Pérotin (fl. c. 1200, died 1205 or 1225), also called Perotin the Great, was a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century. He was the most famous member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony and the ars antiqua style. He was one of very few composers of his day whose name has been preserved, and can be reliably attached to individual compositions; this is due to the testimony of an anonymous English student at Notre Dame known as Anonymous IV, who wrote about him and his predecessor Léonin. Anonymous IV called him "Magister Perotinus" ("Pérotin the Master"). The title, employed also by Johannes de Garlandia, means that Perotinus, like Leoninus, earned the degree magister artium, almost certainly in Paris, and that he was licensed to teach. The name Perotinus, the Latin diminutive of Petrus, is assumed to be derived from the French name Pérotin, diminutive of Pierre. The diminutive was presumably a mark of respect bestowed by his colleagues. He was also designated "magnus" by Anonymous IV, a mark of the esteem in which he was held, even long after his death.
Musical forms and styleEdit
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Pérotin composed organa, the earliest type of polyphonic European church music; previous church music such as Gregorian and other types of chant, had been monophonic. He pioneered the styles of organum triplum and organum quadruplum (three and four-part polyphony); in fact his Sederunt principes and Viderunt Omnes are among only a few organa quadrupla known.
A prominent feature of his compositional style was the 'tenor'. The tenor is based on an existing melody from the liturgical repertoire, such as Alleluia, Verse; Gradual, Verse from the mass, or a Responsory or Benedicamus from the Office. In the various forms of organum that were developed in Paris, the tenor literally 'holds' the melody (Lat. tenere) of the Gregorian chant. An organum duplum on Benedicamus Domino as can be found in the sources gives a clear example of two main styles used: florid organum/organum purum and discantus. The chant melody for the second-tone Benedicamus is mostly syllabic with only three simple ligatures. This part will be sung in extended continuous sounding syllables, laying an organ-point or harmonic basis for the duplum or vox organalis, a new florid line which will have many notes to the one of the tenor. Usually a single syllable in the chant comes back as a long note in the tenor, its length is governed by the development of the upper voice as it works toward a modulation to the next tone of the tenor. In this fashion, Be....ne..di...ca...mu....s is stretched out syllable per syllable. The next section, Domino, starts with a long melisma on 'Do' and is set in discantus style,[clarification needed] where both the tenor and organal voice proceed in one of the rhythmic modes. In organum purum, the tenor tends to be static a lot on a few tones; in discantus style it has its fair share of the modal rhythms. At the end, the O of 'Domino' the tenor comes to rest on the tonic note, while the upper voice makes its final runs toward the tonic or the octave. At that point the organum is finished, and the 'Deo Gratias' will be sung choraliter.[clarification needed]
Organa exist for two to four voices. That for two voices, organum duplum, has the most freedom in performance, as it will invariably have many sections of organum purum, where the upper voice is rhapsodic and not bound by strict modal rhythm. In three- or four-part organa all the upper voices need to be organized rhythmically, even over a long static tenor.
There is another group of new compositions on new texts, the conductus, which exist in a variety of forms: monophonic strophic songs and simple or complex conductus for two to four voices.
Anonymous IV attributed four compositions to Pérotin: the four-voice Viderunt omnes and Sederunt principes, and the three-voice Alleluia "Posui adiutorium" and Alleluia "Nativitas". Nine other works are attributed to him by contemporary scholars[vague] on stylistic grounds, all in the organum style, as well as the two-voice Dum sigillum summi Patris and the monophonic Beata viscera in the conductus style. (The conductus sets a rhymed Latin poem called a sequence to a repeated melody, much like a contemporary hymn.)
Pérotin's works are preserved in the Magnus Liber, the "Great Book" of early polyphonic church music, which was in the collection of the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. The Magnus Liber also contains the works of his slightly earlier contemporary Léonin. However, attempts by scholars to place Pérotin at Notre Dame have been inconclusive, all evidence being circumstantial, and very little is known of his life. His dates of activity can be approximately established from some late 12th century edicts of the Bishop of Paris, Eudes de Sully, which mention organum triplum and organum quadruplum, and his known collaboration with poet Philip the Chancellor, whose Beata viscera he could not have set before about 1220. The bishop's edicts are quite specific, and suggest that Pérotin's organum quadruplum Viderunt omnes was written for Christmas 1198, and his other organum quadruplum Sederunt Principes was composed for Saint Stephen's Day (26 December), 1199, for the dedication of a new wing of the Notre Dame Cathedral. His music, as well as that of Léonin and their anonymous contemporaries, has been grouped together as the School of Notre Dame.
Two important members of the Notre Dame administration have been suggested as possible identities for Perotinus: the theologian Petrus Cantor (who died in 1197) and the Petrus who was Succentor of Notre Dame from at least 1207 until about 1238. Petrus Succentor is more probable, in part on chronological grounds, and partly because of the succentor's role in overseeing the celebration of the liturgy in the cathedral.
With polyphony, musicians were able to achieve musical feats perceived by many as beautiful, and by others, distasteful. John of Salisbury (1120–1180) taught at the University of Paris during the years of Léonin, but before Pérotin. He attended many services at the Notre Dame Choir School. In De nugis curialiam he offers a first-hand description of what was happening to music in the high Middle Ages. This philosopher and Bishop of Chartres wrote:
When you hear the soft harmonies of the various singers, some taking high and others low parts, some singing in advance, some following in the rear, others with pauses and interludes, you would think yourself listening to a concert of sirens rather than men, and wonder at the powers of voices … whatever is most tuneful among birds, could not equal. Such is the facility of running up and down the scale; so wonderful the shortening or multiplying of notes, the repetition of the phrases, or their emphatic utterance: the treble and shrill notes are so mingled with tenor and bass, that the ears lost their power of judging. When this goes to excess it is more fitted to excite lust than devotion; but if it is kept in the limits of moderation, it drives away care from the soul and the solicitudes of life, confers joy and peace and exultation in God, and transports the soul to the society of angels.
- Kennedy 2006.
- Pinegar 1995, 720.
- Roesner n.d.
- Anon. 4 1864–76, 1:342, 360; Anon. 4 1967, 1:46, 82.
- Bent 1980, 542.
- Bent 1980, 540–41.
- Hayburn 1979, 18.
- Reich n.d.
Sources and further readingEdit
- Anonymous 4 (1864–76). "De mensuris et discantu". In Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series a Gerbertina altera, 4 vols., edited by Edmond de Coussemaker, 1:327-64. Paris: Durand. Reprint edition, Hildesheim: Olms, 1963.
- Anonymous 4 (1967). "[De mensuris et discantu]" In Fritz Reckow, Der Musiktraktat des Anonymus 4, 2 vols. 1:22–89. Beihefte zum Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 4–5. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.
- Bent, Ian D. (1980). "Pérotin". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 20 vols., ed. Stanley Sadie, 14:540–43. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1-56159-174-2
- Flotzinger, Rudolf (2000). Perotinus musicus: Wegbereiter abendländischen Komponierens. Mainz: Schott Musik International. ISBN 3-7957-0431-6.
- Flotzinger, Rudolf (2007). Von Leonin zu Perotin: Der musikalische Paradigmenwechsel in Paris um 1210. Varia Musicologica 8. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-03910-987-6.
- Hayburn, Robert F. (1979). Papal Legislation on Sacred Music 95 AD to 1977 AD. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press.
- Heerings, Arnoud (2005). "Perotinus". Gregoriusblad: Tijdschrift tot bevordering van liturgische muziek 129, no. 1 (March): 53–57.
- Hillier, Paul (1989). "Perotin". program notes to The Hilliard Ensemble: Perotin. CD ECM New Series 1385 (837-751-2). Munich: ECM Records.
- Hoppin, Richard H. (1978). Medieval Music. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-09090-6
- Kennedy, Michael (ed.). 2006. The Oxford Dictionary of Music, second edition, revised. Joyce Bourne, Associate Editor. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861459-3.
- Morent, Stefan. 2002. "Der 'wahre' Perotin? Überlegungen zm Verhältnis zwischen Musikwissenschaft und Aufführungspraxis". In Musikwissenschaft im Phonomarkt: 'Alte Musik' und CD-Produktion—Bericht zum 1. Lüneburger Musiksymposium im Februar 1999, edited by Evelyn Marien, Andreas Heinen, and Simon M. Sommer, 69–79. Schriftenreihe zur Musikwissenschaft der Universität Lüneburg 1. Wilhelmshaven: Noetzel. ISBN 978-3-7959-0809-6.
- Page, Christopher. (1990) The Owl and the Nightingale: Musical Life and Ideas in France 1100–1300. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06944-7
- Pinegar, Sandra (1995). "Pérotin" in William W. Kibler (ed.), Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, p. 720. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-8240-4444-4
- Reich, Steve (n.d.). "Proverb (1995): Composer's Note". Boosey & Hawkes publisher's website. (Accessed 19 March 2011)
- Riehn, Rainer, and Heinz-Klaus Metzger (eds.) (2000). Musik-Konzepte 107 (January 2000): Perotinus Magnus. Munich: Edition text + kritik. ISBN 3-88377-629-7.
- Roesner, Edward H. (n.d.). "Perotinus [Perrotinus, Perotinus Magnus, Magister Perotinus, Pérotin]". Grove Music Online, ed. Deane Root. Oxford Music Online (Accessed 15 January 2011), (subscription access)
- Sanders, Ernest H. 1967. "The Question of Perotin's Œuvre and Dates". In Festschrift für Walter Wiora zum 30. Dezember 1966, edited by Ludwig Finscher and Christoph-Hellmut Mahling, 241–49. Kassel: Bärenreiter.
- Gothic Revolution – Sacred MusicThe Sixteen, Harry Christophers, Simon Russell Beale CORO DVD
- Messe de la Nativité de la Vierge. Ensemble Organum, Marcel Pérès. Harmonia Mundi 901538 (1995).
- Perotin. The Hilliard Ensemble, CD ECM New Series, 837-751-2
- Sacred Music From Notre-Dame Cathedral, Tonus Peregrinus; Antony Pitts, CD NAXOS 8.557340 (2005)