ParaHoxozoa

ParaHoxozoa (or Parahoxozoa) is a clade of animals that consists of Bilateria, Placozoa, and Cnidaria.[1] The relationship of this clade relative to the two other animal lineages Ctenophora and Porifera is debated. Some phylogenomic studies have presented evidence supporting Ctenophora as the sister to Parahoxozoa and Porifera as the sister group to the rest of animals (e.g. [2][3][4][5][6][7]). Some studies have presented evidence supporting Porifera as the sister to Parahoxozoa and Ctenophora as the sister group to the rest of animals (e.g. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]). The tree below, which is congruent with the vast majority of these phylogenomic studies, conveys this uncertainty with a polytomy.

ParaHoxozoa
Temporal range: 605.2 –0 Ma Ediacaran-Present
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Clade: ParaHoxozoa
Ryan et al., 2010
Clades
Choanozoa

ChoanoflagellataCronoflagelado2.svg

Animalia

CtenophoraMertensia ovum.png

Porifera Reef3859 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg

Parahoxozoa

PlacozoaTrichoplax adhaerens photograph.png

Planulozoa

CnidariaMedusae of world-vol03 fig360 Atolla chuni.jpg

BilateriaAcrodipsas brisbanensis.jpg

ParaHoxozoa or ParahoxozoaEdit

Though "ParaHox" genes are usually referred to in CamelCase and the original paper that named the clade used "ParaHoxozoa", the single initial cap format "Parahoxozoa" has become more common in the literature as CamelCase is not standard in zoological nomenclature.

CharacteristicsEdit

Parahoxozoa was defined by the presence of several gene (sub)classes (HNF, CUT, PROS, ZF, CERS, K50, S50-PRD), as well as Hox/ParaHox-ANTP from which the name of this clade originated. It was later proposed[24][25] and contested[26] that a gene of the same class (ANTP) as the Hox/ParaHox, the NK gene and the Cdx Parahox gene, is also present in Porifera, the sponges. Regardless of whether a ParaHox gene is ever definitively identified, Parahoxozoa, as originally defined, is monophyletic and therefore continues to be used as such.[27]

Planula-acoel, triploblasty, and bilaterian similaritiesEdit

The original Bilateria are hypothesized to be a bottom dwelling worm with a single body opening.[28] A through-gut may already have developed with the Ctenophora however.[29] The through-gut may have developed from the corners of a single opening with lips fusing. E.g. Acoela resemble the planula larvae of some Cnidaria, which exhibit some bilaterian symmetry. They are vermiformes, just as the cnidarian Buddenbrockia is.[30][31][32] Placozoa has been noted to resemble planula.[33] Usually, "Planulozoa" is to the exclusion of Placozoa, but not necessarily. In this case it appears synonymous with Parahoxozoa.[34] Triploblasty developed before the Cnidara-Bilateria radiation as well.[35]

ReferencesEdit

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