Racial issues faced by black quarterbacks
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This article examines racial issues faced by black quarterbacks. In gridiron football and its variants, American football and Canadian football, the quarterback position is often considered the most important on the team. While there have been a growing number of players of African or minority descent throughout the history of collegiate and professional football, black players have historically faced difficulty in landing and retaining quarterback roles due to a number of factors. In addition, some black quarterbacks claim to have experienced bias towards or against them due to their race, and tend to be portrayed less favorably in the media than their white colleagues. Though opportunities have mostly opened up in the modern era, the ratio of black quarterbacks remains disproportionate to the overall ratio of black players, as 67% of NFL players are black, yet only 17% of quarterbacks are.
Since the earliest days of professional and college football, the number of black players, let alone quarterbacks, has been on the rise. The first black quarterback to start professionally was Bernie Custis for the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League in 1951. The first two in the United States were Marlin Briscoe and James Harris, both of the American Football League, in 1968 and 1969, respectively.[a] The AFL was known to be more tolerant towards black players than the rival National Football League, which had harbored racist tendencies until the 1960s under the influence of Washington Redskins owner George Preston Marshall. The two leagues eventually merged to form the current NFL in 1970.
The CFL was more welcoming to black quarterbacks than its American counterparts during the mid-twentieth century. By the 1970s, black starting quarterbacks were commonplace and included players such as Warren Moon, who won five Grey Cup championships in Canada before coming to play in the NFL. Moon's success largely broke the stereotype that blacks could not succeed as quarterbacks, which ushered more prominent black quarterbacks into the NFL starting in the 1980s.
In 1971, 3% of quarterbacks in the NFL who threw at least 100 passes in the season were black, but by 2001 this number had risen to 35%. The 1999 NFL draft was notable as eight out of thirteen quarterbacks selected that year were black. They include Donovan McNabb, Akili Smith, and Daunte Culpepper, who were selected in the first round. Michael Vick, who was drafted two years later in 2001, became the first black quarterback taken with the first overall pick in the NFL draft. During the 2013 season, 67 percent of NFL players were African American (blacks make up 13 percent of the US population), yet only 17 percent of quarterbacks were; 82 percent of quarterbacks were white.
In 2017, the New York Giants benched longtime quarterback Eli Manning in favor of Geno Smith, who was declared the starter for one week. The Giants were the last team to never field a black starting QB during an NFL season. Though progress has evidently been made, a 2015 study showed that black quarterbacks were still twice as likely to be benched than their white counterparts due to various factors.
Since the inception of the game, only two quarterbacks with known black ancestry have led their team to a Super Bowl victory: Doug Williams in 1988 and Russell Wilson, who is multiracial, in 2014. Other black quarterbacks to start in a Super Bowl include Steve McNair in 2000, McNabb in 2005, Colin Kaepernick, who is multiracial, in 2013, and Cam Newton in 2016.
In addition, these quarterbacks with known black ancestry have won the Heisman Trophy:[b] Andre Ware in 1989, Charlie Ward in 1993, Troy Smith in 2006, Newton in 2010, Robert Griffin III in 2011, Jameis Winston in 2013, Lamar Jackson in 2016, and Kyler Murray, who is multiracial, in 2018.
Stereotyping of black quarterbacksEdit
|“||A lot of us aren't viewed as passers – we're viewed as athletes. I think it's unfair and unfortunate.||”|
|— Michael Vick|
There is some controversy over how white and black quarterbacks tend to be described by the media, especially draft prospects hoping to make it into the NFL. Draft experts and scouts have a history of describing black quarterbacks in ways that perpetuate racial stereotypes and hurt those prospects chances of making it to the NFL as a quarterback. Even those who make it to the NFL continue to face bias against them.
An empirical study published in The Howard Journal of Communications supported this hypothesis. The researchers analyzed the written descriptions of quarterback prospects in the NFL Draft section of the Sports Illustrated website from 1998 to 2007. They looked at each player’s description for words or phrases about athleticism and intelligence and sorted them into categories based on whether they were positive or negative. A significant difference was found between how black and white quarterbacks are described by SI. Black quarterbacks tend to be praised for their athleticism and criticized for a lack of intelligence. Meanwhile, white quarterbacks are often praised for their intelligence and criticized for a lack of athleticism. For example, Dante Culpepper and Tee Martin, both black quarterbacks, were described with terms such as “physical specimen” and “impressive specimen,” respectively. Meanwhile, white players have been described as “good signal callers,” and “real student[s] of the game.”
During the NFL Combine, players are given the Wonderlic Personnel Test, a test of mental aptitude. As of 2018, the average score of active Super Bowl winning quarterbacks is 30.7 which is particularly salient given the fact that a score of 22 is average and the position average is about 24. This list of winning quarterbacks includes Russell Wilson, who got a score of 28. Of all positions, quarterbacks and offensive linemen, particularly centers, have the highest average scores as well as the greatest percentage of white players. Tight end, the position with the next highest position average, also has a greater percentage of white players relative to the league average.
There is evidence that higher Wonderlic scores are mildly correlated with lower interception rates and higher passer ratings. However, the Wonderlic test has not been without criticism, with some claiming it is racially biased. In addition, some quarterbacks with low scores, such as Donovan McNabb and Jim Kelly (15 for both), have had long successful careers in the NFL. In 2013, the NFL began administering the Player Assessment Tool, an additional test of mental aptitude to go alongside the Wonderlic during the combine process.
Notable examples of quarterbacks affected by racial stereotypingEdit
After a successful college career as a quarterback, the Denver Broncos drafted Marlin Briscoe in the 14th round of the 1968 NFL/AFL draft, with plans to shift him to the defensive secondary. It was commonplace back then to convert black players who had played quarterback to other positions, but Briscoe did not sign with Denver until he was promised a chance to practice at quarterback. After injuries to Denver’s starter, Marlin Briscoe became the first black quarterback to start a game in an American major professional football league in 1968. That season, Briscoe threw for 1,589 yards, broke the Broncos’ single-season rookie touchdown record with 14, and finished second in Rookie of the Year voting. Regardless, it became clear that Denver would no longer play him at quarterback, so Briscoe asked for and was granted his release. He then signed with the Buffalo Bills, who put him at wide receiver. Despite his success as a receiver in Buffalo and later with the Miami Dolphins, Briscoe never played quarterback again for the rest of his career.
A similar trend would follow Lamar Jackson, another black quarterback, during the 2018 NFL Draft. Despite a prolific career as Louisville's quarterback, Jackson received suggestions to switch to receiver by certain pundits, a notion that he adamantly fought off during the draft process.
While Briscoe never played quarterback for the Bills, his teammate James "Shack" Harris got the honor of being the first black quarterback to start for the team and was the second overall to start for a team in NFL history. After being released by the Bills and signing with the Los Angeles Rams, Harris stepped in for injured Rams starter John Hadl in 1974, and head coach Chuck Knox made him the permanent starter, a first for any black quarterback. Harris went on to also become the first black quarterback to make the Pro Bowl and start and win an NFL playoff game. However, Harris received hate mail and death threats due to his race, which eventually required security guards to protect him both on the field and at hotels. When Harris suffered injuries, Knox was reportedly pressured by Rams owner Carroll Rosenbloom to play other quarterbacks such as an aging Joe Namath and Pat Haden, even after Harris became healthy again and in spite of Harris leading the NFC in passer rating during his final year in Los Angeles. Harris's demotion and later trade to the San Diego Chargers became a racial issue in Los Angeles, with journalists such as Skip Bayless and Brad Pye Jr. covering the matter.
In 2003, conservative radio talk show host Rush Limbaugh made headlines when he claimed that the media was biased in favor of Donovan McNabb, a prominent black quarterback at the time. Limbaugh stated that “the media has been very desirous that a black quarterback do well… he got a lot of credit for the performance of this team that he really didn’t deserve.” According to Limbaugh, McNabb received more media praise than he was due because he was black. Conversely, in a study of news coverage of white and black quarterbacks, political Scientist David Niven of Florida Atlantic University found that black quarterbacks, including McNabb, did not receive preferential treatment by the media.
|“||It's always going to be twice as bad just because of who I am – an African-American quarterback... Look across the league, man. We’re held to a certain standard. We almost have to be perfect.||”|
|— Tyrod Taylor on the evaluation of his play as a black quarterback|
A sixth-round draft pick in 2011 who had spent his early career as Joe Flacco's backup with the Baltimore Ravens, Tyrod Taylor claimed the starting position for the Buffalo Bills upon signing with them in 2015. Despite leading the Bills to snap a 17-year playoff drought in 2017, his last season with the team before being traded to the Cleveland Browns, Taylor continued to face criticism from some Bills fans for his perceived run-first mentality and indecisiveness. He was eventually benched one game for rookie quarterback Nathan Peterman, which later proved to be controversial as Peterman threw five interceptions in the first half of that game, forcing the Bills to revert to Taylor. In a 2017 interview published by The Buffalo News, Taylor stated that he always knew he would be criticized more than his white counterparts, a sentiment also echoed by Vick and Newton, but that it drives him to be a better player.
Despite his ability to both pass and run effectively, Houston Texans signal-caller Deshaun Watson prefers not to be called a dual-threat quarterback as he believes the term is often used to stereotype black quarterbacks. In 2018, Watson was the subject of racist remarks echoing these stereotypes after making a bad decision in a game. The superintendent of the Onalaska school district outside of Houston, Lynn Redden, came under fire and later resigned for saying that “when you need precision decision making you can't count on a black quarterback."
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