The Hôpital universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière (French: [opital ynivɛʁsitɛʁ pitje salpɛtʁijɛʁ]) is a celebrated teaching hospital in the 13th arrondissement of Paris. Part of the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris and a teaching hospital of Sorbonne University, it is one of Europe's largest hospitals.
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The Salpêtrière was originally a gunpowder factory (saltpetre being a constituent of gunpowder), but in 1656 at the direction of Louis XIV, it was converted into a hospice for the poor women of Paris. It served as a prison for prostitutes, and a holding place for women who were mentally disabled, criminally insane, epileptic, and poor; it was also notable for its population of rats and a bloated and unresponsive bureaucracy. Although the Pitié-Salpêtrière was much admired for the architectural ambitions of Libéral Bruant, it provided unsatisfactory living conditions for its inhabitants. The building was enlarged in 1684.
On the eve of the Revolution, it had become the world's largest hospital, with a capacity of 10,000 patients plus 300 prisoners, mainly prostitutes swept from the streets of Paris. From La Salpêtrière they were paired with convicts and forcibly expatriated to New France.
During the September massacres of 1792, the Salpêtrière was stormed on the night of 3/4 September by a mob from the impoverished working-class district of the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, with the avowed intention of releasing the detained street-girls: 134 of the prostitutes were released; twenty-five madwomen were less fortunate and were dragged, some still in their chains, into the streets and murdered.
In the first half of the 19th century, the early humanitarian reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill were initiated here by Philippe Pinel (1745–1826), friend of the Encyclopédistes. The iconic image of Pinel as the liberator of the insane was created in 1876 by Tony Robert-Fleury; and Pinel's sculptural monument stands before the main entrance in Place Marie-Curie, Boulevard de L'Hôpital. Pinel was the chief physician of the Salpêtrière by 1794, in charge of a 200-bed infirmarywhich housed a tiny proportion of its huge indigent female population. He was succeeded by his assistant Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol (1772–1840) who, from 1817, delivered the first systematic lectures on psychiatry in France. Esquirol was also the chief architect of the French Lunacy legislation of 30th June 1838. From 1831 till 1867 the chef d'hospice was Jean-Pierre Falret (1794 - 1870) who contributed much to our understanding of bipolar disorder and folie à deux.
A regular visitor to the Salpêtrière from 1842 till his death more than thirty years later was Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne de Boulogne (1806–1875). Though he never held a senior appointment in the hospital, Duchenne nevertheless made meticulous observations on neurological patients, employing a wide range of innovative diagnostic techniques. Duchenne's clinical science stood at the junction of electricity, photography and psychology, as recorded in his much admired De l'électrisation localisée with its associated atlas Album de photographies pathologiques (1855, 1862). His name is commemorated in the myopathies which he described, as well as in his 1862 masterpiece, the Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, much consulted by Charles Darwin in the preparation of his Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
Later, when Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) took over the department, the Salpêtrière became celebrated as a psychiatric teaching centre, represented on canvas in 1887 by André Brouillet. Although Charcot insisted that hysteria could be a male disorder, he is best remembered for his work on the diagnosis of hysteria with Louise Augustine Gleizes; however, Marie "Blanche" Wittmann, known as the Queen of Hysterics, was probably his most famous patient. Charcot had also absorbed much from Duchenne (to whom he often referred as "mon maître, Duchenne") and his teaching activities on the Salpêtrière's wards helped to elucidate the natural history of many diseases including neurosyphilis, epilepsy, and stroke. In 1882, with Charcot's encouragement, Albert Londe created a photographic department in the Salpêtriėre, producing in collaboration with Georges Gilles de la Tourette, the Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière of 1888.
Students came from across Europe to witness Charcot's clinical demonstrations: among them – in 1885 – was the 29-year old Sigmund Freud who translated Charcot's lectures into German and whose deconstruction of the lectures on hysteria formed the foundations of psychoanalysis. An early English translation of Charcot's Clinical Lectures (1877, 1881) was made by the Irish physician and statesman George Sigerson. A rather negative portrait of Charcot's clinical style emerges in the 1929 autobiographical memoir - The Story of San Michele - of the Swedish physician Axel Munthe, whose early idolatry of Charcot gave way to a kind of obsessive antagonism.
The Hôpital de la Pitié, founded about 1612, was moved next to the Salpêtrière in 1911 and fused with it in 1964 to form the Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière. The Pitié-Salpêtrière is now a general teaching hospital with departments focusing on most major medical specialities.
Numerous celebrities have been treated at the Salpêtrière, including Michael Schumacher, Ronaldo, Prince Rainier of Monaco, Alain Delon, Gérard Depardieu, and Valérie Trierweiler. Former president Jacques Chirac had a pacemaker fitted at the Salpêtrière in 2008. Celebrities have also died at the Pitié-Salpêtrière, including the singer Josephine Baker in 1975, following a cerebral haemorrhage; philosopher Michel Foucault (from complications of AIDS) on 25 June 1984; Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997; and French bicycle racer Laurent Fignon in 2010 (from the metastatic spread of lung cancer).
Chapelle de la Salpêtrière (Hospital Chapel), at n° 47 Boulevard de l'Hôpital is one of the masterpieces of Libéral Bruant, architect of Les Invalides. It was built around 1675, on the model of a Greek cross and has four central chapels each capable of holding a congregation of some 1,000 people. Its central octagonal cupola is illuminated by picture windows in circular arcs.
Philippe Pinel monumentEdit
In the place in front of the main entrance to the Hospital, there is a large bronze monument to Philippe Pinel, who was chief physician of the Hospice from 1795 to his death in 1826. The Salpêtrière was, at the time, like a large village, with seven thousand elderly indigent and ailing women, an entrenched bureaucracy, a teeming market and huge infirmaries. Pinel created an inoculation clinic in his service at the Salpêtrière in 1799 and the first vaccination in Paris was given there in April 1800.
Through its history, the Pitié-Salpétrière hosted notable doctors, among others:
- Philippe Pinel (1745–1826);
- Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772–1840);
- Étienne-Jean Georget (1795–1828);
- Bénédict Morel (1809–1873);
- Duchenne de Boulogne (1806–1875), teacher of Charcot;
- Ernest-Charles Lasègue (1816–1883);
- Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893), founder of modern neurology;
- Alfred Vulpian (1826–1893) Physician and neurologist;
- Jules Bernard Luys (1828–1897), Neurologist;
- Paul Richer (1849–1933), anatomist, collaborator of Charcot;
- Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), Charcot's student in Paris and father of psychoanalysis;
- Joseph Babinski (1857–1932), another Charcot's student;
- Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904), neurologist;
- Pierre Janet (1859–1947), Psychologist;
- Abel Ayerza (1861–1918), Argentinian cardiologist;
- Gérard Encausse (1865–1916), Physician;
- Maria Montessori (1870–1952), pioneer in education;
- Jacques Lacan (1901–1981), psychoanalyst;
- Christian Cabrol (1925–2017), cardiac surgeon, performed Europe's first heart transplantation on April 27, 1968.
- Iradj Gandjbakhch (b. 1941), cardiac surgeon, performed Europe's first heart transplantation on April 27, 1968 along with Dr. Cabrol; fitted a pacemaker on former president Jacques Chirac in 2008.
- "Pitié-Salpêtrière." Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris. Retrieved on 26 February 2015. "47–83 boulevard de l'Hôpital 75013 Paris"
- "How to conduct European clinical trials from the Paris Region?" (PDF). CLINICAL TRIALS. BioTeam® Paris Region. February 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- González Velasco, Pedro. "La Salpêtrière Hospital before Charcot". Neurologia. 28: 52–6. doi:10.1016/j.nrl.2012.03.017. PMID 22704980.
- This episode is discussed in detail by Mary Bosworth, "Anatomy of a Massacre: Gender, Power, and Punishment in Revolutionary Paris" Violence Against Women, 7.10, (2001:1101–1121).
- Risse, Guenter. Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals. p. 311. ISBN 0-19-505523-3.
- Duchenne (de Boulogne), G.-B. (1990) The mechanism of human facial expression, edited and translated by R. Andrew Cuthbertson, Cambridge University Press and Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de L'homme. Definitive edition of Duchenne's masterpiece.
- Hustvedt, Asti (2011) Medical Muses: Hysteria in Nineteenth-Century Paris London, Berlin etc.: Bloomsbury Publishing. A biographical reconstruction of Charcot's clinical science.
- Esther Inglis-Arkell (August 14, 2014). "Meet the "Queen of Hysterics" Who Was Freud's Early Muse". io9. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- "BLANCHE – IMAGINARNA DŽUNGLA". Atelje Galerija. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- Entertainment (2014-06-14). "Medical history's mystery woman finds her voice". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- Charcot, Jean-Martin (1991) Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System edited and introduced by Ruth Harris. London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge Tavistock Classics in the History of Psychiatry.
- Didi-Huberman, Georges (1982) The Invention of Hysteria: Charcot and the Photographic Iconography of the Salpêtrière, translated (2003) by Alisa Hartz. Cambridge, Mass and London, England: MIT Press. A scholarly art-historical reworking of Charcot's iconographic neurology.
- Gordon, Rae Beth (2009) Dances with Darwin: Vernacular Modernity in France 1875 - 1910 London:Ashgate Publishing. A scholarly survey of the interaction of Darwinism with Charcot's neurology and the popular café culture of the day.
- "Interview with Professor Gérard Saillant". Fia.com. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- "Prince Rainier health "worrying"". BBC News. 2005-03-25. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- "A Survivor of the Painful Road to Hell and Back". Buzzle.com. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- "Europe | France's Chirac gets pacemaker". BBC News. 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- Series of Real-Time Reports involving the tragic death of Diana, Princess of Wales Archived October 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- N. Mclntyre, "The Medical Statues of Paris"
- Lamberty (2007). Understanding Somatization in the Practice of Clinical Neuropsychology. Minneapolis Oxford University. p. 5. ISBN 9780195328271.
- "Freud, Sigmund | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière.|
- Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (in French)
- History of La Salpêtrière
- Salpêtrière Hospital records, 1859–1942 (inclusive), 1900–1919 (bulk), HMS c30. Harvard Medical Library, Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Center for the History of Medicine, Harvard Medical School