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"Pink tide" (Spanish: marea rosa, Portuguese: onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model. The shift represented a move toward more progressive economic policies and coincides with a parallel trend towards direct democracy in some communities.[1][2]

The Latin American countries viewed as part of this ideological trend have been referred to as "Pink Tide nations",[3] with the term post-neoliberalism being used to describe the movement as well. Pink tide governments have been characterized by some authors as being anti-American,[4] populist,[5][6][7][8] and authoritarian-leaning.[5]



During the Cold War, a series of left-leaning governments attain power via electoral polls in Latin America. These governments faced what was described as “economic warfare[9][10] and coups sponsored[11][12] by the United States government as part of its geostrategic interest in the region. These included the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état against democratically elected president Jacobo Árbenz, 1964 Brazilian coup d'état against democratically elected president João Goulart, 1973 Chilean coup d'état against democratically elected president Salvador Allende, and 1976 Argentine coup d'état against democratically elected president Isabel Perón, among others. All of these coups were followed by US-backed and sponsored right-wing military dictatorships as part of the US government's Operation Condor.[10][11][12]

These authoritarian regimes committed several human rights violations including illegal detentions of political opponents, suspects of be one and/or their families, tortures, disappearances and child trafficking.[13][14] As these regimes started to decline due to international pressure, internal outcry in the US from the population due to the US involvement in the atrocities forced Washington to relinquish its support for them. New democratic processes begun during the late 70s and up to the early 90s as a result of the economic hardships due to many faulty economic decisions taken by these regimes and their advisors like the Chicago Boys.[15]

Should be notice that, with the exception of Costa Rica, essentially all Latin American countries had at least one experience with a US-supported dictator[16] including Fulgencio Batista in Cuba, Rafael Trujillo in Dominican Republic, the Somoza family in Nicaragua, Carlos Castillo Armas in Guatemala, Juan María Bordaberry in Uruguay, Jorge Rafael Videla in Argentina, Augusto Pinochet in Chile, Alfredo Stroessner in Paraguay, François Duvalier in Haiti, Emílio Garrastazu Médici in Brazil, Marcos Pérez Jiménez in Venezuela, etc., which caused a strong anti-American sentiment in wide sectors of the population.[17][18][19][20]

In the 1990s, following the end of the Cold War, Latin American countries turned towards neo-liberal economic policies and underwent a process of privatization of public companies, cuts in public spending, foreign investment, and espousing of free market policies.[21] These neo-liberal economic policies promoted by the IMF and the World Bank were dubbed as the "Washington consensus".[21] According to the BBC, a "common element of the 'pink tide' is a clean break with what was known at the outset of the 1990s as the 'Washington consensus', the mixture of open markets and privatisation pushed by the United States".[7] The Neo-liberal experiment collapsed in several countries by the end of the decade, leaving the different economies with features such as high level of unemployment, corruption, inflation and increasing inequality.[21] With the difficulties facing emerging markets across the world at the time, Latin Americans turned away from the liberal economics and used the promoted democracy to elect leftist leaders, with nearly half of a dozen elected governments turning to authoritarianism.[22] With China becoming a more industrialized nation at the same time and requiring resources for its growing economy, it took advantage of the strained relations with the United States and partnered with the leftist governments.[22]

According to Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, a pink tide president herself, Hugo Chávez of Venezuela (inaugurated 1999), Lula da Silva of Brazil (inaugurated 2003) and Evo Morales of Bolivia (inaugurated 2006) were "the three musketeers" of the left in South America.[23] By 2005, the BBC reported that out of 350 million people in South America, three out of four of them lived in countries ruled by "left-leaning presidents" elected during the preceding six years.[7]

Use of the termEdit

Countries in red indicate countries that had a left wing governments in 2011.

The term "pink tide" had become prominent in contemporary discussion of Latin American politics in the early 21st century. Origins of the term may be linked to a statement by Larry Rohter, a New York Times reporter in Montevideo who characterized the election of Tabaré Vázquez as leader of Uruguay as "not so much a red tide…as a pink one."[8] The term seems to be a play on words based on "red tide" (a biological phenomenon rather than a political one) with "red" – a color long associated with communism – being replaced with the lighter tone of "pink" to indicate the more moderate communist and socialist ideas that gained strength.[24]

Despite the presence of a number of Latin American governments which professed to embracing a leftist ideology, it is difficult to categorize Latin American states "according to dominant political tendencies, like a red-blue post-electoral map of the United States."[24] According to the Institute for Policy Studies, a leftist think-tank based in Washington, D.C.:

While this political shift was difficult to quantify, its effects were widely noticed. According to the Institute for Policy Studies, 2006 meetings of the South American Summit of Nations and the Social Forum for the Integration of Peoples demonstrated that certain discussions that "used to take place on the margins of the dominant discourse of neoliberalism, now moved to the center of public debate."[24]


In 2006, The Arizona Republic stated:[25]

According to a 2007 report from the Inter Press Service news agency:[26]

In 2014, Albrecht Koschützke and Hajo Lanz, directors of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation for Central America stated:


To a certain extent, I think the left has exhausted itself in many parts of Latin America ... The citizenry has begun to see the excesses we saw in Argentina, the stagnation we are seeing in Brazil, or, in the case of Venezuela, the absolute failure of an incumbent party.
David Shirk, University of San Diego [23]

Hugo Chávez, who had "dreams of continental domination", was seen as a threat to his own people according to Michael Reid in Foreign Affairs, with his influence reaching a peak in 2007.[22] The interest in Chávez waned after his dependence on oil revenue led Venezuela into an economic crisis and as he grew increasingly authoritarian.[22] The death of Hugo Chávez in 2013 left the most radical wing without a clear leader, as Nicolás Maduro did not have the same international influence of his predecessor. National policies among the left are divided between the styles of Chávez and Lula da Silva, as Lula focused on the poor people but also in private enterprises and global capital.[28] In 2015, the shift away from the left became more pronounced in Latin America, with The Economist saying the Pink Tide had ebbed[29] and Vice News stating that 2015 was "The Year the 'Pink Tide' Turned".[23] By 2016, the decline of the pink tide saw an emergence of a "new right" in Latin America.[30]

According to The New York Times, "Latin America’s leftist ramparts appear to be crumbling because of widespread corruption, a slowdown in China’s economy and poor economic choices", with the newspaper elaborating that leftist leaders did not diversify economies, had unsustainable welfare policies and disregarded democratic behaviors.[31]


Former President of Argentina Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was indicted for embezzling money, with her secretary of public works, Jose Lopez, being arrested in June 2016 while stashing money in a Catholic convent. However, Fernández obtained immunity after being elected into Argentina's senate. Fernández's former vice president and finance minister, Amado Boudou, was arrested on 3 November 2017 on charges of racketeering and money laundering.[32]

On 12 July 2017, the former Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva was convicted of money laundering and passive corruption, defined in Brazilian criminal law as the receipt of a bribe by a civil servant or government official. He was sentenced to nine years and six months in prison by judge Sérgio Moro[33][34] but remains free pending an appeal of the sentence.

In February 2016, amidst the Peruvian Presidential Race, a report from the Brazilian Federal Police implicated former Peruvian president Ollanta Humala as recipient of bribes from Odebrecht in exchange of assigned public works. President Humala rejected the implication and has avoided speaking to the media on the matter.[35][36] Humala was jailed for 18 months in 2017 for corruption.[37]


Some of the results after the first Progressive governments in Latin America included among other things a reduction in the income gap, unemployment, extreme poverty, malnutrition and hunger,[1][27] and rapid increase in literacy.[1]

Countries like Brazil and Ecuador,[38][39] El Salvador, Nicaragua,[40] and Costa Rica[41] experienced notable economic growth during this period, whilst Bolivia and El Salvador both saw a notable reduction in poverty according to the World Bank.[42][43]

Economic hardships occurred in countries such as Venezuela as oil and commodity prices declined.[44]

According to President of Inter-American Dialogue, Michael Shifter regarding the economic situation:

The United States–Cuban Thaw occurred with Cuba reapproaching the United States when Cuba's main international partner, Venezuela, began experiencing economic hardships.[45][46]

Political outcomeEdit

If the start of the 21st century represented a new beginning for the Latin left ... the region may now be seeing the birth of a new right.
AFP, Sept. 2016 [30]

Following the initiation of the pink tide's policies, the relationship between both left-leaning and right-leaning governments and the public changed.[47] Up until the 1990s, only two classes - the "political elite" and the people - existed in Latin America.[47] As leftist governments took power in the region, rising commodity prices funded their welfare policies, which lowered inequality and assisted indigenous rights.[47] Such advancements changed the right-wing in Latin America, forcing them to adopt a more social-conscious practice.[47] However, due to the alleged overspending of previous leftist governments in the 2000s, liberal governments were sought in the 2010s by citizens in the region seeking a sustainable economy, which required potential progressive politicians to reevaluate their policies.[47]

By countryEdit


In Argentina, right-wing forces overthrow the democratically elected President Isabel Perón in the 1976 Argentine coup d'état, starting the brutal far-right dictatorship of right-wing General Jorge Rafael Videla, known as National Reorganization Process, resulting with around 30,000 victims becoming missing. Both the coup and the following authoritarian regime was eagerly endorsed and supported by the United States government[48] with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger paying several official visits to Argentina during the dictatorship.[49][50] Among the many human rights violations committed during the period were extrajudicial arrest, mass executions, torture, rape, disappearances of political prisoners and dissenters,[51] and illegal relocations of children born from pregnant women (both pregnant before their imprisonment or made pregnant by the continuous rape).[49][51] According to Spanish judge Baltazar Garzón, Kissinger was a witness to these crimes.[52]

The first democratic elections after the end of the military junta’s regime were the Argentine general election, 1983, with Radical Civic Union candidate Raul Alfonsin winning the plurality of votes. But Argentina’s economy was in shambles due to years of bad decisions taken during the military junta following the Washington Consensus.[53][54][dubious ] The 1998–2002 Argentine great depression caused all sorts of social and political turmoil provoking the resignation of several presidents.

In the Argentine general election, 2003 three Peronistas ran for President. Right-wing candidate and then former President Carlos Menem was seeking re-election and, although he did win the first round, all polls showed that left-wing candidate Nestor Kirchner would win,[55][56][55] thus resulting in Menem to resign his candidacy. Kirchner and his wife Cristina Fernández would then win several consecutive elections.

The election of the center-right Mauricio Macri in November 2015 as President of Argentina brought a right-wing government to power, although the populist movements of Peronism and Kirchnerismo (tied to its leader Fernández de Kirchner's popularity)[57] initially remained somewhat strong.[23] Macri's government suffered from high unemployement rates, inflation and an increase in poverty soon after his election,[58] though his government eventually halved the inflation rate by late-2017 and Argentina's economy began to grow again.[59]

In October 2017, right-wing President Macri of Argentina established a more firm hold on power when many candidates of his Cambiemos party enjoyed victories in the 2017 Argentine legislative election, making a political comeback for Cristina Fernández de Kirchner more difficult.[60] A series of corruption scandals involving Macri and his allies envelop during his presidential period,[61] including six federal investigations for alleged money laundry, influence trafficking, illegal increase of his family’s wealth[62] and the Macri-Correo Argentino scandal with Macri’s alleged condoning of a government debt from Macri’s father’s owned Mail Company.[63][better source needed] Macri was also involved in the Panama Papers scandal.[64]


Brazil experienced several decades of right-wing authoritarian governments, especially after the US-backed[65] 1964 Brazilian coup d'état developed, according to then President John F. Kennedy, to "prevent Brazil from becoming another China or Cuba".[66] Brazil's return to democracy saw several consecutive right-wing neoliberal governments following the Washington Consensus ending in endemic inequality and extreme poverty, one of the worst in the Continent.[67] Before Lula’s election, Brazil suffered from one of the highest rates of poverty in the Americas, with the infamous favelas known internationally for its levels of extreme poverty, malnutrition and health problems. Extreme poverty was also a problem in rural areas. During Lula’s presidency several social programs like “Fome Zero” (Zero Hunger) were praised internationally for, among other things, reducing hunger in Brazil,[67] poverty and inequality while also improving the health and education of the population.[67][68] Aroung 29 million people became middle class during Lula's 8 years tenure.[68] During Lula's government Brazil became an economic power and member of BRICS.[67][68] Lula ended his tenure with 80% approval ratings.[69]

Lula's successor, Dilma Rousseff, was not as well received, with her approval dropping to 9% in July 2015,[70] On 31 August 2016, Brazil's president, Dilma Rousseff, was impeached and removed from office, with her right-wing vice president Michel Temer taking her place in office.[30] Millions of Brazilians participated in the 2015–16 protests over corruption surrounding President Rousseff and Lula, while demanding Rousseff's impeachment. Pro-Rousseff mass protests were also organized.[71][72] Lula remains as Brazil's most popular political figure according to polls.[73][74]

Right-wing interim President Michel Temer, who currently holds 3% approval ratings,[69] faced a corruption scandal after accusations for obstructing justice and racketeering placed against him.[75] He manage to avoid trial thanks to the support of the right-wing parties in the Brazilian Congress.[69][75] On the other hand President of the Senate Renan Calheiros, acknowledge as one of the key figures behind Rousseff's destitution and member of the Conservative Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, was himself remove facing embezzlement charges.[76]


After decades of right-wing governments, both democratically elected and of dictatorial rule, Evo Morales became Bolivia’s first President of indigenous origin, albeit the majority of Bolivians are indigenous. To that date, no non-White had ever been Bolivia’s president. Morales was also the second indigenous president of the Americas after Mexico's Benito Juarez.[77]

Morales government was praised internationally for its reduction of poverty, economic growth[78] and the improvement of indigenous, women[79] and LGBTI rights[80] in the very traditionally-minded Bolivian society. Morales had several subsequent landslide victories and his party Movement toward Socialism obtain a supermajority in Parliament for several periods in a row.

In a referendum held on 21 February 2016 voters rejected, by a narrow margin, a constitutional amendment to allow Bolivian President Evo Morales to run for a fourth term as president.[81]

Central AmericaEdit

After several peasant and workers uprisings in the region against oligarchic and anti-democratic government, often under the control of powerful American companies’ interests like the United Fruit Company, with the appearance of figures like Farabundo Martí and Cesar Augusto Sandino who lead these social revolts, efforts to take the power democratically were often thwarted by US intervention, like the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état that overthrows the Progressive government of Jacobo Arbenz.[82] Civil war spread all over Central America, except for Costa Rica, with US-endorsed far-right governments in El Salvador,[83][84][85] Guatemala[86] and Honduras facing far-left Guerrillas, and the opposite happening in Nicaragua after the Sandinista Revolution that overthrows pro-American dictator[87] Anastasio Somoza Debayle facing the USA sponsored rebel far-right Contra guerrilla. After years of bloodshed the governments of Costa Rica and Mexico begin negotiations for a peace agreement between all the sides, albeit harsh opposition from the Ronald Reagan administration that wanted a crushing victory over left-wing forces. Reagan officially met with far-right Guatemalan dictator accused of crimes against humanity Efraín Ríos Montt in Honduras, giving a strong support to his regime.[88]

Nevertheless, the Peace negotiations did succeed ending with the Esquipulas Peace Agreement and granting Costa Rican President Oscar Arias the Nobel Peace Price for his efforts and allowing for democratic election and constitutional reforms in all these countries.

After the return of the democracy, right-wing forces were dominant in the region, with Nicaragua having three consecutive governmentd of the Liberals, four consecutive governmentd of the Conservative ARENA in El Salvador and a two-party system in Honduras and Costa Rica, all of which endorsed neoliberal and Washington consensus policies. The result of which were clear with increase in poverty,[89] expand of the inequality gap[90] and corruption scandals. The first left-wing victory came from Daniel Ortega and the Sandinista National Liberation Front in Nicaragua in 2006, followed by the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front's nominee Mauricio Funes in 2009 and then Salvador Sánchez Cerén in 2014 in El Salvador. Both FSLN and FMLN were former guerrillas turn into political parties and both Ortega and Cerén were former guerrilla fighters, albeit their political position were very different, with Cerén continuing Funes’ pragmatic pro-market approach. Center-left Social democratic leader Alvaro Colom of the National Unity of Hope was elected in Guatemala in 2007 followed by another moderate, reformist Luis Guillermo Solís of the Citizens Action Party in Costa Rica in 2014. Both Colom and Solís belong to moderate Progressive parties and had no link with the far-left of their respective countries, and also kept a friendly relationship with the USA, nevertheless their victories were also attributed to a general contempt toward Washington-endorsed neoliberal policies (Solís, for example, was a staunch opponent of CAFTA). During his presidency Solís established close relationship with some Progressive government of South America, to the point of leaving the United Nation’s chambers during Michel Temer’s speech in protest for Rousseff’s impeachment.[91] On the other hand the Costa Rican Foreign Ministry has condemn Venezuela’s government accusing it of authoritarian and anti-democratic.[92][93][94]

In Guatemala, Álvaro Colom's succesor, right-wing Liberal Otto Pérez Molina was forced to resign his presidency due to popular unrest[95][96] and corruption scandals that ended in his arrest.[97]

In Honduras Manuel Zelaya’s turn to the left during his tenure caused the 2009 Honduran coup d'état which was condemn by the entire region, including the US. Next President, right-wing Orlando Hernández of the Conservative National Party won the election over left-wing Xiomara Castro (Zelaya’s wife) by a slight margin. Soon after Hernández reforms the Constitution to allow himself to be candidate for immediate reelection, something until then forbidden by Honduran law, and runs as candidate for the Honduran general election, 2017 in what some observers question as undemocratic, authoritarian-leaning,[98][99] and corrupt.[100][101]


After the democratic election of President Salvador Allende in 1970, an economic war ordered by President Richard Nixon,[102] among other things, caused the 1973 Chilean coup d'état with the involvement of the CIA[103][12] due to Allende’s democratic socialist leanings. What follows was the decades-long US-backed far-right dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.[104] In 1988 a presidential referendum was held in order to confirm Pinochet’s ruling for 8 more years. The oppositional Concertation of Parties for Democracy, made of mostly center-left and left-wing parties, endorsed the “No” option winning the referendum and ending Pinochet’s rule democratically. After that free elections were held in 1989 with Concertation winning again. The Concertation and its successor New Majority would rule Chile since then with consecutive victories except for one period with right-wing candidate Sebastián Piñera attaining the presidency. With time several corruption scandals involving the Pinochet family and the US emerged.[105][106][107]

President Michelle Bachelet was elected for the firs time in 2006. Bachelet's father was a General loyal to Allende who was executed by the regime, and she herself was arrested and tortured during Pinochet's dictatorship. She was re-elected in the Chilean general election, 2013

Support for President Michelle Bachelet dropped sharply in 2016 following revelations of corruption scandals such as the Caval scandal, which involved her son and daughter-in-law accepting millions of dollars in the form of a loan from Vice-Chairman of the Banco de Chile Andrónico Luksic Craig, using the money to make $5 million in profit after selling land.[108][109]

In the 2017 Chilean general election, former right-wing president Sebastián Piñera received the most votes in the presidential race with 36%, albeit not enough to win in first round, followed by the center-left Concertación's nominee Alejandro Guillier with 22%. The growth of the far-left was notorious as Broad Front's candidate Beatriz Sánchez earned 20%, nearly as much as Concertación, though she did not earn a spot in the second round.[110][111]

Chile is currently the Latin American country with the highest rank in the Human Development Index, the highest ranking Latin American country in World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014, followed by Costa Rica,[112] and among the safest country of Latin America followed by Costa Rica and Uruguay according to the Global Peace Index.[113]


University of Illinois' Economist[114] Rafael Correa was elected as President of Ecuador in the Ecuadorian general election, 2006, following the harsh economic crisis and social turmoil that caused right-wing Lucio Gutiérrez resignation as president. Correa, a practicing Catholic influenced by Liberation Theology[114] was pragmatic in his economical approach and Ecuador soon experienced a non-precedent economic growth that bolstered Correa's popularity to the point that he was the most popular president of the Americas' for several years in a row,[114] with an approval rate between 60 and 85%.[115] Following several electoral victories and supermajorities gained in favor of his political coalition in the National Assembly.

Due to lack of public support of re-election, Correa decided not to pursue reelection.[30] The 2015 Ecuadorian protests occurred when Ecuadorians began to disapprove of actions made by President Correa.[need quotation to verify]

In 2017, Correa's vice-president Lenín Moreno won the presidential election by thin margins, with the left-leaning PAIS Alliance retaining the vast majority of seats in the Parliament.[116]


Conservative (sometimes described as far-right) Colorado Party in Paraguay ruled the country for 65 consecutive years, including the American-supported[117][118][119][120][119][120] brutal dictatorship of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted 35 years, from 1954 to 1989. Paraguay is one of the poorest countries of South America. This dominant-party authoritarian system was temporary broken in the Paraguayan general election, 2008, when practically the entire opposition united in the Patriotic Alliance for Change manage to elect former Bishop Fernando Lugo of the Christian Democratic Party as President of Paraguay. Lugo's government was praised for its social reforms including such as investments in low-income housing,[121] the introduction of free treatment in public hospitals,[122][123] the introduction of cash transfers for Paraguay's most impoverished citizens[124] and indigenous rights.[125]

Nevertheless, Lugo did not finished his period as he was impeached, despite enjoying very high approval ratings and popularity. The impeachment was rejected by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,[126] condemn by both right-wing and left-wing governments,[127][128] and considered a coup by UNASUR and Mercosur and treated accordingly with sanctions and suspensions for Paraguay.[129][130] Lugo was later elected President of Senate.

Paraguay’s following right-wing President is Colorado Horacio Cartes, signaled by Human Rights organizations as authoritarian and homophobe,[131] Cartes is trying to reform the Constitution to allow himself to be re-elected indefinitely, something that caused so much popular uproar that mass protests and riots against the measure ensued. Cartes was also the suspect of money laundry[132][133][134] and tax evasion.[135][136][137]


After the end of the CIA-sponsored regime of Alberto Fujimori and Vladimiro Montesinos,[138][139] several democratic governments follow including Fujimori's opposition leader Alejandro Toledo, APRA leader Alan García and left-leaning Ollanta Humala. Albeit at one point signaled as "Chavista" (close to Venezuela's Hugo Chavez), Humala kept Peru as part of the Pacific Alliance and its economic influence.[140]

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski won the 2016 Peruvian elections, with Peru becoming yet another country that departs from a centre-left government.[141] In this election the third candidate with major support was leftist candidate Veronika Mendoza of Broad Front with 18% of votes.[142]


After 150 years of right-wing governments from the so call “traditional parties” in Uruguay, including the US-backed[143][144][145] Civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay after the Military-led 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état, Uruguay’s first left-wing government in history came after Brod Front's nominated Tabaré Vazquez's victory in the Uruguayan general election, 2004, winning with 50% of the votes, over the 35% of his main rival Jorge Larrañaga of the Colorado Party. Vazquez enjoyed high popularity rates during his first tenure and afterwards, with up to 70% popularity[146] He was succeed by fellow Broad Front member José Mujica who gained 54% of support on the second round in the Uruguayan general election, 2009, and then Vázquez was re-elected during the Uruguayan general election, 2014, also with some 54% of support.

Uruguay is notable for its economic growth,[147][148] been often among the richest countries of Latin America. Currently Uruguay is the third highest ranking country in the Human Development Index behind Chile and Argentina, and followed by Panama and Costa Rica. It’s also alongside Chile and Costa Rica among the three safest countries in the region.[113]


In Venezuela, the opposition electoral coalition Democratic Unity Roundtable won a 2/3 supermajority of the Venezuelan National Assembly the 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election a month after the election of Macri in December 2015.[23] Following controversial constituent assembly and regional elections which resulted in a contested victory for the government, the Bolivarian government was condemned by the US and allies.[149]

Presidents electedEdit

Below are Left-wing and Centre-left presidents elected in Latin America since 1995
Note: Centre-left presidents are marked with *



See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Abbott, Jared. "Will the Pink Tide Lift All Boats? Latin American Socialisms and Their Discontents". Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  2. ^ Oikonomakis, Leonidas. "Europe's pink tide? Heeding the Latin American experience". Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  3. ^ [1] SustainabiliTank: Guatemala
  4. ^ da Cruz, Jose de Arimateia (2015). "STRATEGIC INSIGHTS: FROM IDEOLOGY TO GEOPOLITICS: RUSSIAN INTERESTS IN LATIN AMERICA". Current Politics and Economics of Russia, Eastern and Central Europe. Nova Science Publishers. 30 (1/2): 175–185. 
  5. ^ a b Isbester, Katherine (2011). The Paradox of Democracy in Latin America: Ten Country Studies of Division and Resilience. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1442601802. ... the populous of Latin America are voting in the Pink Tide governments that struggle with reform while being prone to populism and authoritarianism. 
  6. ^ [2] Boston Globe: The many stripes of anti-Americanism
  7. ^ a b c [3] BBC News: South America's leftward sweep
  8. ^ a b [4] Pittsburg Tribune-Herald: Latin America's 'pragmatic' pink tide
  9. ^ "Los secretos de la guerra sucia continental de la dictadura" (The secrets of the continental dirty war of the dictators), Clarin, 24 March 2006 (in Spanish)
  10. ^ a b McSherry, J. Patrice (2011). "Chapter 5: "Industrial repression" and Operation Condor in Latin America". In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein. State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies). Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 0415664578. 
  11. ^ a b Greg Grandin (2011). The Last Colonial Massacre: Latin America in the Cold War. University of Chicago Press. p. 75. ISBN 9780226306902
  12. ^ a b c Walter L. Hixson (2009). The Myth of American Diplomacy: National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy. Yale University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0300151314
  13. ^ Ben Norton (May 28, 2015). "Victims of Operation Condor, by Country". 
  14. ^ [5]
  15. ^ Klein, Naomi (2007). The Shock Doctrine. New York: Picador. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-312-42799-3. 
  16. ^ Stanley, Ruth (2006). "Predatory States. Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America/When States Kill. Latin America, the U.S., and Technologies of Terror". Journal of Third World Studies. Retrieved 24 October 2007. 
  17. ^ "CIA acknowledges involvement in Allende's overthrow, Pinochet's rise". BBC News. 19 September 2000. Archived from the original (– search) on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2007. 
  18. ^ "World Publics Reject US Role as the World Leader" (PDF). The Chicago Council on Public Affairs. April 2007. 
  19. ^ "Argentina: Opinion of the United States". Pew Research Center. 2012. 
  20. ^ "Argentina: Opinion of Americans (Unfavorable) - Indicators Database | Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project". Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  21. ^ a b c Rodriguez, Robert G. (2014). "Re-Assessing the Rise of the Latin American Left" (PDF). The Midsouth Political Science Review. Arkansas Political Science Association. 15 (1): 59. ISSN 2330-6882. 
  22. ^ a b c d Reid, Michael (Sep–Oct 2015). "Obama and Latin America: A Promising Day in the Neighborhood". Foreign Affairs. 94 (5): 45–53. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Noel, Andrea (29 December 2015). "The Year the 'Pink Tide' Turned: Latin America in 2015 | VICE News". VICE News. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 10, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2016.  Institute for Policy Studies: Latin America's Pink Tide?
  25. ^ "The Issue: A Changing Latin America: Fears of 'Pink Tide'". The Arizona Republic. 12 June 2006. 
  26. ^ [6] Inter Press Service: Challenges 2006–2007: A Bad Year for Empire
  27. ^ a b "Tres tenues luces de esperanza Las fuerzas de izquierda cobran impulso en tres países centroamericanos" (PDF). Nueva Sociedad. 2014.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ebert" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  28. ^ Latin America's political right in decline as leftist governments move to middle
  29. ^ "The ebbing of the pink tide". The Economist. 
  30. ^ a b c d de Oliveira Neto, Claire; Howat Berger, Joshua (1 September 2016). "Latin America's 'pink tide' ebbs to new low in Brazil". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  31. ^ "The Left on the Run in Latin America". The New York Times. 23 May 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016. 
  32. ^ "Ex-Argentina VP Boudou arrested in corruption case". Reuters. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  33. ^ "Lula é condenado a nove anos de prisão". Veja (in Portuguese). Grupo Abril. 12 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017. 
  34. ^ Brooks, Brad (12 July 2017). "Brazil's Former President Found Guilty Of Corruption". Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 July 2017. 
  35. ^ Leahy, Joe. "Peru president rejects link to Petrobras scandal". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 February 2016. 
  36. ^ Post, Colin. "Peru: Ollanta Humala implicated in Brazil's Carwash scandal". Retrieved 23 February 2016. 
  37. ^
  38. ^ "Boom económico en Ecuador". El Telégrafo. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  39. ^ World Bank (2014). "Ecuador". Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  40. ^ World Bank. "Nicaragua". Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  41. ^ OECD. "Costa Rica - Economic forecast summary (November 2016)". Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  42. ^ World Bank (2015). "Reducing poverty in Bolivia comes down to two words: rural development". Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
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