Panarthropoda

Panarthropoda is a proposed animal clade combining the extant phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora,[1] a clade, "Lobopodia", and a single class, the Dinocaridida. Not all studies support it,[2] but most do, including neuroanatomical,[3] mitogenomic[4] and palaeontological[5][6] studies. Originally, they were considered to be closely related to the annelids, grouped together as the Articulata, but newer studies place them among the Ecdysozoa.

Panarthropoda
Temporal range: Cambrian - Recent
Velvet worm (2002).jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
(unranked): Panarthropoda
Nielsen, 1995
Phyla

Common characteristics of the Panarthropoda include the presence of legs and claws, a ventral nervous system, and a segmented body.

Panarthropoda

Velvet worms (Onychophora) Velvet worm.jpg

Tactopoda

Water bears (Tardigrada) Echiniscus L.png

Arthropods (Arthropoda) Long nosed weevil edit.jpg

Sialomorpha a genus of mite and tardigrade like microinvertebrate discovered in Dominican amber in 2019 also belongs to this group, thought its exact placement is uncertain.[7]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Telford, M. J (27 April 2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1529–1537. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. PMC 2614232. PMID 18192181.
  2. ^ Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Matus, D. Q.; Pang, K.; Browne, W. E.; Smith, S. A.; Seaver, E.; Rouse, G. W.; Obst, M.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Sørensen, M. V.; Haddock, S. H. D.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.; Okusu, A.; Kristensen, R. M. B.; Wheeler, W. C.; Martindale, M. Q.; Giribet, G. (10 April 2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature. 452 (7188): 745–749. doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID 18322464.
  3. ^ Persson, Dennis K. (November 2012). "Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade panarthropoda". Journal of Morphology. 273 (11): 1227–1245. doi:10.1002/jmor.20054. PMID 22806919.
  4. ^ Rota-Stabelli, O.; Kayal, E.; Gleeson, D.; Daub, J.; Boore, J.; Telford, M.; Pisani, D.; Blaxter, M.; Lavrov, D. (2010). "Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda". Genome Biology and Evolution. 2: 425–440. doi:10.1093/gbe/evq030. PMC 2998192. PMID 20624745.
  5. ^ Smith, Martin R.; Ortega-Hernández, Javier (2014). "Hallucigenia's onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda" (PDF). Nature. 514 (7522): 363–366. doi:10.1038/nature13576. PMID 25132546.
  6. ^ Ou, Qiang (2012). "Cambrian lobopodians and extant onychophorans provide new insights into early cephalization in Panarthropoda". Nature Communications. 3: 1261. doi:10.1038/ncomms2272. PMC 3535342. PMID 23232391.
  7. ^ Poinar, George; Nelson, Diane R. (2019). "A new microinvertebrate with features of mites and tardigrades in Dominican amber". Invertebrate Biology. 138 (4): e12265. doi:10.1111/ivb.12265. ISSN 1744-7410.