The Perth Basin is a thick, elongated sedimentary basin in Western Australia. It lies beneath the Swan Coastal Plain west of the Darling Scarp, representing the western limit of the much older Yilgarn Craton, and extends further west offshore. Cities and towns including Perth, Busselton, Bunbury, Mandurah and Geraldton are built over the Perth Basin.
Geological setting and evolutionEdit
During the Permian, what is now the Perth Basin was the eastern half of a rift valley that formed as the continental plates were pulled apart. This pulling apart, which continued until the Jurassic, led to the central zone subsiding as a graben allowing the sea to enter with the subsequent deposition of transgressive marine sediments. The Perth Basin architecture is dominated by listric, extensional faulting that formed during sedimentation and controlled the distribution of the sediments.
The primary mechanism for sedimentation was originally subsidence creating accommodation (space for sediments to accumulate), followed by fault extension and more recently, sediment loading, i.e. the basin continuing to subside because of the weight of sediments within it.
The eastern boundary of the main Perth Basin is the Darling Fault, topographically expressed as the Darling Scarp. Small outliers of the Perth Basin, such as the Collie Sub-basin, lie east of the Darling Fault.
Letters in brackets after the formation name represent shorthand symbols used on geological maps.
Quaternary and recentEdit
The Quaternary and recent sedimentation of the Perth Basin is represented by thin, impermanent sand dune systems, biogenic limestones, sandstones and some shales deposited during the last ~20 million years and during ice ages.
- Lancelin Formation
Upper Cretaceous glauconitic marl, infrequently developed on top of the Coolyena Group.
- Coolyena Group - Upper Cretaceous marine sediments.
- Poison Hill Greensand (Kcp) consists of pale yellow unconsolidated weathered clay, glauconitic sandstone and shale. It conformably overlies the Gingin Chalk and is in turn overlain by unconsolidated Quaternary sands and alluvium.
- Gingin Chalk (Kcg) is a weakly consolidated fossiliferous chalk composed of coccoliths, which interfingers and conformably overlies the Molecap Greensand.
- Molecap Greensand (Kcm) is a fine to medium grained marine glauconite sandstone which unconformably overlies the Osborne Formation.
- Osborne Formation (Kco) conformably overlies the Triassic Leederville Formation, and is composed of a marine sandstone, shale and interbedded shale-sandstone sequence from base upwards.
- Warnbro Group - Early Cretaceous marine sediments representing a transgression.
- Parmelia Formation (J-Kp) forms the topmost hydraulic unit of the Yarragadee Aquifer. It is composed of 100–200 m thickness of well sorted fluvial sandstone deposited in the latest Jurassic to early Cretaceous. It includes a basal siltstone of lagoonal to lacustrine environment, the Otowiri Siltstone, which acts as an aquitard.
- Leederville Formation (Kll) sandstone, siltstone, shale and mudstone deposited in deeper marine environments, with finer sediments predominant in the upper part of the unit. The unit attains a maximum thickness in the axis of the Yanchep Syncline is ~700 m, and thins eastward to approximately 500 m. The Leederville Formation interfingers and merges with the underlying Parmelia Formation in the north of the Perth Basin.
- Gage Formation (Kwg) is a shallow lagoonal sandstone and shale deposited in shallow marine beach-dune-lagoonal environments.
- Yarragadee Formation (Jy) is one of the thickest units in the Perth Basin and forms a significant freshwater aquifer. It is composed primarily of non-marine fluviatile feldspathic, poorly sorted sandstones which are porous and poorly cemented, hence allowing for considerable groundwater reserves. The Yarragadee Formation grades from a shale-siltstone dominated base to a cleaner sandstone in the upper portions of the formation, probably representing increased subsidence or filling of the basin during the late Jurassic.
- Cadda Formation (Jd) conformably underlies the Yarragadee Formation and is composed primarily of shale and siltstone, with occasional beds of very coarse sandstone. The upper portions of the unit are composed of a marl grading into a marine limestone, representing stable tectonics at this time.
- Cattamarra Coal Measures (Jc) are a sequence of non-marine, probably fluviatile sandstones, shales and silts including bituminous coal, and are up to 300 m thick. The Cattamarra Coal Measures conformably overly the Eneabba Formation.
- Eneabba Formation (Je) is a lower-Jurassic terrigenous red-bed unit composed of interbedded sandstone with variably coloured limestone. The Eneabba Formation is conformable with the Lesueur Sandstone in the south of the Perth Basin and unconformable with the Kockatea Formation in the north, suggesting it is transgressive.
Cenozoic sand dune systems are locally being mined for mineral sands, mainly rutile (a source of titanium ) and zircon, by Iluka Resources and other companies. Some of these mines are controversial for environmental reasons.
Various formations from Cenozoic to Jurassic age are economically significant freshwater aquifers. Younger aquifers are an important suppliant to reservoir water in the city of Perth and elsewhere. The Yarragadee Formation, one of the thickest formations in the basin, is a very good aquifer in the southern part of the basin.
The Perth Basin is also prospective for natural gas and oil, with recent exploration wells, including Origin Energy/Arc Energy's Hovea 2, confirming large resources of natural gas, but difficult reservoir geology and characteristics have prevented the full utilisation of these energy reserves. The oil is sourced from the Kockatea Shale.
Currently, a junior minerals exploration company is exploring the basin north of Perth for glauconite to produce potash fertilizer.
- Kern, A. M; Geological Survey of Western Australia (1988), The geology and hydrogeology of the superficial formations between Lancelin and Cervantes, Perth Basin (Cataby Roject) : Bore completion reports (Vol. 1 - Sites 1-18), Western Australia Geological Survey, retrieved 24 June 2017
- Leyland, Lucy (2011), Hydrogeology of the Leederville Aquifer, central Perth Basin, Western Australia, retrieved 24 June 2017
- "Project Overview | Australia". parkwayminerals.com.au. Parkway Minerals. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- Lee, Jen Deng; Australian National University. Dept. of Earth and Marine Sciences (2011), Seismic sequence stratigraphy of the offshore northern Perth Basin : an interpretation of the Macallan 3D Seismic Survey, retrieved 10 June 2012
- Crostella, A. (Angelo); Geological Survey of Western Australia; Geological Survey of Western Australia; Crostella, A (1995), An evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the onshore northern Perth Basin, Western Australia, Geological Survey of Western Australia, Dept. of Minerals and Energy, ISBN 978-0-7309-4471-3
- Marshall, J. F. (John Francis); Lee, C. S. (Chao-Shing); Australia. Division of Marine Geosciences and Petroleum Geology; North Perth Basin Workshop (1988 : Perth, W.A.) (1988), North Perth Basin Workshop, Division of Marine Geosciences & Petroleum Geology, retrieved 10 June 2012
- Iasky, R. P. (Robert Paul); Geological Survey of Western Australia (1993), A structural study of the Southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, Geological Survey of Western Australia, ISBN 978-0-7309-4480-5, ISSN 0508-4741
- Timms, Nicholas Eric; Olierook, H; Wilson, Moyra; Delle Piane, C; Hamilton, P; Cope, P; Stutenbecker, L (2014), Sedimentary facies analysis, mineralogy and diagenesis of the Mesozoic aquifers of the central Perth Basin, Western Australia, Department of Applied Geology, retrieved 21 October 2016
- Raine, M. J. and K.G. Smith (1972) Bibliography of the Perth Basin, Western Australia Canberra : Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, report ; no. 157. ISBN 0-642-95921-8 Prepared by the Petroleum Exploration Branch of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, with assistance from the Geological Survey of Western Australia.