Jean-Martin Charcot (French: [ʃaʁko]; 29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology. He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. Also known as "the founder of modern neurology", his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease. Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology". His work greatly influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology; modern psychiatry owes much to the work of Charcot and his direct followers. He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France" and has been called "the Napoleon of the neuroses".
|Died||16 August 1893 (aged 67)|
|Known for||Studying and discovering neurological diseases|
|Fields||Neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology|
Born in Paris, Charcot worked and taught at the famous Salpêtrière Hospital for 33 years. His reputation as an instructor drew students from all over Europe. In 1882, he established a neurology clinic at Salpêtrière, which was the first of its kind in Europe. Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, and greatly revered, Duchenne de Boulogne.
He was accused of being an atheist.
Charcot's primary focus was neurology. He named and was the first to describe multiple sclerosis. Summarizing previous reports and adding his own clinical and pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclérose en plaques. The three signs of multiple sclerosis now known as Charcot's triad 1 are nystagmus, intention tremor, and telegraphic speech, though these are not unique to MS. Charcot also observed cognition changes, describing his patients as having a "marked enfeeblement of the memory" and "conceptions that formed slowly". He was also the first to describe a disorder known as Charcot joint or Charcot arthropathy, a degeneration of joint surfaces resulting from loss of proprioception. He researched the functions of different parts of the brain and the role of arteries in cerebral hemorrhage.
Charcot was among the first to describe Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT). The announcement was made simultaneously with Pierre Marie of France (his resident) and Howard Henry Tooth of England. The disease is also sometimes called peroneal muscular atrophy.
Charcot's studies between 1868 and 1881 were a landmark in the understanding of Parkinson's disease. Among other advances he made the distinction between rigidity, weakness and bradykinesia. He also led the disease formerly named paralysis agitans (shaking palsy) to be renamed after James Parkinson. He also noted apparent variations on PD, such as Parkinson's disease with hyperextension. Charcot received the first European professional chair of clinical diseases for the nervous system in 1882.
Studies on hypnosis and hysteriaEdit
Charcot is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria. In particular, he is best remembered for his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who somewhat increased his fame during his lifetime; however, Marie "Blanche" Wittmann, known as the Queen of Hysterics, was his most famous hysteria patient at the time. He initially believed that hysteria was a neurological disorder for which patients were pre-disposed by hereditary features of their nervous system, but near the end of his life he concluded that hysteria was a psychological disease.
Charcot first began studying hysteria after creating a special ward for non-insane females with "hystero-epilepsy". He discovered two distinct forms of hysteria among these women: minor hysteria and major hysteria. His interest in hysteria and hypnotism "developed at a time when the general public was fascinated in 'animal magnetism' and 'mesmerization'", which was later revealed to be a method of inducing hypnosis. His study of hysteria "attract[ed] both scientific and social notoriety". Bogousslavsky, Walusinski, and Veyrunes write:
Charcot and his school considered the ability to be hypnotized as a clinical feature of hysteria ... For the members of the Salpêtrière School, susceptibility to hypnotism was synonymous with disease, i.e. hysteria, although they later recognized ... that grand hypnotisme (in hysterics) should be differentiated from petit hypnotisme, which corresponded to the hypnosis of ordinary people.
Charcot argued vehemently against the widespread medical and popular prejudice that hysteria was rarely found in men, presenting several cases of traumatic male hysteria. He taught that due to this prejudice these "cases often went unrecognised, even by distinguished doctors" and could occur in such models of masculinity as railway engineers or soldiers. Charcot's analysis, in particular his view of hysteria as an organic condition which could be caused by trauma, paved the way for understanding neurological symptoms arising from industrial-accident or war-related traumas.
The Salpêtrière School's position on hypnosis was sharply criticized by Hippolyte Bernheim, another leading neurologist of the time. Bernheim argued that the hypnosis and hysteria phenomena that Charcot had famously demonstrated were in fact due to suggestion. However, Charcot himself had had longstanding concerns about the use of hypnosis in treatment and about its effect on patients. He also was concerned that the sensationalism hypnosis attracted had robbed it of its scientific interest, and that the quarrel with Bernheim, amplified by Charcot's pupil Georges Gilles de la Tourette, had "damaged" hypnotism.
Charcot thought of art as a crucial tool of the clinicoanatomic method. He used photos and drawings, many made by himself or his students, in his classes and conferences. He also drew outside the neurology domain, as a personal hobby. Like Duchenne, he is considered a key figure in the incorporation of photography to the study of neurological cases.
Distorted views of CharcotEdit
Distorted views of Charcot as harsh and tyrannical have arisen from some sources that rely on a fanciful autobiographical novel by Axel Munthe, The Story of San Michele (1929). Munthe claimed to have been Charcot's assistant, but in fact, Munthe was just a medical student among hundreds of others. Munthe's most direct contact with Charcot was when Munthe helped a young female patient "escape" from a ward of the hospital and took her into his home. Charcot threatened to report this to the police, and ordered that Munthe not be allowed on the wards of the hospital again.
I can certify that Dr Munthe never was trained by my father"; and, further, that "[although Munthe] may have [incidentally] followed, like hundreds of others, some courses of Charcot, ...he was not trained by him and certainly never had the intimacy of which he boasts [in his recently reviewed work, Memories and Vagaries]. ...I was, myself, a student at the Salpetriere then, and can certify that he was not one of his students and that my father never knew him. Everything he says about professor Charcot is false....
Bengt Jangfeldt, in his 2008 biography, Axel Munthe: The Road to San Michele, states that "Charcot is not mentioned in a single letter of Axel's out of the hundreds that have been preserved from his Paris years" (p. 96).
One of Charcot's greatest legacies as a clinician is his contribution to the development of systematic neurological examination, correlating a set of clinical signs with specific lesions. This was made possible by his pioneering long-term studies of patients, coupled with microscopic and anatomic analysis derived from eventual autopsies. This led to the first clear delination of various neurological diseases and classic description of them. For example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Charcot is just as famous for his influence on those who had studied with him: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Babinski, Pierre Janet, William James, Pierre Marie, Albert Londe, Charles-Joseph Bouchard, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Alfred Binet, Jean Leguirec and Albert Pitres. Charcot bestowed the eponym for Tourette syndrome in honor of his student, Georges Gilles de la Tourette.
Although, by the 1870s, Charcot was France's best known physician, his ideas about hysteria were later refuted, and French psychiatry did not recover for decades. An example of the dismissal of Charcot's views can be found in Edward Shorter's History of Psychiatry: Shorter states that Charcot understood "almost nothing" about major psychiatric illness, and that he was "quite lacking in common sense and grandiosely sure of his own judgement". This perspective overlooks the fact that Charcot never claimed to be a psychiatrist or to be practising psychiatry, a field that was separately organized from neurology within France's educational and public health systems. After Charcot's death, the phenomenon of "hysteria" that he had described was no longer recognized as a real neurological condition, but was considered to be an "artifact of suggestion". However, Charcot continued to have a "prominent" position in French psychiatry and psychology. The negative evaluation of Charcot's work on hysteria was influenced by a significant shift in diagnostic criteria and understanding of hysteria which occurred in the decades following his death. The historical perspective on Charcot's work on hysteria has also been distorted by viewing him as a precursor of Freud. After Charcot's death, Freud and Janet wrote articles on his importance. However, Charcot's work on hysteria and hypnotism was at odds with the perspective Freud made famous, since Charcot believed in neurological determinism.
Influence on the development of anti-SemitismEdit
Charcot claimed to have observed a higher prevalence of diseases with a hereditary component (notably arthritis and neurological disorders) in Jewish communities, where limited numbers combined with longterm endogamy. He also used Jewish patients as examples in some of his public lectures. When these claims were developed by neurologist Henry Meige, and others, in conjunction with the myth of the Wandering Jew, this was used as support by the apostles of French anti-Semitism, notably the journalist Edouard Drumont. However, historian of science Ian Hacking cautions that Charcot's interest in Jews and his claims about them must be seen in their nuanced, ambiguous context: "notice how Charcot shared most of the presuppositions of the genetic approach to mental illness that are current today . He could not fall back on a genome project to support his scientific speculations, but he did have a closed gene pool to study, not just in that Jews were endogenous but because many Jews in his clinic were descended from relatives, even cousins, who married each other. Scientific reasoning could motivate his constant attention to Jewish family lines .... Thus a reputable scientific quest merged with a great willingness to see Jews as aberrant, troublesome, ill." However, by the very end of the 19th century, anti-Semitism in France had rapidly accentuated, due to the Dreyfus affair. "Because of this transition, it has become all too easy to read gross and manifest anti-Semitism" retrospectively into the hospital wards of one or two decades previous.
Charcot's name is associated with many diseases and conditions including:
- Charcot's artery (lenticulostriate artery)
- Charcot's joint (diabetic arthropathy)
- Charcot's disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the most-common subtype of motor neurone disease—also known as Lou Gehrig's disease.)
- Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (peripheral muscular atrophy), named with Pierre Marie and Howard Henry Tooth.
- Charcot–Wilbrand syndrome (visual agnosia and loss of ability to revisualise images), named with Hermann Wilbrand.
- Charcot's intermittent hepatic fever (intermittent pain, intermittent fever, intermittent jaundice, and loss of weight)
- Charcot–Bouchard aneurysms (tiny aneurysms of the penetrating branches of middle cerebral artery in hypertensives), named with Charles-Joseph Bouchard.
- Charcot's triad of acute cholangitis (right upper quadrant pain, jaundice, and fever)
- Charcot's triad of multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, and dysarthria)
- Charcot–Leyden crystals due to the lysis of eosinophils in cases of allergic diseases, named with Ernst Viktor von Leyden.
- Souques–Charcot geroderma: a variant of Hutchinson–Gilford disease, named with Alexandre-Achille Souques.
- Charcot–Gombault necrosis: a biliary infarct, named with Albert Gombault.
Charcot in popular cultureEdit
Charcot appears, along with Madame Curie and Charcot's patient "Blanche" (Marie "Blanche" Wittmann), in Per Olov Enquist's 2004 novel The Book about Blanche and Marie (English translation, 2006, ISBN 1-58567-668-3). He also appears in the 2005 novel by Sebastian Faulks, Human Traces.
A 2012 French historical drama film, Augustine, is about a love affair between Charcot and his patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who was known as Augustine or A. In reality, there was no sexual relationship between her and Charcot. The New York Times film review describes Charcot as "a complicated figure in retrospect, at once a charlatan and a pioneer, a monster and a modernizer".
In the 2016 novel, The Witches of New York, by Ami McKay, Charcot is referenced at the beginning of a chapter in a fake news section. The piece refers to a course where Charcot will be providing information on cases of demonic activity and witchcraft.
A collection of Charcot's correspondence is held at the United States National Library of Medicine.
- "In the last analysis, we see only what we are ready to see, what we have been taught to see. We eliminate and ignore everything that is not a part of our prejudices."
- "To learn how to treat a disease, one must learn how to recognize it. The diagnosis is the best trump in the scheme of treatment."
- "Symptoms, then, are in reality nothing but a cry from suffering organs."
- "If you do not have a proven treatment for certain illnesses, bid [sic] your time, do what you can, but do not harm your patients."
- "...perfectly legitimate pathological phenomena, in which the will of the patient counts for nothing, absolutely nothing"; in reference to the clinical features of hysteria.
- Enerson, Ole Daniel. "Jean-Martin Charcot". Who Named It?. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- Entertainment (2014-06-14). "Medical history's mystery woman finds her voice". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- Lamberty (2007), p. 5
- Teive HA, Chien HF, Munhoz RP, Barbosa ER (December 2008). "Charcot's contribution to the study of Tourette's syndrome". Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 66 (4): 918–21. doi:10.1590/S0004-282X2008000600035. PMID 19099145.
- Bogousslavsky (2010), p. 7
- Kushner (2000), p. 11
- "Jean-Martin Charcot". A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). 1998. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- Siegel IM (Summer 2000). "Charcot and Duchenne: Of mentors, pupils, and colleagues". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 43 (4): 541–7. doi:10.1353/pbm.2000.0055. PMID 11058990.
- Haas LF (October 2001). "Jean Martin Charcot (1825–93) and Jean Baptiste Charcot (1867–1936)". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 71 (4): 524. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.4.524. PMC 1763526. PMID 11561039.
- Tan SY, Shigaki D (May 2007). "Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893): pathologist who shaped modern neurology". Singapore Med J. 48 (5): 383–4. PMID 17453093.
- Kugelmann, Robert. Psychology and Catholicism: Contested Boundaries. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011. Print.
- Charcot JM (1868). "Histologie de la sclérose en plaques". Gazette des hopitaux, Paris (in French). 41: 554–55.
- Enersen, Ole Daniel. "Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease". Whonamedit.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
- Lees AJ (September 2007). "Unresolved issues relating to the shaking palsy on the celebration of James Parkinson's 250th birthday". Mov. Disord. 22 (Suppl 17): S327–34. doi:10.1002/mds.21684. PMID 18175393.
- Jean-Martin Charcot and Movement Disorders: Neurological Legacies to the 21st Century
- Jeste (2007) p. 4
- Esther Inglis-Arkell (August 14, 2014). "Meet the "Queen of Hysterics" Who Was Freud's Early Muse". io9. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- "BLANCHE – IMAGINARNA DŽUNGLA". Atelje Galerija. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- Charcot (1889), p. 85
- Bogousslavsky (2010), p. 108
- Shorter (1997), p. 134
- Bogousslavsky J, Walusinski O, Veyrunes D (2009). "Crime, hysteria and belle époque hypnotism: the path traced by Jean-Martin Charcot and Georges Gilles de la Tourette" (PDF). Eur. Neurol. 62 (4): 193–9. doi:10.1159/000228252. PMID 19602893.
- Plotnik (2012) p. 170.
- Goetz (1995), p. 211
- Bogousslavsky (2010), p. 203
- Goetz (1987), p. 116
- Goetz (1987), p. 117
- The identities of each of the thirty separate individuals that are represented in this composite (1887) presentation painting by Pierre Aristide, André Brouillet (1857-1914) have been clearly identified at p.471 of Harris, J.C., "A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière", Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol.62, No.5, (May 2005), pp.470-472.
- Goetz CG (April 1991). "Visual art in the neurologic career of Jean-Martin Charcot". Arch. Neurol. 48 (4): 421–5. doi:10.1001/archneur.1991.00530160091020. PMID 2012518.
- Hierons R (1993). "Charcot and his visits to Britain". BMJ. 307 (6919): 1589–91. doi:10.1136/bmj.307.6919.1589. PMC 1697759. PMID 8292949.
- Charcot, J.-B. (18 January 1931). "Objection & Reproof". Letters to the Editor. The New York Times Book Review. p. 23, col. A.
- Jangfeldt, Bengt (2008). Axel Munthe: The Road to San Michele. London; New York: I. B. Taurus. p. 96. ISBN 9780857710680.
- Goetz (1995), p. 103
- Charcot, J. M. (1874) "De la sclérose latérale amyotrophique," Le Progrès médical, series 1, 2 : 325-327, 341-342, 453-455.
- Jean Martin Charcot with Désiré Magloire Bourneville, ed., Oeuvres complètes de J.M. Charcot (Complete works of J.M. Charcot), (Paris, France: Fèlix Alcan, 1894), volume 2, "Douzième Leçon: Amyotrophies spinales deutéropathiques, — Sclérose latérale amyotrophique." (Twelfth lesson: Deuteropathic spinal amyotrophies — amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), pp. 234-248; "Treizième Leçon: De la sclérose latérale amyotrophique. Symptomatologie." (Thirteenth lesson: On amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Symptomology), pp. 249-266.
- Black, KJ (22 March 2006). Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders. eMedicine. Retrieved on 27 June 2006.
* Enerson, Ole Daniel. Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette. Who Named It? Retrieved on 28 June 2006.
- Goetz (1995), p. 208
- Shorter (1997), pp. 84–86
- Gardner (1999), p. 145
- Goetz (1987), p. 115
- Bogousslavsky (2010), p. 120
- Gardner (1999), p. 389
- The Charcot-Janet school was later extended by Morton Prince in his book on Dissociation of a Personality (1905),
- Charcot, Jean-Martin. Lecons du mardi. Paris: Bureaux du Progrès médical, 1888-89, vol. 2. p. 11.
- Jan Goldstein "The Wandering Jew and the Problem of Psychiatric Anti-Semitism in Fin-de-Siecle France" 20 Journal of Contemporary History (Oct., 1985), p. 521
- Hacking, Ian. Mad Travelers: Reflections on the Reality of Transient Mental Illnesses. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1998. p. 119
- Hacking, Ian. Mad Travelers: Reflections on the Reality of Transient Mental Illnesses. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1998. p. 123
- "Souques-Charcot gerodema". Whonamedit.com.
- Jurado I, Andreu X, Martin J, et al. (1997). "Biliary infarct (Charcot-Gombault necrosis): CT and pathologic features". J Comput Assist Tomogr. 21 (1): 106–7. doi:10.1097/00004728-199701000-00020. PMID 9022779.
- L Tolstoy, Resurrection (Penguin 1977) p. 104
- Name * (2013-07-01). "Alice Winocour's Augustine | Fiction and Film for French Historians". H-france.net. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- Scott, AO (16 May 2013). "Doctor and patient: a gothic love story". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- Olsen M (21 May 2013). "French actress-singer Soko finds quiet showcase in 'Augustine'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- Scott AO (16 May 2013). "Doctor and patient: a gothic love story". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- Olsen M (21 May 2013). "French actress-singer Soko finds quiet showcase in 'Augustine'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "J.M. Charcot correspondence and draft 1870-1892". US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- Mills (2003), p. 135
- "Charcot Awards". 2015-03-10. Retrieved 2015-03-17.
- Kundu AK (September 2004). "Charcot in medical eponyms". J Assoc Physicians India. 52: 716–8. PMID 15839450.
- Goetz CG (August–September 2009). "Jean-Martin Charcot and movement disorders: neurological legacies to the 21st century". International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Jeste (2007) p. 8
- Bogousslavsky J, ed. (2010). Following Charcot: a Forgotten History of Neurology and Psychiatry. Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience. S Karger Pub. ISBN 978-3-8055-9556-8.
- Charcot JM (1889) . Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System [Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux]. 3 (Thomas Savill, translator ed.). London: The New Sydenham Society. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- Goetz CG (1987). Charcot, the Clinician. New York: Raven Press. ISBN 0-88167-315-3.
- Goetz CG, Bonduelle M, Gelfand T (1995). Charcot: Constructing Neurology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507643-5.
- Harris, J.C., "A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière", Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol.62, No.5, (May 2005), pp. 470–472.
- Jeste DV, Friedman JH (2007). Psychiatry for Neurologists. Springer. ISBN 1592599605.
- Kushner HI (2000). A Cursing Grain? The Histories of Tourette Syndrome. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00386-1.
- Lamberty GJ (2007). Understanding Somatization in the Practice of Clinical Neuropsychology. Minneapolis Oxford University. ISBN 9780195328271.
- Mills WJ (2003). Exploring Polar Frontiers: a Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-422-6.
- Moskowitz BG, ed. (1998). The Princeton Symposium on the Legacy and Future of Social Cognition. Cengage Learning. p. 170. ISBN 1135664242.
- Murphy G (1999). An Historical Introduction to Modern Ssychology. Routledge. ISBN 0415-21034-8.
- Plotnik R, Kouyoumdjian H (2010). Introduction to Psychology. Cengage Learning. ISBN 0495903442.
- Shorter E (1997). A History of Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-24531-3.
- Alvarado, C., "Nineteenth-Century Hysteria and Hypnosis: A Historical Note on Blanche Wittmann", Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol.37, No.1, (May 2009), pp.21-36.
- Bogousslavsky J, Paciaroni M (2010). "Did Jean-Martin Charcot contribute to stroke?" (PDF). Eur. Neurol. 64 (1): 27–32. doi:10.1159/000317073. PMID 20588046.
- Broussolle E, Poirier J, Clarac F, Barbara JG (April 2012). "Figures and institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part III: neurology" (PDF). Rev. Neurol. (Paris). 168 (4): 301–20. doi:10.1016/j.neurol.2011.10.006. PMID 22387204.
- Clanet M (June 2008). "Jean-Martin Charcot. 1825 to 1893" (PDF). Int MS J. 15 (2): 59–61. PMID 18782501.
- Ekbom K (January 1992). "The man behind the syndrome: Jean-Martin Charcot". J Hist Neurosci. 1 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1080/09647049209525513. PMID 11618414.
- Goetz CG (2009). "Chapter 15 Jean-Martin Charcot and the anatomo-clinical method of neurology". Handb Clin Neurol. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 95: 203–12. doi:10.1016/S0072-9752(08)02115-5. ISBN 978-0-444-52009-8. PMID 19892118.
- Goetz CG (March 2006). "Charcot in contemporary literature". J Hist Neurosci. 15 (1): 22–30. doi:10.1080/096470490944707. PMID 16443570.
- Goetz CG (July 2007). "J.-M. Charcot and simulated neurologic disease: attitudes and diagnostic strategies". Neurology. 69 (1): 103–9. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000265061.46526.77. PMID 17606887.
- Goetz CG (May 2010). "Shaking up the Salpetriere: Jean-Martin Charcot and mercury-induced tremor". Neurology. 74 (21): 1739–42. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181e0439e. PMC 3462583. PMID 20498442.
- Goetz CG, Chmura TA, Lanska DJ (May 2001). "Seminal figures in the history of movement disorders: Sydenham, Parkinson, and Charcot: Part 6 of the MDS-sponsored history of Movement Disorders exhibit, Barcelona, June 2000". Mov. Disord. 16 (3): 537–40. doi:10.1002/mds.1113. PMID 11391755.
- Goetz CG, Harter DH (October 2009). "Charcot and Pasteur: intersecting orbits in fin de siècle French medicine". J Hist Neurosci. 18 (4): 378–86. doi:10.1080/09647040802536967. PMID 20183219.
- Guillain, Georges (1959). J.-M. Charcot 1825–1893: His Life-His Work. Paul B. Hoeber, Inc.
- Hustvedt, Asti (2011). Medical Muses: Hysteria in Nineteenth-Century Paris. Bloomsbury.
- Rowland LP (March 2001). "How amyotrophic lateral sclerosis got its name: the clinical-pathologic genius of Jean-Martin Charcot". Arch. Neurol. 58 (3): 512–5. doi:10.1001/archneur.58.3.512. PMID 11255459.
- Teive HA, Almeida SM, Arruda WO, Sá DS, Werneck LC (June 2001). "Charcot and Brazil" (PDF). Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 59 (2–A): 295–9. doi:10.1590/S0004-282X2001000200032. PMID 11400048.
- Teive HA, Arruda WO, Werneck LC (September 2005). "Rosalie: the Brazilian female monkey of Charcot" (PDF). Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 63 (3A): 707–8. doi:10.1590/s0004-282x2005000400031. PMID 16172730.
- Teive HA, Munhoz RP, Barbosa ER (June 2007). "Little-known scientific contributions of J-M Charcot" (PDF). Clinics (Sao Paulo). 62 (3): 211–4. doi:10.1590/s1807-59322007000300003. PMID 17589659.
- Teive HA, Zavala JA, Iwamoto FM, Sá D, Carraro H, Werneck LC (September 2001). "[Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries]". Arq Neuropsiquiatr (in Portuguese). 59 (3–A): 633–6. doi:10.1590/S0004-282X2001000400030. PMID 11588652.
|French Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean-Martin Charcot.|