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Portuguese legislative election, 1976

The Portuguese legislative election of 1976 took place on 25 April, exactly one year after the previous election, and two years after the Carnation Revolution. With a new Constitution approved, the country's main aim was the economical recovery and the strengthen of the democratic conquests.

Portuguese legislative election, 1976
Portugal
← 1975 25 April 1976 1979 →

263 seats to the Portuguese Assembly
132 seats needed for a majority
Registered 6,564,667 Increase5.4%
Turnout 5,483,461 (83.5%)
Decrease8.2 pp
  First party Second party
  Mário Soares 1975b (cropped).jpg 2016 Busto en Funchal. Madeira. Portugal-30.jpg
Leader Mário Soares Francisco Sá Carneiro
Party PS PPD
Leader since 19 April 1973 6 May 1974
Leader's seat Lisbon[1] Porto[2]
Last election 116 seats, 37.9% 81 seats, 26.4%
Seats won 107 73
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 8
Popular vote 1,912,921 1,335,381
Percentage 34.9% 24.4%
Swing Decrease 3.0 pp Decrease 2.0 pp

  Third party Fourth party
  Freitas do Amaral, XV Cimeira Ibero-Americana - Salamanca, Espanha.jpg Alvaro Cunhal 1980 (cropped).jpg
Leader Diogo Freitas do Amaral Álvaro Cunhal
Party CDS PCP
Leader since 19 July 1974 31 March 1961
Leader's seat Lisbon Lisbon
Last election 16 seats, 7.6% 30 seats, 12.5%
Seats won 42 40
Seat change Increase 26 Increase 10
Popular vote 876,077 788,830
Percentage 15.9% 14.4%
Swing Increase 8.4 pp Increase 1.9 pp

Prime Minister before election

Vasco de Almeida e Costa (interim)
Independent

Elected Prime Minister

Mário Soares
PS

The election was won again by the Socialist Party and Mário Soares, its leader, became the Prime-Minister of the 1st Constitutional government on 23 July. The lack of a socialist majority forced this party to form an unexpected coalition with the Democratic and Social Center, the party on the right end of the political spectrum at the time. The nature of such coalition, between a party that defended the socialist way to the country and another that voted against the constitution because of its socialist influences surprised most of the Portuguese voters and marked the start of the right-wing turn of the Socialist Party that would soon be attacked by all the left due to the new government measures against the left-wing conquests of the revolution, mainly the agrarian reform.

The Social Democratic Party (then known as the Democratic People's Party, PPD) was the second most voted party and the Portuguese Communist Party achieved a relevant increase in the voting, showing its growing influence, mainly in the south of the country.

Contents

Electoral systemEdit

In the first election after the aproval of the new Constitution, the Parliament of the Portuguese Republic consists of a single chamber, the Assembly of the Republic, composed of 263 members directly elected by universal adult suffrage for a maximum term of four years. Assembly members represent the entire country, rather than the constituencies in which they were elected. Governments require majority support in the Assembly in order to remain in office.

Each one of Continental Portugal's eighteen administrative districts, plus the 4 districts in the country's two autonomous regions - Azores and Madeira - are an electoral constituency. Portuguese voters residing outside the national territory are grouped into two electoral constituencies - Europe and the rest of the world - each one of which elects two Assembly members. The remaining 259 seats are allocated among the national territory constituencies in proportion to their number of registered electors.

Political parties and party coalitions may present lists of candidates. The lists are closed, so electors may not choose individual candidates in or alter the order of such lists. Electors cast a ballot for a single list. The seats in each constituency are divided among parties according to the largest average method of proportional representation (PR), conceived by the Belgian mathematician Victor d'Hondt in 1899. Although there is no statutory threshold for participation in the allocation of Assembly seats, there is an effective threshold at the constituency level that depends on the district magnitude.[3] The use of the d'Hondt method makes for a higher effective threshold than certain other allocation method such as the Hare quota or Sainte-Laguë method, which are more generous to small parties.[4]

PartiesEdit

National summary of votes and seatsEdit

e • d Summary of the 25 April 1976 Assembly of the Republic elections results
Parties Votes % ± Seats MPs %/
votes %
1975 1976 ± % ±
Socialist 1,912,921 34.89  3.0 116 107  9 40.68  5.7 1.17
Democratic People's Party 1,335,381 24.35  2.0 81 73  8 27.76  4.6 1.14
Democratic and Social Centre 876,077 15.98  8.4 16 42  26 15.97  9.6 1.00
Portuguese Communist Party 788,830 14.39  1.9 30 40  10 15.21  3.2 1.06
People's Democratic Union 91,690 1.67  0.9 1 1  0 0.38  0.0 0.23
People's Socialist Front 42,162 0.77  0.4 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Portuguese Workers' Communist 36,200 0.66 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.0
Movement of Socialist Left 31,332 0.57  0.4 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Christian Democratic Party 29,874 0.54 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.0
People's Monarchist Party 28,320 0.52  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Internationalist Communist League 16,269 0.30  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
PCP(m-l) 15,830 0.29 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.0
Worker-Peasant Alliance 15,778 0.29 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.0
Revolutionary Socialist Party 5,171 0.09 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.0
Total valid 5,225,835 95.30  2.3 250[A] 263  13 100.00  0.0
Invalid ballots 257,696 4.70  2.3
Total (turnout 83.53%) 5,483,461 100.00  8.2
A Portuguese Democratic Movement won 5 seats and the Independent Democratic Association of Macau won 1 seat in the 1975
election. Both parties did not contested this election.
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições
Vote share
PS
34.89%
PPD
24.35%
CDS
15.98%
PCP
14.39%
UDP
1.67%
FSP
0.77%
MRPP
0.66%
MES
0.57%
PDC
0.54%
PPM
0.52%
Others
0.97%
Blank/Invalid
4.70%
Parliamentary seats
PS
40.68%
PPD
27.76%
CDS
15.97%
PCP
15.51%
UDP
0.38%

Distribution by constituencyEdit

e • d Results of the 1976 election of the Portuguese Assembly of the Republic
by constituency
Constituency % S % S % S % S % S Total
S
PS PPD CDS PCP UDP
Angra do Heroísmo 30.4 1 51.8 1 12.1 - 1.5 - 2
Aveiro 30.8 5 35.2 6 22.5 4 3.7 - 0.9 - 15
Beja 32.0 2 8.2 - 4.2 - 44.0 4 2.2 - 6
Braga 32.3 6 28.6 5 21.2 4 4.2 - 1.0 - 15
Bragança 22.6 1 33.3 2 28.3 2 2.7 - 0.8 - 5
Castelo Branco 36.4 3 22.6 2 19.9 2 6.7 - 1.1 - 7
Coimbra 40.9 6 26.7 4 12.5 1 7.3 1 1.2 - 12
EvoraÉvora 30.3 2 9.2 - 8.0 - 43.2 4 2.6 - 6
Faro 44.6 6 19.3 2 6.8 - 14.5 1 2.6 - 9
Funchal 24.9 1 53.0 4 13.3 1 1.5 - 1.3 - 6
Guarda 25.2 2 25.7 2 32.1 2 2.9 - 1.1 - 6
Horta 34.2 - 57.0 1 4.3 - 1.5 - 1
Leiria 31.1 4 31.2 4 19.4 2 7.3 1 1.0 - 11
Lisbon 38.3 25 16.4 10 13.2 8 21.8 14 2.6 1 58
Ponta Delgada 35.4 1 45.6 2 11.8 - 1.5 - 3
Portalegre 41.9 3 10.1 - 13.9 - 22.0 1 1.0 - 4
Porto 40.7 18 27.0 11 15.7 6 8.4 3 1.5 - 38
Santarém 38.5 6 19.5 3 13.9 2 16.1 2 1.7 - 13
Setúbal 32.2 7 8.4 1 4.4 - 44.4 9 2.8 - 17
Viana do Castelo 25.5 2 32.8 3 23.5 2 6.6 - 0.9 - 7
Vila Real 26.3 2 39.0 4 18.3 1 3.1 - 0.9 - 7
Viseu 23.0 3 32.2 4 31.2 4 2.3 - 0.9 - 11
zEurope 46.1 1 32.2 1 6.9 - 10.1 - 0.8 - 2
zRest of the World 6.3 - 53.2 1 33.7 1 1.4 - 0.4 - 2
Total 34.9 107 24.4 73 16.0 42 14.4 40 1.7 1 263
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

MapsEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit