Nova Gorica (pronounced [ˈnɔ̀ːʋa ɡɔˈɾìːtsa] (listen)) is a town in western Slovenia, on the border with Italy. It is the seat of the Municipality of Nova Gorica. Nova Gorica is a planned town, built according to the principles of modernist architecture after 1947, when the Paris Peace Treaty established a new border between Yugoslavia and Italy, leaving nearby Gorizia outside the borders of Yugoslavia and thus cutting off the Soča Valley, the Vipava Valley, the Gorizia Hills and the northwestern Karst Plateau from their traditional regional urban centre. Since 1948, Nova Gorica has replaced Gorizia as the principal urban centre of the Gorizia region (Slovene: Goriška), as the northern part of the Slovenian Littoral has been traditionally called.
|Coordinates: 45°57′21″N 13°38′36″E / 45.95583°N 13.64333°E|
|Traditional region||Slovenian Littoral|
|• Total||3.49 km2 (1.35 sq mi)|
|Elevation||93.4 m (306.4 ft)|
|• Density||3,700/km2 (9,700/sq mi)|
Since May 2011, Nova Gorica has been joined with Gorizia and Šempeter-Vrtojba in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board.
The name Nova Gorica means 'new Gorizia'. The origin of the name Gorizia/Gorica itself is Slavic. The common local term for the town is Gorica (i.e., without the modifier nova 'new'), while residents tend to refer to the neighboring Italian town as Stara Gorica (i.e., 'old Gorizia'). This use is also reflected in Slovenian license plates (GO for Gorica), as well as in the name of the local association football club ND Gorica. The word gorica is a diminutive form of the Slovene common noun gora 'hill'. In archaic Slovene, it also meant 'vineyard'. It is a common toponym in Slovenia and in other areas of Slovene settlement, as well as more generally in areas that have or historically had a Slavic-speaking population.
In 1947, following World War II, Italy signed a peace treaty with the Allies, including Socialist Yugoslavia. The treaty transferred most of the Slovene-inhabited areas of the Province of Gorizia to Yugoslavia. The town of Gorizia itself, however, remained under Italian rule. The new border cut the city off from its northern and eastern suburbs. Around 40% of the municipality's territory was transferred to Yugoslavia, including the suburbs of Solkan, Šempeter, Kromberk, Rožna Dolina, and Pristava. Together, these areas had a population of around 10,000 (almost exclusively Slovenes, with a tiny Friulian-speaking minority), or around one fifth of the municipality's population. However, they lacked a cohesive structure, and were poorly connected. In order to overcome this problem, the Communist authorities of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia decided to build a new settlement that would connect these suburbs into a new urban space. The new town was called Nova Gorica or "New Gorizia". The project had the personal backing of Marshal Tito, Yugoslavia's Communist leader. The project was commissioned to the Slovenian architect Edvard Ravnikar, a former pupil of Le Corbusier. The first projects were laid out in winter of 1947, and the construction began at the beginning of the following year.
The city was formally established as an urban municipality in 1952, incorporating the older settlements of Solkan, Kromberk and Rožna Dolina, which thus became, somewhat reluctantly, suburbs of Nova Gorica. The building of the town continued throughout the 1950s and 1960s, reaching the current extent by the mid-1980s. In the early 1990s, all of the aforementioned older suburbs acquired again the status of independent settlements. This was however a purely symbolic act that only affected the official statistics on population: because of this, Nova Gorica dropped from the list of 10 largest towns in Slovenia. It nevertheless remains the second largest urban conglomeration in western Slovenia, after Koper.
Culture and educationEdit
Nova Gorica hosts one of the three national theatres in Slovenia. The Goriška Museum is also located in the town's Kromberk district, hosted in Kromberk Castle.
The University of Nova Gorica is located in the suburb of Rožna Dolina. The Nova Gorica Grammar School, located in the city centre, is one of the most renowned high schools in Slovenia.
The cultural magazine Razpotja is published in Nova Gorica.
To the south of the town stands Kostanjevica Hill, home to the Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady and a 17th-century Franciscan monastery with rich treasures from the past. The last members of the Bourbons, the French royal family, are buried in a crypt beneath the church (Charles X himself, and members of his family and entourage including his son Louis-Antoine de France, and his grandson Henri d'Artois, nephew of Louis (neither Louis-Antoine nor Henri ever reigned as kings)). He fled France following the revolution in 1830, finding refuge in Gorizia, and eventually died there. Also buried there is Pierre Louis Jean Casimir de Blacas, a Bourbon nobleman who also died in exile (in 1839).
Opposite Kostanjevica Hill, north of the town is the settlement of Sveta Gora with Holy Mount (Slovene: Sveta gora) a 682-meter (2,238 ft) peak that has attracted pilgrims for 450 years. The view from there is exceptional, and on a clear day visitors can see as far as Istria, Venice, the Dolomites, and the Kamnik and Julian Alps. The mountain top is home to a magnificent basilica, where concerts are occasionally held, a Franciscan monastery, and a museum of the Battles of the Isonzo.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- Diego de Brea, theatre director
- Dean Komel, philosopher
- Mirt Komel, philosopher and author
- Branko Marušič, historian
- Maja Novak, writer
- Dušan Pirjevec Ahac, philosopher and literary critic (born in Solkan, now part of Nova Gorica)
- Katja Perat, poet and essayist
- Uroš Seljak, physicist, cosmologist
- Mitja Velikonja, sociologist
- Erika Vouk, poet
- Danilo Zavrtanik, physicist and scholar
- Marko Peljhan, artist
- Kaja Antlej, VR/AR Museum Heritage and Space Artist
Politics and public serviceEdit
- Robert Golob, current Prime Minister of Slovenia
- Borut Pahor, politician, current president of Slovenia
- Zvonko Fišer, former state general prosecutor of Slovenia
- Tomaž Marušič, politician, former minister of justice of Slovenia (1998–2000)
- Vlasta Nussdorfer, child psychologist, former Slovenian ombudsmann
- Senko Pličanič, lawyer and politician, former minister of justice of Slovenia
- Majda Širca, film critic and politician, minister of culture of Slovenia (2008–2011)
- Patricija Šulin, politician, member of the European Parliament
- Samuel Žbogar, politician and diplomat, former minister of foreign affairs of Slovenia
- Jernej Abramič, slalom canoer
- Jure Franko, ski champion
- Kris Jogan, football player
- Aleš Kokot, football player
- Uroš Kodelja, slalom canoer
- Jan Močnik, basketball player
- Matej Mugerli, road bicycle player
- Jani Šturm, football player
- Eva Mori, volleyball player
- Igor Vidmar, rock musician and journalist
- Iztok Mlakar, singer-songwriter and actor
- Aljoša Buha, rock musician
- Jana Krivec, chess woman grandmaster
- Vojteh Ravnikar, architect
- David Tasić, journalist, political prisoner (JBTZ trial), and publisher
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
Nova Gorica is twinned with:
- ^ a b "Naselje Nova Gorica". Statistični urad Republike Slovenije. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Nova Gorica".
- ^ d.o.o., Arctur. "Mestna občina Nova Gorica". Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- ^ "Patto Gorizia-Nova Gorica, c'è la firma - Cronaca - Il Piccolo". 12 May 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- ^ "Frančiškanski samostan Kostanjevica in Nova Gorica". Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- ^ "Kostanjevica monastery - Cultural and Historical Heritage - Slovenia - Official Travel Guide -". Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- Media related to Nova Gorica at Wikimedia Commons
- Nova Gorica on Geopedia
- Official website
- Nova Gorica travel guide from Wikivoyage