Pluteus salicinus is a European psychedelic mushroom that grows on wood. It is an edible mushroom after parboiling.[2]

Pluteus salicinus
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Pluteaceae
Genus: Pluteus
P. salicinus
Binomial name
Pluteus salicinus
(Pers.) P.Kumm. (1871)

Agaricus salicinus Pers. (1798)
Rhodosporus salicinus (Pers.) J.Schröt. (1889)

Pluteus salicinus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Gills on hymenium
Cap is convex or flat
Hymenium is free
Stipe is bare
Spore print is pink
Ecology is saprotrophic
Edibility is psychoactive or edible

Taxonomy edit

The species was originally described by Christian Hendrik Persoon as Agaricus salicinus in 1798.[3] Paul Kummer transferred it to the genus Pluteus in 1871.[4]

Description edit

  • Cap: 2 — 5(8) cm in diameter, convex becoming broadly convex to plane, silver-gray to brownish-gray, often with blue or greenish tint in age, smooth, with tiny scales near the center, darker at the margin, slightly translucent-striate when moist, unlined cap margin, flesh white with a grayish tinge, thin to moderate. Cap skin fibrous.
  • Gills: Crowded, broad, free, at first white, becoming pink-flesh colored; ventricose. Edges discoloring or bruising grayish.
  • Stipe: 3 — 5(10) long, 0.2 — 0.6 cm thick, more or less equal or slightly swollen at the base, flesh white with grayish-green to bluish-green tones, especially near the base. Ring absent. Firm, full or stuffed.
  • Taste: Unpleasant, indefinite or somewhat raphanoid (like radish).
  • Odor: Unpleasant, indefinite or somewhat raphanoid.
  • Spores: pink, smooth, 7 — 8.5 x 5 - 6 µm. Spore print pink-flesh colored to brown-pink.
  • Microscopic features: Pleurocystidia fusiform with slightly thickened walls 50 — 70 x 11 — 18 µm; with 3 — 5 horn-like projections.

Habitat and distribution edit

This mushroom is widely distributed across western Europe and Siberia. It is found on hardwoods - Alnus, Eucalyptus, Fagus, Populus and Quercus.[5]

It is always found growing on wood. Summer-fall, solitary or gregarious on dead wood of hardwoods, in damp forests on flood-plains.

Common name edit

The 'knackers crumpet' is a localised, common name referring to Pluteus salicinus. Its use is most prominent in the North of England.

Chemistry edit

The concentration of psilocybin and psilocin in the dried sample of P. salicinus has been reported in the range of 0.21-0.35 and 0.011-0.05%, respectively.[6][7]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Pluteus salicinus (Pers.) P. Kumm. 1871". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  2. ^ Konuk, Muhsin; Afyon, Ahmet; Yağız, Dursun (September 2006). "Chemical composition of some naturally growing and edible mushrooms" (PDF). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 38 (3): 799–804. ISSN 0556-3321.
  3. ^ Icones et Descriptiones Fungorum Minus Cognitorum (in Latin). Vol. 1. Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf-Haertel. 1798. pp. 1–26.
  4. ^ Kummer P. (1871). Der Führer in die Pilzkunde (in German) (1 ed.). Zerbst, Germany: C. Luppe. p. 99.
  5. ^ Justo, Alfredo (2014). "Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Holarctic species of Pluteus section Pluteus (Agaricales: Pluteaceae), with description of twelve new species" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 180: 1. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.180.1.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04.
  6. ^ Christiansen, A. L.; Rasmussen, K. E.; Høiland, K. (August 1984). "Detection of psilocybin and psilocin in Norwegian species of Pluteus and Conocybe". Planta Medica. 50 (4): 341–343. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969726. PMID 17340325.  
  7. ^ Ohenoja, E.; Jokiranta, J.; Mäkinen, T.; Kaikkonen, A.; Airaksinen, M. M. (Jul–Aug 1987). "The occurrence of psilocybin and psilocin in Finnish fungi". Journal of Natural Products. 50 (4): 741–744. doi:10.1021/np50052a030. PMID 3430170.  
  • Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.

External links edit

  Media related to Pluteus salicinus at Wikimedia Commons