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Pliosauridae is a family of plesiosaurian marine reptiles from the Earliest Jurassic to the early Late Cretaceous (Hettangian to Turonian stages) of Australia, Europe, North America and South America. Past the Turonian, they may have been replaced by the mosasaurs. It was formally named by Harry G. Seeley in 1874.[1]

Pliosauridae
Temporal range:
Late Triassic - Late Cretaceous, 228–89.3 Ma
Pliosauroidea.png
From top to bottom; crane of a Pliosaurus kevani; drawing of a Kronosaurus; colored engravings of two Simolestes, the Monster of Aramberri; a Liopleurodon ferox; Megalneusaurus, Reconstitution of a Pliosaurus.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Sauropterygia
Order: Plesiosauria
Suborder: Pliosauroidea
Family: Pliosauridae
Seeley, 1874
Subgroups

RelationshipsEdit

Pliosauridae is a stem-based taxon defined in 2010 (and in earlier studies in a similar manner) as "all taxa more closely related to Pliosaurus brachydeirus than to Leptocleidus superstes, Polycotylus latipinnis or Meyerasaurus victor".[1] The family Brachauchenidae has been proposed to include pliosauroids which have very short necks and may include Brachauchenius and Kronosaurus.[2] However, modern cladistic analyses found that this group is actually a subfamily of pliosaurids,[3] and possibly even the "crown group" of Pliosauridae.[4]

The following cladogram follows an analysis by Benson & Druckenmiller (2014).[5]

 Plesiosauria 

Stratesaurus

Eoplesiosaurus

Plesiosauroidea

Rhomaleosauridae

Pliosauridae

Thalassiodracon

Hauffiosaurus

Attenborosaurus

Marmornectes

Thalassophonea

Peloneustes

"Pliosaurus" andrewsi

Simolestes

Liopleurodon

"Liopleurodon" rossicus

Pliosaurus

Gallardosaurus

Brachaucheninae

Brachauchenius

Kronosaurus

Megacephalosaurus

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ketchum, H.F.; Benson, R.B.J. (2010). "Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 85 (2): 361–392. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00107.x. PMID 20002391.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2011-10-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Gasparini, Zulma (2009). "A New Oxfordian Pliosaurid (Plesiosauria, Pliosauridae) in the Caribbean Seaway" (PDF). Palaeontology. 52 (3): 661–669. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00871.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16.
  4. ^ Ketchum, H.F.; Benson, R.B.J. (2011). "The cranial anatomy and taxonomy of Peloneustes philarchus (Sauropterygia, Pliosauridae) from the Peterborough Member (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of the UK". Palaeontology. 54 (3): 639–665. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01050.x.
  5. ^ Benson, R. B. J.; Druckenmiller, P. S. (2013). "Faunal turnover of marine tetrapods during the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition". Biological Reviews. 89 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1111/brv.12038. PMID 23581455.