Microphone Fiend,' 'Lyrics of Fury,' and the nearly felonious 'No Competition.' The release marked the high point in the collaboration between the two and prefaced the long slide they faced in the 1990s."
1990–94: Final albums and dissolutionEdit
Let the Rhythm Hit 'Em, released in 1990, was Eric B. & Rakim's third album. This album saw the duo's sound develop further, with Rakim adopting a deeper, more aggressive tone of voice, as well as more mature and serious subject matter. Musically, the production ranges from smoother soulful tracks such as "In the Ghetto" to the hard-edged assault of the title track. Though it could not support singles as popular as the duo's previous albums, it is considered by many to be the duo's most coherent album. It is one the few albums to have received a "five-mic" rating from The Source. In 1998, the album was selected as one of The Source's 100 Best Rap Albums. The back cover features a dedication to the memories of Rakim's father William and producer Paul C., who had worked on many of the album's tracks before his murder in July 1989. His protégé Large Professor completed his work. Neither receive credit in the album's notes.
Don't Sweat the Technique was Eric B. and Rakim's fourth and final album, released in 1992. The title track was a minor radio hit. "Casualties of War" was also released as a single and contains some of Rakim's most political lyrics. "Know the Ledge" first appeared in the film Juice under the title "Juice (Know the Ledge)". However, Eric B. refused to sign the label's release contract, fearful that Rakim would abandon him. This led to a long and messy court battle involving the two musicians and their former label MCA Records. The legal wrangling eventually led to the duo dissolving completely.
Solo career (1993–2017)Edit
1993–99: Legal issues and Debut EffortsEdit
After his breakup with Eric B. in early 1993, Rakim kept a low profile, only making one notable appearance on the soundtrack to the 1993 film Gunmen. A reshuffling in MCA caused Rakim to be dropped from the label in 1994. As Rakim continued to struggle with legal problems, he secured a deal with Universal Records and began recording his solo debut album The 18th Letter in 1996. In November 1997, the album The 18th Letter was released. Expectations were high for Rakim, as the album debuted at #4 on the Billboard 200 and went certified Gold by the RIAA.
Rakim was signed to Dr. Dre's Aftermath Entertainment record label in 2000, for work on an album tentatively titled Oh, My God. The album underwent numerous changes in artistic direction and personnel and was delayed several times. While working on the album, Rakim made guest appearances on numerous Aftermath projects, including the hit single "Addictive" by Truth Hurts, the Dr. Dre-produced "The Watcher Part 2" by Jay-Z, and Eminem's 8 Mile soundtrack.
However, Rakim left the label in 2003 and Oh, My God was indefinitely shelved. After Rakim eventually left Aftermath Entertainment, he stated that the reason he departed the label was because of creative differences with Dr. Dre. Rakim used a metaphorical example that Dr. Dre wanted Rakim to write about killing someone, while Rakim wanted to write about the resurrection of someone.
2007–09: The Seventh SealEdit
Rakim retreated to his Connecticut estate to work leisurely on music. Not having released an album since 1999, he eschewed touring in favor of infrequent gigs. Rakim was able to retain the tracks he had made with Dr. Dre and, in 2006, announced that he would release a new studio album, The Seventh Seal. The album was delayed into 2009; instead, he followed up with a live album, The Archive: Live, Lost & Found, in 2008. In an interview with Billboard in 2007, when asked about story behind The Seventh Seal's title, Rakim said,
The number 7 has a lot of significance. The seventh letter of the [Supreme] alphabet is G—that stands for God. There are seven continents, seven seas. The Seventh Seal deals with that and also some revelations in the Bible. Some call it the end of the world, but for me it's the end of the old and the beginning of the new. By me naming my album that, I'm using it metaphorically in hip hop. I'm hoping to kill the old state of hip hop and start with the new.
In another interview with Billboard in 2009, he stated,
The seals are from the Bible—Revelations and the coming of the Apocalypse. But Islam, Judaism, Christianity—all have a version of the same events. The Lion of Judah breaks the seven seals one by one, each imparting knowledge and inflicting catastrophe, ending with seven trumpets announcing the end of Times. After the Apocalypse, God rises from the ashes to recreate the Kingdom, taking only the greatest elements from the past with them. When you look at Hip-Hop, I want to do that: to spit fire and take our best from the ashes to build our kingdom; to recognize all the regional styles, conscious lyrics, the tracks, underground, mainstream, the way we treat each other. Lose the garbage and rebuild our scene. I've always tried to insert consciousness and spirituality in my records, interpreting the writings of all cultures and religions and how they apply to life in modern times.
The Seventh Seal was released on November 17, 2009, after several delays on Rakim's own Ra Records, TVM, and SMC Recordings and distributed through Fontana and Universal Music Group. Considered a comeback album after a ten-year gap between releases, the album features the two singles: "Holy Are You", which was released on July 14, 2009, and "Walk These Streets" which was released on October 7, 2009. It features production from several renowned hip hop artists, including Nottz, J. Wells, Needlz, Jake One, and Nick Wiz The album sold 12,000 copies in the United States by November 22, 2009, according to SoundScan. Upon its release, The Seventh Seal received generally mixed or average reviews from most music critics; it holds an aggregate score of 59/100 at Metacritic.
2011–present: Fourth studio albumEdit
In 2012, Rakim announced that he and Eric B. will release a 25th anniversary edition of their 1987 album Paid in Full, which will contain new tracks recorded by Eric B. & Rakim, by the end of 2012; Rakim announced he would release a new solo album by the end of 2012. He performed at the annual Roots' Picnic in Philadelphia in June. In an interview with The Detroit Free Press he announced he was in the studio with Pharrell Williams working on a new album set to be released in 2013, saying the first single will be released before the end of the year.
In 2014, Rakim is featured on the collaborative single with American rock band Linkin Park, titled "Guilty All the Same". The song was released on March 6, 2014 under Warner Bros. Records, as the first single from their sixth studio album, titled The Hunting Party. He contributed his rap vocals during the bridge for the main version of the song; however, he is not featured on a radio edit of the song. The song was officially released on March 7, 2014, for digital download.
On April 27, 2015, Rakim announced he was working on a new album and planned to release it in the middle or end of 2015. He said "This is one of those albums where I can have fun. My last album, The Seventh Seal, was somewhat of a conscious album. I wanted to make a statement on that album."
Reunion with Eric B. (2016–present)Edit
On October 20, 2016, it was announced via Twitter that Rakim has reunited with Eric B. after 23 years of dissolution. The duo teased a potential reunion tour the next morning, hosting a poll for the fans to give their opinion on what city Eric B. & Rakim should start the tour. Four cities were the potential candidates: New York City, Las Vegas, London, and Australia (which, of course, is not a city). Since the announcement of the reunion, fans have speculated if the two will drop a new studio album in the near future.
Rakim's rhyming deviated from the simple rhyme patterns of early 1980s hip hop. His free-rhythm style ignored bar lines and had earned comparisons to Thelonious Monk. The New York Times' Ben Ratliff wrote that Rakim's "unblustery rapping developed the form beyond the flat-footed rhythms of schoolyard rhymes". While many rappers developed their technique through improvisation, Rakim was one of the first to demonstrate advantages of a writerly style, as with for instance his pioneering use of internal rhymes and multisyllabic rhymes Unlike previous rappers such as LL Cool J, KRS-One, and Run-D.M.C., who delivered their vocals with high energy, Rakim employed a relaxed, stoic delivery. According to MTV, "We'd been used to MCs like Run and DMC, Chuck D and KRS-One leaping on the mic shouting with energy and irreverence, but Rakim took a methodical approach to his microphone fiending. He had a slow flow, and every line was blunt, mesmeric." Rakim's relaxed delivery resulted from his jazz influences; he had played the saxophone and was a John Coltrane fan.
Rakim's subject matter often covered his own rapping skills and lyrical superiority over other rappers. AllMusic editor Steve Huey comments that "the majority of his lyrics concern his own skills and his Islamic faith." He also notes Rakim for his "complex internal rhymes, compounding, literate imagery, velvet-smooth flow, and unpredictable, off-the-beat rhythms." Pitchfork writer Jess Harvell described his rapping as "authoritative, burnished, [and] possessing an unflappable sense of rhythm".
Paid in Full was released during the period in hip hop that became known as the golden age hip hop era. Alex Ogg considered it the duo's magnum opus in his book The Men Behind Def Jam. Rakim's rapping set a blueprint for future rappers and helped secure East Coast hip hop's reputation for innovative lyrical technique. William Jelani Cobb stated in his book To the Break of Dawn that his rapping had "stepped outside" of the preceding era of old school hip hop and that while the vocabulary and lyrical dexterity of newer rappers had improved, it was "nowhere near what Rakim introduced to the genre". The New York Times' Dimitri Ehrlich, who described the album as "an artistic and commercial benchmark", credited Rakim for helping "give birth to a musical genre" and leading "a quiet musical revolution, introducing a soft-spoken rapping style". Allmusic's Steve Huey declared Paid in Full one of hip hop's most influential albums and "essential listening" for those interested in the genre's "basic musical foundations". MTV ranked it at number one in "The Greatest Hip-Hop Albums of All Time", stating it raised the standards of hip hop "both sonically and poetically" and described it as "captivating, profound, innovative and instantly influential". The album is broken down track-by-track by Rakim in Brian Coleman's book Check the Technique.
Rolling Stone magazine listed it at number 227 on "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time", calling it "Ice-grilled, laid-back, diamond-sharp: Rakim is a front-runner in the race for Best Rapper Ever, and this album is a big reason why." Similarly, Blender magazine included the album in its "500 CDs You Must Own Before You Die". Time magazine listed it as one of the eighteen albums of the 1980s in its "All-TIME 100" albums; editor Alan Light acknowledged the record for changing the "sound, flow, and potential" of hip hop and that if Rakim is "the greatest MC of all time, as many argue, this album is the evidence".
Jess Harvell of Pitchfork complimented Rakim for an "endless display of pure skill" and described the album as "laidback and funky", but believed it contained "too much filler to get a free 'classic' pass". Pitchfork placed Paid in Full at number fifty-two in its "Top 100 Albums of the 1980s"; editor Sam Chennault wrote that Rakim inspired a generation of MCs and "defined what it meant to be a hip-hop lyricist". The rappers who have used the unique rapping style employed by Rakim and attribute it as inspiration include GZA, Ghostface Killah, and Raekwon (from the Wu-Tang Clan), Tupac, Nas, Kool G. Rap, Jay-Z, The Notorious B.I.G., Eminem, 50 Cent, and many more. On July 11, 1995, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certified the album platinum. As of December 1997, it has sold over a million copies.
as Eric B. & Rakim
- Paid in Full (1987)
- Follow the Leader (1988)
- Let the Rhythm Hit 'Em (1990)
- Don't Sweat the Technique (1992)
- Huey, Steve. "Rakim Biography". allmusic. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
- Kool Moe Dee, 2003, "There's A God On The Mic: The True 50 Greatest MCs", Thunder's Mouth Press, p.324.
- "The Greatest MCs Of All Time". MTV.com. March 9, 2006. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- Shapiro, Peter, 2005, "The Rough Guide To Hip-Hop, 2nd Edition", Penguin, p. 126.
- "The Greatest Hip-Hop Albums Of All Time". MTV.com. March 9, 2006. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- "The Greatest MCs Of All Time". MTV.com. March 9, 2006. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- Huey, Steve. "Rakim". AllMusic. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- "Top 50 MCs of Our Time: 1987 – 2007 – 50 Greatest Emcees of Our Time". Rap.about.com. January 26, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- "The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Announces 2012 Nominees for Induction | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Rockhall.com. September 27, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- "The Source's Top 50 Lyricists Of All Time **Complete List Inside**". ThisIs50.com. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Ahearn, Charlie (February 1991), "The Five Percent Solution", Spin, 6 (11), p. 56
- "Eric B. & Rakim Biography". Sing365.com. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- "10 Greatest Hip-Hop Duos of All-Time – Top 10 Hip-Hop Duos". Rap.about.com. June 23, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- "The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Announces 2012 Nominees for Induction. Eric B is represented by Louis Gregory, aka Uncle Louie, who is the CEO of ULMG". ULMG.org. September 27, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- Ogg, Alex (2002). The Men Behind Def Jam: The Radical Rise of Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin. p. 105. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-8873-0
- "Allmusic – "Paid in Full" > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles". Allmusic. Accessed August 4, 2008.
- Cobb (2006), p. 142.
- [dead link]
- "CRUNKSTER: Traveling at the Speed of Thought". Crunkster.abstractdynamics.org. August 5, 2004. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
-  Archived January 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Elon Johnson and Heather Parry (October 27, 2000). "Rakim Signs With Dr. Dre's Aftermath Records". MTV. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
- "Q & A w/ Rakim: Guess Who's Back?" ThaFormula.com (2005). Retrieved January 24, 2008.
- "Rakim on why no Primo on album and why all MC features are from NY". YouTube. November 9, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Mitter, Siddhartha (August 4, 2006). "Rakim: It's Time for Hip-Hop Artists to Take a Stand Against Violence". The Boston Globe. Boston: The New York Times Company. p. D.17. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- "Rakim Wrapping New CD, Touring With Ghostface". About.com. Henry Adaso. July 10, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
- Mitchell, Gail (July 13, 2009). "Rakim Ready To Release 'The Seventh Seal'". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
- "Hip-Hop Legend RAKIM Drops "Holy Are You" On July 28, 2009. Lead Single From Long Awaited Album THE SEVENTH SEAL". July 18, 2003. Retrieved August 23, 2003.
- Paine, Jake (September 24, 2003). "Details Emerge On Rakim's Seventh Seal". HipHopDX. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- Hip Hop Album Sales the Week Ending 11/22/2009. HipHopDX. Retrieved on November 25, 2009.
- The Seventh Seal (2009): Reviews. Metacritic. Retrieved on November 25, 2009.
- Blanco, Alvin (June 23, 2011). "Rakim, Backed By The Roots, Revisits Paid In Full". MTV News. MTV. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- "Eric B. & Rakim to Re-Release Paid in Full Album – XXL". Xxlmag.com. June 6, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Sims, Seandra (June 5, 2012). "The Roots Recap: The Kings Of The Picnic Bring Out Rakim, Wale, Danny Brown and Beyond". AllHipHop. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- [dead link]
- "DMX & Rakim f/ Shontelle & Aleks D. "Don't Call Me"". Complex. September 24, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "Rakim Is Working On a New Album - XXL". XXL Mag. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- Nixon, Khari (25 October 2016). "Quasimoto, Madlib's Alter-Ego, Announces New Album With Eric B & Rakim in 2017". Mass Appeal. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- Freedom duLac, Josh. (October 2, 2006). "A Stop-and-Go Hip-Hop Show". The Washington Post. Accessed September 5, 2008.
- Ratliff, Ben. Review: Paid in Full. The New York Times. Retrieved on October 19, 2009.
- Huey, Steve. "allmusic Rakim > Biography". Allmusic. Accessed September 5, 2008.
- Light, Alan (November 13, 2006). "The All-TIME 100 Albums". Time magazine. Accessed September 29, 2008.
- "MTV.com: The Greatest Hip-Hop Albums Of All Time". MTV (2005). Accessed July 15, 2008.
- Taylor, Steve (2004). The A to X of Alternative Music. p. 20. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-8217-1
- Jarenwattananon, Patrick (November 23, 2009). "The Microphone Fiend On John Coltrane". NPR. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "Q & A w/ Rakim: Lyrics of Fury". ThaFormula.com (2005). Accessed October 29, 2008.
- Darby, Derrick; Shelby, Tommie; West, Cornel (2005). Hip Hop and Philosophy: Rhyme 2 Reason. p. 42. Open Court Publishing. ISBN 0-8126-9589-5.
- Harvell, Jess. "Eric B & Rakim: Paid in Full / Follow the Leader". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Huey, Steve. Review: Paid in Full. Allmusic. Retrieved on October 19, 2009.
- Cobb (2006), 142.
- Karon, Tony (September 22, 2000). "'Hip-Hop Nation' Is Exhibit A for America's Latest Cultural Revolution". Time magazine. Accessed September 25, 2008.
- Ehrlich, Dimitri (December 7, 1997). "Recordings View ; A Rap Pioneer Defies the Odds". The New York Times. Accessed July 16, 2008.
- Coleman, Brian. Check The Technique: Liner Notes For Hip-Hop Junkies. New York: Villard/Random House, 2007.
- "227) Paid in Full". Rolling Stone (November 1, 2003). Accessed July 15, 2008.
- "500 CDs You Must Own: Hip-Hop". Blender magazine (April 2003). Accessed September 24, 2008.
- Chennault, Sam (November 20, 2002). "Top 100 Albums of the 1980s". Pitchfork Media. Accessed September 29, 2008.
- "MTV.com: The Greatest MCs Of All Time". MTV (2006). Accessed October 28, 2008.
- "RIAA Searchable Database – Paid in Full". Recording Industry Association of America. Accessed September 5, 2008.
- Cobb, William Jelani (2006). To the Break of Dawn: A Freestyle on the Hip Hop Aesthetic. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1670-9.