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Pistol Mitralieră model 1963/1965

The Pistol Mitralieră model 1963 (abbreviated PM md. 63 or simply md. 63) is an assault rifle patterned after the AKM, and chambered in the 7.62×39mm cartridge. It is exported as the AIM.

PM md. 63/65
PMmd.1963.jpg
Cutaway of the PM md. 1963.
TypeAssault rifle
Place of originSocialist Republic of Romania
Service history
In service1963–present
Used bySee Users
WarsVietnam War
The Troubles
Nicaraguan Revolution
Iran–Iraq War
Lebanese Civil War[1]
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
1989 Romanian Revolution
Gulf War[2]
Yugoslav Wars[3]
First Liberian Civil War
Second Liberian Civil War[4]
Iraqi War[5]
Dissident Irish Republican campaign
First Libyan Civil War
Second Libyan Civil War
Syrian Civil War
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Production history
DesignerRomtechnica
Designed1960s
ManufacturerROMARM via Regia Autonomă pentru producţia de Tehnică Militară (RATMIL), Cugir
Produced1963–1994
VariantsPM md. 65, PM md. 90
Specifications
Mass(without magazine) 3.45 kg (7.61 lb) (md. 63)
3.2 kg (7.1 lb) (md. 65)
Length870 mm (34.3 in) (md. 63)
870 mm (34.3 in) stock extended / 640 mm (25.2 in) stock folded (md. 65)
Barrel length415 mm (16.3 in)

Cartridge7.62×39mm
ActionGas-operated reloading
Rate of fire600 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity715 m/s (2,346 ft/s)
Effective firing range100 to 1,000 m sight adjustments
Feed system30-round detachable box magazine
SightsRear sight notch on sliding tangent, front post, 378 mm (14.9 in) sight radius

The Pistol Mitralieră model 1965 (abbreviated PM md. 65 or simply md. 65) is the underfolding-stock version of the md. 63, and is exported as the AIMS.

HistoryEdit

In the early 1960s, the Romanian Army used mostly PPSh-41, Oriţa submachine guns and imported AK-47 rifles. With the development of the stamped Type 4 AKM receiver, and the Soviet Union's call to each of the Warsaw Pact's nations to produce their own assault rifles chambered in 7.62mm, be they AK-47 pattern or not, the Romanian State Arsenal developed an AKM clone featuring a forward-pointing front handgrip molded into the lower handguard, called the Pistol Mitralieră model 1963 (literally 'machine pistol' model 1963). The underfolding stock version is designated the Pistol Mitralieră model 1965, and features a rear-pointing front handgrip, allowing the underfolding stock to be completely retracted.

FeaturesEdit

The PM md. 63/65 is almost identical to the AKM/AKMS, and thus is simple, inexpensive to manufacture, and easy to clean and maintain. The bore and chamber, as well as the gas piston and the interior of the gas cylinder, are generally chromium-plated. This plating dramatically increases the life of these parts by resisting corrosion and wear. Most md. 63/65 rifles lack a muzzle brake, but instead use a muzzle nut, as muzzle brakes entered production only in the late 1970s. The underfolding version is unique among the AKMS as it uses the thicker milled AKS type stock and arms, even locking only on the left side and being angled downwards just like the AKS. Some have speculated that the stocks may have even been surplus Romania purchased from Russia. The md 65's rear trunnion is also different compared to the standard AKMS's version, differing in that it only has the two locking holes on the left side, has only two pairs of rivets near the back of the trunnion and a bar connecting the two sides of the trunnion at the front. The navy is the only remaining large scale operator of the md. 65 because of the weight of the metal underfolding stock.

The fire selector markings are as follows, from top to bottom: Domestic—S, FA, FF. Export—S, A, R.

Operating CycleEdit

To fire, the operator inserts a loaded magazine, moves the selector lever to the lowest position, pulls back and releases the charging handle, and then pulls the trigger. In this setting, the gun fires once, requiring the trigger be released and depressed again for the next shot until the magazine is exhausted. With the selector in the middle position, the rifle continues to fire, automatically cycling fresh rounds into the chamber, until the magazine is exhausted or pressure is released from the trigger.

DisassemblyEdit

Dismantling the md. 63/65 is identical to dismantling the AKM and it involves the operator depressing the magazine catch and removing the magazine. The charging handle is pulled to the rear and the operator inspects the chamber to verify the weapon is unloaded. The operator presses forward on the retainer button at the rear of the receiver cover while simultaneously lifting up on the rear of the cover to remove it. The operator then pushes the spring assembly forward and lifts it from its raceway, withdrawing it out of the bolt carrier and to the rear. The operator must then pull the carrier assembly all the way to the rear, lift it, and then pull it away. The operator removes the bolt by pushing it to the rear of the bolt carrier; rotating the bolt so the camming lug clears the raceway on the underside of the bolt carrier and then pulls it forward and free. When cleaning, the operator will pay special attention to the barrel, bolt face, and gas piston, then oil lightly and reassemble.

Patriotic Guards versionEdit

 
A reconstructed 'Gardă' PM md. 63, with an US-made receiver.

The most-produced civilian export variation of this rifle is that of the 'Gardă' designation, produced for the Romanian Patriotic Guards. These rifles have a letter 'G' engraved on the left side of the rear sight block. The civil guard versions are modified by the removal of the sear and the modification of the disconnector to be semi-automatic only. Tens of thousands of these have been imported into the United States and sold as 'parts kits' (the receiver is destroyed by torch-cutting per BATF regulations – without the receiver, the kit is no longer legally considered a firearm). They are colloquially known among firearms enthusiasts as "Romy G's".

Other civilian versionsEdit

Other civilian 7.62mm Romanian AK clones are: SAR 1, WASR 10 (including WASR 10/63), Romak 991, Romak 1, and WUM 1. The Wieger rifle lookalikes known as the STG-2000 and STG-2003 are based on WASR 10 rifles, which are the only ones still in production.

A version of the PM md. 90 carbine is also available in the United States, known as the "Draco" it has the folding stock removed and thus the BATF sees it as a pistol and legal to import.

In Germany there are civilian versions on the market under the name / modell Cugir WS1-63 (fixed wood stock), WS1-64 (underfolder stock), WS1-64SB (Short Barrel 314mm with the underfolder stock).

The WS1-63HO is the straight pull non semi auto version. The gun must be charged after every shot that is fired.

PM md. 80Edit

The Pistol Mitralieră model 1980 is a short barreled AK variant, and the first side-folding stock version produced in Romania. It featured a shorter gas block and usually used 20 round magazines. The front sight post is combined with the gas-block to provide an overall short length. The side folder is straight and folds to the left. There are two types of muzzle brakes used: a cylindrical one, and more commonly a slightly conical one. It is also known as the AIMR.

PM md. 90Edit

 
PM md. 90 carbine

The Pistol Mitralieră model 1990 is the 7.62mm response to the 5.45mm Pușcă Automată model 1986. It is internally identical to a PM md. 63/65, and outwardly differs in that it has a wire folding stock identical to the PA md. 86 stock, and that all of the rifles are fitted with slant brakes. It was extensively used in the Romanian Revolution of 1989 along with the md. 63 and md. 65

Short barrel versionEdit

The carbine version of the model 90, called simply PM md. 90 cu țeavă scurtă (short barreled PM md. 90), has a 12-inch [305 mm] barrel, an overall length of 31.69 inches [805 mm] (or 23.81 inches [605 mm] with the stock folded), and weighs 6.83 lbs. (3.1 kg) empty. It was designed for tank crews and special forces. Apart from the stock and the shortened barrel, it features the same modifications as the PM md. 80.

7.62 mm RPKEdit

The RPK version of the md. 63 is called the md. 64. It is essentially identical to the Soviet RPK.

UsersEdit

Nonstate usersEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  22. ^ willyp (26 November 2007). "AIM (AKM) Variants (7.62x39)". Image Event. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  23. ^ partisan1943 (11 March 2015). "Eastern Bloc militaries". Tumblr. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  24. ^ nineoclock (15 August 2015). "Navy Day: Romanian Naval Forces celebrate 155th anniversary by impressive air, sea and land exercise". nineoclock.ro. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  25. ^ "World Infantry Weapons: Sierra Leone". 2013. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016.
  26. ^ Persecution Project Foundation (4 March 2011). "SOUTH SUDAN: The World's Newest Nation Emerges from Africa's Longest War". Persecution Project Foundation. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
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