Non-motorized access on freeways

Non-motorized access on freeways may allow or restrict pedestrians, bicyclists and other non-motorized traffic to use a freeway. Such roads are public ways intended primarily for high-speed travel over long distances, and they have resulted in highways in the United States with engineering features such as long sight-distances, wide marked lanes and the absence of cross traffic. These provide faster and safer travel, at least for vehicles driving at similar speeds.

Freeway entrance sign effectively banning everyone not traveling by motor vehicle with enough power.

Freeways are usually limited to motor vehicles of a minimum power or speed; signs may prohibit bicyclists, pedestrians and equestrians and impose a minimum speed. It is possible for non-motorized traffic to use facilities within the same right-of-way, such as sidewalks constructed along freeway-standard bridges and multi-use paths next to freeways such as the Suncoast Trail along the Suncoast Parkway in Florida.

European UnionEdit

Despite the autoroutes of France normally banning non-motorized traffic,[1] a warning sign cautions motorists an exception on the Pont de Normandie.

In the countries of Western and Northern Europe with relatively high bicycle share like the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium and Germany, cycling on motorways is not a topic in the debate: cycling is not allowed on official motorways, and generally forbidden with road signs on all look-alikes.

In those countries it has no practical use, and effort is put in building an independent cycling network, crossing no entrance and exit ramps of arterial roads and expressways. Some sections of the cycle networks of these countries are adjacent to (but separated from) a motorway, but those are exceptions.

United KingdomEdit

In countries such as the United Kingdom and Germany, the difference between a normal road and a freeway-class road (motorway or autobahn) is the restriction of low-speed traffic. Many roads are built to freeway standards but are not legally freeway-class roads for this reason. Indeed, some freeway-class roads are downgraded for short stretches where no alternative exists, to allow low-speed traffic; examples in the UK include the Dartford Crossing[note 1] (the furthest downstream public crossing of the Thames), and the former Cumberland Gap, as well as sections of the A1 not yet designated A1(M), various lengths of the A5, and the entirety of other important and near-motorway-standard links such as the A14, A34, A38, A42, A50, and A55 road, long stretches of which carry 70 miles per hour (110 km/h) speed limits. The reasons for such designation vary—physical lack of space (A55), restricted budget (e.g. A42; a full-standard motorway would have been more expensive than an A-road; a motorway with additional service roads further still), or because of legislative or political wrangling (easier to have A-road construction or upgrade authorised and accepted than a more emotionally charged "motorway scheme", and does not require issuing of Special Road orders).

United StatesEdit

In some US jurisdictions, especially where freeways replace existing roads, non-motorized access on freeways is the rule. Different states of the United States have different laws. Cycling on freeways in Arizona may be prohibited only where there is an alternative route judged equal or better for cycling.[3] Wyoming, the least populated state, allows cycling on all freeways. Oregon allows bicycles except on specific urban freeways in Portland and Medford.[4]

Freeway travel eliminates most collision points that are caused by turning or crossing at intersections, save at entrance and exit ramps. An analysis of crashes in Arizona showed no safety problems with cycling on freeways. Fewer than one motor vehicle-bicycle crash a year was recorded in the 1990s on nearly 3,200 shoulder kilometres (2,000 mi) open to cyclists in Arizona. The study did not attempt to establish how common cyclists are on Arizona freeways or whether they are aware that they can legally cycle on some freeway stretches; accidents were also noted on stretches where cycling was forbidden.[5][unreliable source?]

U.S. states permitting bicycle use on interstate highwaysEdit

A warning sign advising motorists to share the road with bicyclists on I-5 in California.

Most U.S. States with low population densities commonly permit bicycle use on interstate freeways outside urban areas. Additionally, some states permit bicycle use on at least some interstate routes specially designated to accommodate bikes.

State Regulation[6]
Alabama Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Alaska Allowed if no suitable alternative
Arizona Allowed if no suitable alternative
Arkansas Prohibited (possible exceptions)
California Allowed if no suitable alternative
Colorado Allowed if no suitable alternative
Connecticut Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Delaware Prohibited (possible exceptions)
District of Columbia Discouraged, but not prohibited
Florida Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Georgia Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Hawaii Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Idaho Allowed on all interstates
Illinois Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Indiana Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Iowa Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Kansas Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Kentucky Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Louisiana Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Maine Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Maryland Prohibited (possible exceptions)[7]
Massachusetts Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Michigan Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Minnesota Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Mississippi Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Missouri Discouraged, but not prohibited
Montana Allowed on all interstates
Nebraska Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Nevada Allowed if no suitable alternative[8]
New Hampshire Prohibited (possible exceptions)
New Jersey Allowed with permit[9]
New Mexico Allowed if no suitable alternative
New York Prohibited (possible exceptions)[10]
North Carolina Prohibited (possible exceptions)
North Dakota Allowed on all interstates
Ohio Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Oklahoma Discouraged, but not prohibited
Oregon Allowed unless prohibited[11]
Pennsylvania Allowed if no suitable alternative[12]
Rhode Island Prohibited (possible exceptions)
South Carolina Prohibited (possible exceptions)
South Dakota Allowed on all interstates
Tennessee Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Texas Discouraged, but not prohibited[13]
Utah Allowed if no suitable alternative[14]
Vermont Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Virginia Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Washington Allowed unless prohibited[15]
West Virginia Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Wisconsin Prohibited (possible exceptions)
Wyoming Allowed on all interstates

Bike freewaysEdit

Bike freeways (also known as cycling highways) are direct, long-distance cycle tracks separated from motorized traffic and with almost no big intersections or delays, intended for utility cycling. In countries like the Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders), they are built connecting city and town centers, e.g. adjacent to railroads.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Non-motorized traffic may not use the Dartford Crossing, however cyclists are shuttled across the crossing for free by car.[2] Low speed motorized traffic is allowed.


  1. ^ Code de la route : Chapitre Ier : Autoroutes. (Articles R421-1 à R421-10), retrieved 6 August 2022, I.-L'accès des autoroutes est interdit à la circulation :
  2. ^[bare URL]
  3. ^ Staff (November 2011). "1030: Controlled-Access Highways as Bikeways" (PDF). ADOT Traffic Engineering Policies, Guidelines, and Procedures. Arizona Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  4. ^ Staff. "OAR Banning Non-Motorized Travel On Some Interstate Freeways in Oregon" (PDF). Oregon Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 31, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
  5. ^ Moeur, Richard C. (October 2002). "Bicycle–Motor Vehicle Collisions on Controlled Access Highways in Arizona: Analysis from January 1, 1991 to June 30, 2002" (PDF). Arizona Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2011.
  6. ^ "State by State Information". Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
  7. ^ Biking Laws, retrieved 6 August 2022
  8. ^ "Bicycle Safety and Pennsylvania Laws". Nevada Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 22, 2022. Q25. May bicycles ride upon freeways and Interstate highways in Nevada?
  9. ^ New Jersey Bicycling Manual (PDF), retrieved 6 August 2022, Note: In New Jersey, interstate roadways are currently closed to bicyclists; however, most sections are open by special permit issued by NJDOT. For a permit to ride on these sections write to:
  10. ^ Highway and Bridge Restrictions, retrieved 6 August 2022
  11. ^ Staff. "OAR Banning Non-Motorized Travel On Some Interstate Freeways in Oregon" (PDF). Oregon Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 31, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
  12. ^ "Bicycle Safety and Pennsylvania Laws". Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  13. ^ "Laws and Regulations FAQ". Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 21, 2022. If the commission adopts a rule prohibiting the use of bikes on such a roadway, the commission shall erect and maintain official traffic-control devices on the portions of the limited-access or controlled-access highway to which the rule applies. Tex. Transp. Code § 545.065.
    Note: The office of General Counsel is unaware of the commission taking any such action to date.
  14. ^ "Utah Roads That Are Illegal to Ride Bikes On – prohibited bike routes". Retrieved August 22, 2022.
  15. ^ "Bicycling in Washington". Washington State Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 21, 2022. Washington state highways closed to bicycles