National Police of Peru
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The Peruvian National Police (Spanish: Policía Nacional del Perú, PNP) is the national police force of Peru. Its jurisdiction covers the nation's land, sea, and air territories. Formed from the merge of the Investigative Police, the Civil Guard, and the Republican Guard in 1988, it is one of the largest police forces in Latin America. Its mission is to preserve domestic order, public order and national security, in order to enforce the law and protect the people of Peru. The PNP is controlled by the Peruvian Interior Ministry. The PNP has a number of divisions, tasked with enforcing specific aspects of the law; among the more well known are DIROES (Special Operations), DIRANDRO (Anti-Narcotics Unit), DIRINCRI (Criminal Investigations), and DIRCOTE (Anti-Terrorism).
|National Police of Peru|
Policía Nacional del Perú
Coat of arms of the Peruvian National Police
|Motto||"Dios, Patria, Ley"|
"God, Fatherland, Law"
|Formed||December 6, 1988 (unification)|
|Annual budget||S/. 4.1 billion 2009|
|Size||1,285,220 km² (496,222 mi²)|
|Population||29,132,013 June 2009|
|Governing body||Interior Ministry|
|Elected officer responsible|
|Airbases||Jorge Chávez International Airport|
Functions of the National Police of PeruEdit
Under its law of creation, the National Police has the following functions:
- Maintaining security and public order.
- Prevent, combat, investigate and report crimes.
- Ensure public safety.
- Provide protection to children, adolescents, the elderly and women who are at risk of their freedom.
- Investigate the disappearance of individuals.
- Ensure and control vehicular and pedestrian free movement on the public roads and secure vehicle and rail transport, to investigate and report accidents, and keep records of vehicles for law enforcement, in coordination with the responsible authority.
- Intervene in the air, sea, river and lake transportation in their actions.
- Monitor and control the borders and enforce the laws on migratory control of nationals and foreigners.
- Providing security to the President of the Republic, the Heads of State on an official visit, the Presidents of the government and the autonomous constitutional bodies, the Congress, Ministers of State, as well as diplomats, dignitaries and other persons.
- Comply with the Judiciary, the Constitutional Court, National Elections Board, the Public Ministry and the National Electoral Office in exercising its functions.
- Participate in prison security, as well as the transfer of the accused and sentenced.
- Participate in the compliance of the provisions relating to the protection and conservation of natural resources and the environment, and the safety of the archaeological and cultural heritage of the Peru.
- Ensuring the safety of goods and services, in coordination with relevant state bodies.
- Participate in National Defense, Civil Defense and the economic and social development of the country.
- Carry out the identification of persons for law enforcement purposes.
- Exercise such other functions as provided for in the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Peru.
The history of the Peruvian police goes back to the age of the Incas: however, it was since Peru became an independent republic in 1821 that the police began to be seen as a definite institution with its own mission and functions.
The first police forces, beginning between 1825 and 1839, emerged as part of the armed forces. At that time, watchmen and guards also carried out police functions within their areas of operation.
The First Public Safety and Police ForcesEdit
After the proclamation of Peruvian independence by General San Martín in 1821, the "Civic Militia" (Milicia Cívica) was created to keep public order. Its inspector general was Don José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marqués de Torre Tagle, who later served the Supreme Government (Supremo Gobierno) under the title Supreme Governor (Supremo Gobernador) during 1823–24.
Under San Martín the presidents of departmental governing bodies (juntas departamentales) were given the function of "police judges" (Jueces de Policía). As such their task was to oversee public morals and social progress in general. In 1822–23 police functions were organised under “commissars” (Comisarios) and section leaders (Decuriones), with the support of the pre-existing neighbourhood leaders ( Alcaldes de Barrio). A secret police force, known as the Civil Brigade (Brigada Civil), also came into being at that time. Its mission was to identify those conspiring against Independence, whose agents were infiltrating into the administrative structures of the new government, and even into the army.
The first constitution of the republic was promulgated in 1823, under the presidency of Don José Bernardo Tagle, having been approved by the first constituent assembly on 12 November. Three new ministries were created: Government and Foreign Relations (which took responsibility for policing), War and the Navy, and Finance.
Although this constitution laid down that municipal councils should be in charge of the Policía de Orden, responsible for security and public order, it also included the Milicia Cívica and the Guardia de Policía as part of the land-based armed forces, together with the army. The Milicia Cívica would maintain “public security” within each province, while the Guardia de Policía would maintain “private security”, e.g. dealing with highway robbers, and prosecuting criminals.
In a decree issued on 7 January 1825, Simón Bolívar converted the Milicia Cívica into a Guardia Nacional, with the task of ensuring public order in each region and community. The Guardia Nacional was staffed by soldiers released from the army and was organised on military lines; it remained part of the armed forces and constituted the army reserve. On 9 December 1826 the Vitalicia (“lifelong”) constitution was issued, under which police functions were transferred from municipal government (a relic of the viceroyal period) to the Ministry of Government, working through the prefectures and Intendencias.
On 20 January 1827, during his first presidency, Marshal Don Andrés de Santa Cruz Calaumana issued a provisional set of police regulations.
In 1834 the serenos (town watchmen) of the viceroyal period were re-constituted, now properly armed and in uniform. This occurred under the presidency of Marshal Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada. Soon afterwards, the “Arequipa regulations” created the posts of Inspector and Guard (Celador), and the Order and Internal Security Forces came under the superintendent of police in Lima, and under the sub-prefects in the provinces.
In his second administration (1836–1837), Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz ordered increased security patrols nationwide, and the town level watchmen's detachments were cited during his term of office, previously, these detachments made up of paid watchmen mounted permanent surveillance duties.
Marshal Agustín Gamarra enacted in 1839 in Huancayo a new Regulation of Police, which maintains the Police Chief at the head of a reorganized Vigilance and Security Corps with ranks of Captain, Lieutenant, Corporals, Vigilants and Watchmen, and Lima is divided into ten districts and details the various functions that are within its competence.
In 1845, Marshal Ramón Castilla Marquesado in his first government (1845–1851) ordered the reactviation of the National Guard. This time the new Guard was created as a national security organization distributed in all departments, and the decree that created it issued new rules and regulations to define the functions, political authorities and the General Inspectorate of the service.
The National GendarmerieEdit
General Don José Rufino Echenique Benavente, who became President in 1851 by supreme decree of 14 April 1852 formally reorganized the Police Force into one body and formally created the Peruvian National Gendarmerie, a Police Force composed of armed pickets of gendarmes led by officers seconded from the Army which went into the tables of these units were also created so-called "roving Barracks." Just like the National Guard, the Gendamerie was organized along military lines.
The same year of its creation, 1852, 8 Companies of Infantry Gendarmes (formed into 2 Battalions) and a Regiment of Cavalry Gendarmes composed of 4 Squadrons became operational.
The first Gendarmerie provisions were enacted in 1853 and 1855. In 1855, as Marshal Ramón Castilla began his second term as President (1855–1862), he then proceeded to reorganize the gendarmerie, and on April 7, 1856, merged into it the existing Police Corps, setting strict entry requirements and increasing their numbers.
However 1856 the Head of Government for Lima Dr. Juan del Mar raised a 150-man company of Guardsmen for the duties of public security in the Peruvian capital city, independent from the Gendarmerie proper, due to its pressing needs for security.
On August 7 of 1861, the old organization of the Gendarmerie was disbanded. Replacing it, the infantry component of the Gendarmerie were, by now, the 1st and 2nd Gendarme Infantry Battalions, and the Gendarme Cavalry Squadron.
The 1st GIB as the leading unit of the services moved to the “Sacramentos de Santa Ana” Barracks, located in the street of the same name and next to Plaza Italia, in Barrios Altos, now converted into the state educational institution "Heroes of Cenepa" and on August 7, 1919, was formally renamed as the "Republican Guard" 1st Gendarme Infantry Battalion.
The 1873 Police Reform and the War of the PacificEdit
Don Manuel Pardo Lavalle's presidential term commenced on August 2, 1872, and one of his first actions was to reorganize the national police force.
By Supreme Decree signed on December 31 of 1873, with legislative approval effective April 3 of 1874, President Manuel Pardo formally reorganized the police in the following manner:
- "Neighborhood Organization", composed by the neighborhood residents against criminals, by the Mayors of the respective municipalities.
- "Police Services", composed of the Security Police in markets and public places.
- "Police for Establishments".
- "Rural Police."
- "Prison Guards."
- "Port Police, regulated by the Peruvian Navy.
- "Organization of the permanent forces," for the preservation of public order, preventing crimes and other similar problems.
It also refers to "urban and rural commisariats and of the Regular Police Force divided into the Civil Guard and the National Gendarmerie, respectively".  Thus through Supreme Decrees of December 31 of 1873 (published in the Diario Oficial "El Peruano" on January 28 of 1874) and March 23 of 1874 providing for its creation, the Peruvian Civil Guard was formally established. Don Manuel Pardo Lavalle formally confirmed the paramilitary organization of both forces but to fulfill duties of maintaining order and security nationwide. The National Congress later on that year informed him of the readiness of the Civil Guard nationwide to fuifill the functions stated in the decree, and the fact that the Civil Guard had reached its initial operational capability.
The new "Civil Guard" would work to provide security and safety to citizens, while the Gendarmerie would maintain the safety and security of public buildings, prisons and buildings of government as well as of the civil workforce. To help the Civil Guards in its mission, on Nov. 9, 1874, President Don Manuel Pardo Lavalle opened the Civil Guard Instruction School which was formed by a company of 50 men in the basis of the Battalion of Infantry Gendarms of Lima, its first cadets. Its formal mission is the training of all service personnel of the service.
During the War with Chile, the Civil Guard did have a significant and active role to fight alongside the Peruvian Army and is in the Battle of Tarapacá where Civil Guard Subinspector Mariano Santos Mateos excelled in this battle, whose action was critical to the Army of Peru on its victory. He, the Brave Guardsman of Tarapacá, who belonged to the 25th Infantry Battalion "Arequipa Guards", a unit consisting of 6 Civil Guard companies, and managed to capture in Peruvian hands, the Colonela (flag) of the 2nd Infantry Regiment of the Chilean Army. Even his enemies congratulated him due to this action and he later was promoted to the next higher grade of Guards Inspector, Peruvian Civil Guard.
The Gendarmerie also became involved in the war as the 8th Lima Infantry Battalion under the command of Lt. Col. Remigio Morales Bermúdez, under the Peruvian Army. Both services fought in all the battles of the war as the wartime reinforcement of the Peruvian Armed Forces under the Ministry of War.
Ranks of the Peruvian Civil Guard (1872–1919)Edit
- Corneta (Cornet)
- Guardia de segunda clase (Guardsman 2nd Class)
- Guardia de primera clase (Guardsman 1st Class)
- Subinspector de Guardias (Guards Subinspector)
- Inspector de Guardias (Guards Inspector)
- Mayor de Guardias (Guards Major)
- Comandante de Guardias (Guards Commander)
- Comisario Jefe (Chief Commissioner)
Police Reorganization LawEdit
The conformation of the former police service lasted until 1919, the year in which the second government of Don Augusto Bernardino Leguía Salcedo decided that it was time to formally reorganize the services by the release of Legislative Decree No. 1163 issued on August 7, 1919. Among other things, it provided for the establishment of "a school for aspiring police officers and individuals in the institution."
The President of the Republic Don Augusto Bernardino Leguía Salcedo, at the suggestion of Peruvian Army General Gerardo Alvarez, who when on a visit to Paris, France, saw the French Republican Guard and was inspired by its long history and its mission to guard government institutions, and the presidency made it clear that it was due time that Peru adopt the French model, made into law Supreme Decree of August 7, 1919 that provided, emulating the Republican Guard of France, the 1st Gendarme Battalion was to be called 1st Gendarme Infantry Battalion "Republican Guard of Peru", which should have the same functions as the Republican Guard of Paris since it was created in its image and likeness, giving it the task of the safety of government establishments and services, especially "the security of the Government Palace and the National Congress."
The headquarters of the 1st Gendarmes Infantry Battalion "Republican Guard of Peru" of the Peruvian National Gendarmerie stayed at the "Sacraments of Santa Ana" barracks in Barrios Altos. Its first Chief Sergeant Major Florentino Bustamante received his officer's commission and thus commanded Gendarmes Infantry Battalion No. 1 since July 9 of 1919 and continued as head of the Battalion until September 30 of 1923. Thus, the Infantry Battalion "Republican Guard of Peru" became the Presidential Guard Infantry of the Government Palace for several years after the assassination of President Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro on April 30, 1933, a duty that would remain until 1941.
As the purpose of President Leguía was to provide a Spanish-style police for the country via the example the Spanish Civil Guard had shown, for this he asked the government of His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain Don Alfonso XIII, sending to the capital of Peru a Spanish police mission to organize and instruct selected Peruvians to form a national police force. Leguía through Supreme Resolution of April 4, 1921, formed a mission from Spain composed of selected personnel of the Spanish Civil Guard, to establish the basis on which the Peruvian Civil Guard will be reorganized, signed up at Madrid on October 1 of 1921, the diplomatic mission that were recruited by the services of a Mission Benemérita de la Guardia Civil, which on November 22, 1921 came to the capital of Peru and was chaired by then Lieutenant Colonel Pedro Pueyo, SCG, from Spain. Completing the mission was Captain Bernardo Sanchez Visaires SCG, Lieutenant Adolfo Parreño Carretero SCG, who due to illness had to return to Spain, and was replaced by the same class of Lieutenant Fernando Gomez Ayau, SCG, and Sergeant First Class José Gómez Hernández, SCG (the First Guard instructor).
The Spanish police mission, after its arrival went to work planning and formulation of projects for the reform of the police, delivering within a month of their arrival, the documentation on January 21, 1922, having presented to President Leguía and the Minister for Police, 14 bills that comprise the complete plan of reorganization of the entire police forces of the nation. This study was approved by the President himself, who considered the plan proposed in the 14 projects mentioned, the only reasons for the reorganization, for his excellent ways of adapting the state economy and despite the improvement of all services involved would transform the police into a modern institution.
The new Civil Guard that came out of this reorganization would bear the image not just of its Spanish counterparts but also of its past: The new Civil Guard Charter in its first article stated that Honor is the principal emblem of the Civil Guard, a distinction that must never be hurt, for when it is done it will never be repaired and in other articles stated the peacetime and wartime organization of the service plus many other features. They shared the same GC abbreviation as in Spain, but the motto was different: it was El honor es su divisa como la madre patria (Honor is its emblem with the mother country) by no less than President Leguía himself who adapted it to Peru.
As a result of work carried out by the Spanish Mission, the government issued July 3 of 1922 a Supreme Decree stipulating in its operative part the creation of the "School of the Civil Guard and Police of the Republic." The purpose was to organize a police force similar to the Spanish Civil Guard on the basis of the Republican Gendarmerie and the formation of another unit called the Security and Public Order Corps on the basis of the old Town and Country Civil Guards (their tradition, however, would move to the new Civil Guards) as well as found another service but called the Investigation and Surveillance Unit (which would make the investigation of crimes) with elements taking advantage of the Investigations Section of the Administration Police and the first sergeants, graduates of the Army, or the same as serving as officers in the Gendarmerie existed for those jobs. Most of all the decree formally made the long overdue wish of the police forces to have its own officers academy. Formerly these officer cadets of the Civil Guard, the Security Corps, and the soon to be created Investigation and Surveillance Brigade shared the same academy as the officer cadets of the Peruvian Army: the Chorrillos Military School, and shared the same reporting ministry in the War Ministry, not in the Government and Police Ministry, as well as the military tradition and rank system as part of the Peruvian Armed Forces, while the CGIC was only limited to other ranks as well as being the post graduate specialty school for the officers.
The Police Academy, then the Civil Guard and Police Academy, was inaugurated on November 1, 1922 and originally consisted of three sections:
- 1st Senior Officers
- 2nd, Junior Officers and Officer Cadets
- 3rd, Special Section for Aspiring personnel of Investigation and Surveillance and its fingerprinting annex.
The opening was presided over by President Leguía, together with government officials, the diplomatic corps, and military officials and attaches attending. The Spanish community of Lima also graced the event and the Spanish mission chief, LTCOL Pedro Pueyo España, SCG, entrusted the State War Color to the academy as its director after it was blessed officially by military chaplains. A plaque was unveiled by the presiding officers to commemorate the occasion.
The academy began operations on November 4 of 1922, had its first exams in March 1923, and graduated on September 3, 1923 the first batch of Civil Guards officers totaling up to 1988, 59 graduating classes all in all. The strength of the first class of graduates from the Police Academy, addressed to the Commissioners for Lima, constituted the both State Security Corps and the reorganized Civil Guard. Its address was then at 798 Sebastián Lorente Ibáñez Avenue (formerly Las Incas Avenue) in Cercado, Lima and its first Corps of Cadets then made up of:
- 30 Peruvian Army Officer Cadets
- 104 Officer and NCO Cadets
- 19 Technical Cadets of the course of Investigation
1923–1986: The changing evolution of Peruvian security servicesEdit
Thanks to the Spanish mission to Peru of the Spanish Civil Guard the nation had professional civil security forces for the first time. The brand new uniforms of the Civil Guard and the Security Corps reflected the effects of that mission: While the new Civil Guard kept the kepis with their dress beige uniforms Security Corps personnel wore peaked caps with their dress and duty blue uniforms. Civil Guards were also distinguished by the very same items Peruvian Army cavalry officers used then in their uniforms while the Security Corps uniforms were modeled on those worn by European police services of the period. This mission also provided for the establishment of the state investigations service, in 1922 it would bear fruit with the raising of the Investigations and Surveillance Brigade of the Civil Guard, then a brigade-sized formation, and at the same time, the 1st "Republican Guard" Gendarme Battalion became a full regiment. The combined forces, reporting to the Ministry of Government and Police from now on, were led by an Inspector General.
Police organization in the rural and urban areas then were different from each other. Rural organization of the Civil Guard was on posts, lines, sectors, commands and regions while Security Corps' urban organization mirrored military organization save that, instead of companies, commissaries were the basic unit.
The cavalry was formed under the name of the Cavalry Squadron of Provincial Security, which was organized on the basis of the Cavalry Gendarme Squadron "Lima Guard" at the "Quinta de Presa", one of the new mounted police units to be raised as part of the Civil Guard. Two more were later raised, but all were disbanded in 1923 and converted to instruction squadrons in the Police Academy. The 1st Gendarme Cavalry Squadron, at the same time, became the mounted component of the 1st Combined Arms (Cavalry and Infantry) Security Regiment, and the Gendarmerie Provincial Cavalry Squadron became the Provincial Security Cavalry Squadron. On February 22, 1924, President Augusto B. Leguía, via a Supreme Resolution from the Cabinet, formally raised a Machine Gun Battalion to reinforce the ranks of the Security Corps to fulfill its mandate of public order.
The baptism of fire for the new Security Corps came with the death of two personnel from the service on May 26, 1924, while on a routine mission in Villa de Olaya.
The August 18, 1924 decree established the 1st Joint Command of the Civil Guard, with an Infantry Battalion, composed of two companies, and a Cavalry Squadron (formed on the basis of the former mounted police). Its duties began the same month, with its first personnel enlisted in 1925, detached from the two Civil Guards infantry companies' headquarters to the San Lazaro Barracks located at Matamoros Street, in the Rimac and the Cavalry Squadron's headquarters would be at Conchucos in the Barrios Altos, Lima, headquarters that the coming years would become the headquarters of the Cavalry Squadron of the Police and Civil Guard Guardsman's School until the end of 1965 when they moved to the Civil Guard Instruction Center (now the National Police Officer's School) Mariano Santos in the district of La Campiña, Chorrillos. The 1st Command would move to new quarters on 1644 28 July Avenue on January 16, 1937.
The Health Service of the Police was created by Supreme Decree of December 4 of 1924 as the support service of the Civil Guards and the Security Corps. The Civil Guard Second Command, the customs police arm of the Civil Guard, would be raised on August 1, 1925, by virtue of a Supreme Decree. Its baptism of fire came in 1927 while fighting the forces of local rebel Eleodoro Benel Zuloeta in Cutervo Province and later while fighting warlords in Cajamarca. Due to this and other actions the Civil Guard size was increased and 3 independent companies had to be raised as a result.
A presidential decree of March 28, 1928 established August 30 every year as Police Day. Its first observance was marked by a grand parade in Lima's outskirts by all the participating units. Law No.6183 enacted on April 23, 1928 formally declared the status of the police forces as paramilitary units under the control and supervision of the Ministry of Government and Police.
On January 14, 1929, the Traffic Battalion was raised, a merit of Law No. 6468, which entrusted the battalion's mission to control traffic in the Capital of Peru, and Major Edilberto Salazar Castillo, CG, was named as its first chief. The service was started in November of that year. The Health Services of the Police was renamed in another Supreme Decree on August 12 the same year as the Government and Police Health Services, and on the 26th of the same month the Investigation and Surveillance Brigade was elevated to a full Corps.
Leguía reorganized the Corps of Security Forces of the Republic by virtue of Supreme Decree of March 17, 1930, with the autonomy of the role of cavalry in the Police Cavalry Squadron recognized and the Provincial Security and Lima Security Squadrons, thus by merger, became the First Cavalry Security Regt., moving the entire cavalry unit from the "Quinta de Presa" base to the Barracks "El Potao", approving Col. Rufino Manuel Martinez Martinez, CG's appointment as Head of the First Infantry Regiment of Security and appointing Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Pella Cáceda, CG, as First commander of the First Cavalry Regiment based at the Security Headquarters "El Potao." That same year the Machine Gun Battalion, mechanized that very same year, was forced to stand down.
Subsequently, the First Security Infantry Regiment, consisting of battalions, was raised, which in turn merged with the Commissioners for Lima. Then, these units were spread throughout Peru, with the names of the Security Battalions of the North, Central and South, with offices in Trujillo, Arequipa and La Oroya respectively. That same year, the Republican Guard Regiment was transformed into the 2nd Infantry Regiment of Security, in a failed effort to begin the unification of the national police services following the Chilean example.
The 2nd Infantry Regiment of Security became the Republican Guard Regiment in 1931 by orders of President David Samanez Ocampo, was reorganized and stripped of its State Color the same year and would be reformed in 1932, with a new motto: "Honor, Loyalty, Discipline", by now commanded by COL Enrique Herbozo Méndez, Peruvian Army, and after the assassination of President Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro on April 30, 1933, stayed as the presidential guard for several more years. The reorganized Regiment's strength was a regimental headquarters unit and 3 battalions, the latter two composed of 3 rifle companies each.
1931 also saw the Civil Guard involved in a rebellion by the 4th Army Division of the Peruvian Army led by LTCOL Agustín Cabrera in Cusco on the 26th of June. After forcing the surrender of the 4th Artillery Regiment the rebel division marched towards the CG station and the rebel leader asked the Civil Guard commander in the area, Major Humberto Flores Hidalgo to defect, but he refused, forcing the rebels to withdraw from the police station. Major Hidalgo alongside Captain Carlos Briolo forced Civil Guards units in the area to counterattack the rebel movement and worked with opponents of the movement to stop it in its tracks. The result was that most of the rebels defected and forced the capture of the rebel commander on July 6–7.
The American Popular Revolutionary Alliance rebellion of July 7, 1932 in Trujillo, Peru surprised the services. As part of the forces responding to the revolution in that city, both the Civil Guard and the Security Corps excelled well and contributed to the victory at the cost of 36 dead and 15 wounded at the part of both services. This was the first time both services fought alongside the Peruvian Armed Forces in a joint service operation. In their honor and of all others who died while in service, a memorial cenotaph was opened in the Police and Civil Guard Academy courtyard in the following month.
The Republican Guard Regiment's role was expanded in 1935 by orders of President Field Marshal Óscar R. Benavides in accordance with the just signed Republican Guard Organic Law. Not only it was the presidential guard regiment (until 1940) it was also, by virtue of the provisions of the law, mandated as the following:
- State prisons and border guard service
- Maintainer of order in worse situations when required
- Intervening force for national security and defense
- During wartime, part of the Armed Forces under the War Ministry and assigned directly to the Army as a full regiment of infantry
That very same year the Investigation and Surveillance Corps, through Law no. 8154, formalized its position in the Civil Guard and the rank system created in 1929 was officially confirmed. 3 years later the ISC's Investigations Course in the National Civil Guard and Police Academy formally opened its doors to aspiring members of the service.
The National Civil Guard and Police Academy Band would be raised on January 7, 1943.
With the reform of the January 5th of 1944 the Civil Guards Corps and Security Corps were merged into one body called the Peruvian Civil Guard. Under a government mandate that the service responsible for providing services in the towns and cities of the nation, the corps was divided accordingly into the Urban Civil Guard for urban municipality and city security, and the Rural Civil Guard for rural security services. Two years later, the ISC was formally converted into the Corps Directorate of the ISC.
Through a presidential decree of President Dr. José Luis Bustamante y Rivero on September 15, 1948, the Minister for Police Doctor Julio Cesar Villegas Cerro issued a resolution granting the autonomy and functional independence of the Investigations and Surveillance Corps (CIV) and establishing the Directorate for Investigations and Surveillance as the top command under the Ministry of Government and Police.
In 1949, President of the Republic Army Divisional General Don Manuel Apolinario Odría Amoretti elevated the Directorate of Research and Monitoring to the category of a full general Directorate, by now an autonomous unit of the Civil Guard, with its own ranks and departments, with the creation of a fiscal investigations unit done in 1950. In the same year a full police radio unit was formed in the Civil Guard as the motorized security force under LTCOL Isaac Ingunza Apolinario, CG.
Ministerial Resolution of November 9 of 1955 established the Preparatory Section of the Police Women's CIV and on May 2 of 1956, forty women entered the Women's Section of the School of Research Assistants at the Detectives College, National Police Academy. That same year, Cadet 1st Class Teófilo Aliaga Salazar from the DC visited the Minister of Government and the Interior Dr. Jorge Fernández Stoll, about the unfair practices of the Police Academy towards its detective trainees. The fact, he stated to the Minister, was that cadet detectives were prohibited from advancing to higher ranks, only used by the Civil Guard officer cadets of the Academy. By January of the next year, the situation for the detective cadets in the Academy resulted in a reorganization of the Police Academy Corps of Cadets, with detective cadets now leading their own units while at the same time, plans were underway for the formation of the National Investigations Police Academy, with official sanction coming on the 20th of the same month. Another protest by the cadets, led by now Cadet Captain Salazar, that May, officially gave way to the NIPA's official opening on May 21, at the offices of the National Pedagogical Institute in Mexico Avenue, Victoria District, Lima, which would be its campus for the next 5 years.
Since 1957, all the police services had a singular Patroness, St. Rose of Lima, later becoming the patroness only of the Civil Guard.
In June 1960 the ISC changed its name to the "Investigations Police of Peru" (IPP), and the National Police Academy became the Civil Guard Instruction Center, with the Guardsmen's School and the Civil Guard Officers' School attached to it. From that point until 1976, only the IPP stayed the only police service that admitted women.
Since then Peru in the three police forces set by the Ministry of Government and Interior and subordinate to them until 1991 were as follows:
- Police Corps "Civil Guard of Peru"
- Detective Corps "Investigations Police of Peru"
- Gendarmerie Corps "Peruvian Republican Guard"
The status of the latter two services as such and their missions, among others, were reaffirmed and expanded by presidential decrees signed on November 20 and 22, 1960, respectively, by President Manuel Prado.
1961 saw the raising of the Civil Guard Special Operations Unit aimed at protecting peace and order during dangerous situations, staffed by Peruvian Armed Forces personnel at first, and later by specially trained Civil Guardsmen. Police Day became Civil Guard Day by yet another decree on June 30, 1964. And during those years, marked by subversive criminal actions nationwide especially in the south, Civil Guardsmen, Republican Guardsmen and Detectives stayed on the ground in the performance of their duties, helped by members of the Police Health Services.
The missions and status of the Peruvian security services were revised again by various government decrees by the Military Government of the Armed Forces on December 23, 1969, one of which approved the Organic Law of the Health Service of the Police Forces, entrusted with a mission of guaranteeing the health and safety of the personnel of the services and their families. It had its own school and organization, and was under the Ministry of the Interior.
7 days after the revision of the status of the police forces, on December 30, 1969, the Statue of the Police Forces was enacted by the Military Government of the Armed Forces, updating yet again the status of all the services.
The PRG was dominated by the Peruvian Army, even though separate from the armed forces, until 1975 when it had the first Director to rise from the ranks of the service. The service had its own academy from 1964 onward (it included both the Republican Guard Officers' School, the Guardsman's School and the Staff College).
Women joined the Civil Guard thanks to a 1977 military government degree, and in 1978 the Civil Guard Instruction Center admitted its first women officer cadets for the Women's Police Branch in San Bartolo, which opened that April.
Unification of the Police ForcesEdit
Mirroring the future unification of the uniformed security services was a 1980 order adopting a unified rank system for all 3 police services.
President Alan García Pérez, in his first term as chief executive (1985–1990), began on September 14 of 1985, under the law 24,294 of the Republic, as approved by Congress, the beginning of the reorganization of the police services of the Republic of Peru.
On February 4, 1986, continuing with the project undertaken, legislative decrees 370, 371, 372, and 373 relating to the Organic Law of the Ministry of the Interior, the Police Forces Code of 1969 and the Organic Laws of the Civil Guard, Investigations Police and the Republican Guard were issued to the three forces.
Among these, Legislative Decree No. 371, the "1986 Police Forces Act", formally laid the foundations for the definitive establishment of the National Police of Peru.
The Act established a single command (i.e. the Directorate General of Police) and also the formation of a single study center for the preparation of police officers (in the basis of Civil Guard Instruction Center "Mariano Santos" in La Campina – Chorrillos, and to be called the National Police Officer's School) and a national school for the guards and agents (referred to National Police headquarters at the former Republican Guard Superior Institute in Puente Piedra – now the National Police Technical College), directly under the Ministry of the Interior.
Law 24,949 was finally enacted on December 6 of 1988 amending the relevant articles of the Political Constitution of Peru of 1979 with the aim of the formal foundation of the National Police of Peru, and took effect the next day.
The objectives sought were, among others, to integrate the three police forces to make better use of economic resources, eliminate the conflict that existed between them caused by "double role" problems and, above all, provide better services to society.
With the unification of police forces the Civil Guard, the Investigations Police and the Republican Guard were renamed as the General Police, Technical Police and Security Police until 1991, when the merger was finally completed. The combined service still retains its yearly August 30 Police Day celebrations, in honor of its patroness and that of Peru and Latin America, Saint Rose of Lima. She was honored in 1995 with the Grand Cross of the National Police Order of Merit and was entrusted with a general officer's sash in honor of her patronage to the force.
Today, the National Police of Peru is a modern and efficient force. It has experienced 28 years of war against terrorism and drug trafficking, with more than 140,000 troops. The PNP is one of the largest police forces in Latin America, with large land, air and water units as well as special forces and commandos assigned to locations all over the country. However, it is plagued by corruption 
Ranks and titlesEdit
The hierarchy of the National Police of Peru (since 1992) is structured in accordance with the following template:
1. Police Officers
1.1 General Officers:
- General de Policia – General of Police
- Teniente General – Lieutenant General
1.2. Senior Officers:
- Coronel – Colonel
- Comandante – Commandant
- Mayor – Major
1.3. Junior officers:
- Capitán – Captain
- Teniente – Lieutenant
- Alférez – Ensign
1.4. Cadetes de la Escuela de Oficiales (Cadets of the Officers School)
2. Oficiales de Servicios (Officers of the Staff and Services Corps) 2.1. Oficiales Generales (General Officers)
- General – General
2.2 Oficiales Superiores (Senior Officers)
- Coronel – Colonel
- Comandante – Commander
- Mayor – Major
2.3 Oficiales Subalternos (Junior officers):
- Capitán – Captain
- Teniente – Lieutenant
- Alférez – Ensign
3. Personnel with Officer Status in the National Police
3.1. Oficiales Superiores (Senior Officers)
- Comandante Maestro Armero – Commander Master Armorer
- Mayor Maestro Armero – Major Master Armorer
3.2 Oficiales Subalternos (junior officers)
- Capitán Maestro Armero Captain Master Armorer
- Teniente Maestro Armero Lieutenant Master Armorer
- Alférez Maestro Armero Ensign Master Armorer
4. Suboficiales (Non Commissioned Officers)
4.1. Suboficiales (Non Commissioned Officers)
- Suboficial Superior – Superior sergeant
- Suboficial Brigadier – Brigadier sergeant
- Suboficial Técnico de 1ra – Technical Sergeant 1st class
- Suboficial Técnico de 2da – Technical Sergeant 2nd class
- Suboficial Técnico de 3ra – Technical Sergeant 3rd class
- Suboficial de 1ra – Sergeant 1st class
- Suboficial de 2da – Sergeant 2nd class
- Suboficial de 3ra – Sergeant 3rd class
4.2. Alumnos de las Escuelas de Suboficiales (Cadets of Schools for Non-Commissioned Officers)
5. Personal Subalterno de Servicios (NCOs of the Staff Corps)
- Suboficial Superior – Superior sergeant
- Suboficial Brigadier – Brigadier sergeant
- Suboficial Técnico de 1ra – Technical Sergeant 1st class
- Suboficial Técnico de 2da – Technical Sergeant 2nd class
- Suboficial Técnico de 3ra – Technical Sergeant 3rd class
- Suboficial de 1ra – Sergeant 1st class
- Suboficial de 2da – Sergeant 2nd class
- Suboficial de 3ra – Sergeant 3rd class
|Beechcraft King Air||United States||liaison aircraft||King Air E90||1|
|Cessna 206||United States||trainer aircraft||Cessna 206||2|
|Cessna 208||United States||liaison aircraft||Grand Caravan||1|
|Cessna 210||United States||trainer aircraft||Cessna 210||1|
|Piper PA-31 Navajo||United States||liaison aircraft||PA-31 Navajo Panther||1|
|Harbin Y-12||China||transport||Y-12 Turbo Panda||2||Three acquired in 1993|
|Rockwell Turbo Commander||United States||VIP transport||Turbo Commander 690||1|
|Bell UH-1||United States||transport helicopter||UH-1H||23|
|Bölkow Bo 105||Germany||utility helicopter||Bo-105LSA3||7|
|Eurocopter EC145||Germany||utility helicopter||EC145||4|||
|MBB/Kawasaki BK 117||Germany||utility helicopter||BK-117B1----BK-117B2||2----3|
|Mil Mi-17||Soviet Union||transport helicopter||Mi-17||10|
|Robinson R22||United States||light utility helicopter||R-22 Beta II||1|
|Robinson R-44||United States||Robinson R-44 Raven II||2||Acquired in 2010 two R-44 Raven|
|7.62×39mm||Soviet Union||Assault rifle||Standard issue rifle|
|HK-53||5.56 × 45 mm NATO||West Germany||Assault rifle||Used by elite forces and SUAT|
|M16A2||5.56×45mm NATO||United States||Assault rifle||Used by elite forces and SUAT|
|M4A1||5.56×45mm NATO||United States||Assault rifle||Used by elite forces and SUAT|
|SVD Dragunov||7.62×39mm||Soviet Union||Sniper rifle||Police sniper rifle|
|HK MSG90||7.62×51mm NATO||West Germany||Sniper rifle||Police sniper rifle|
|MP5SD||9×19mm Parabellum||Germany||Submachine gun||Used by elite forces|
|Uzi||9×19mm Parabellum||Israel||Submachine gun||Used by elite forces|
|HK11A1||7.62×51mm NATO||Germany||General purpose machine gun||Used by SUAT|
|RPD||7.62×39mm||Soviet Union||Light machine gun||Standard issue machine gun|
|RPK-74||5.45×39mm M74||Soviet Union||Light machine gun||Standard issue machine gun|
|PKPKM||7.62×54mmR||Soviet Union||General purpose machine gun||Standard issue machine gun|
|UR-416||APC||30||Germany||Transferred to PNP from the Peruvian Army|
Patrol and utility vehiclesEdit
|Hyundai Santa Fe||Patrol car||–||South Korea|
|Toyota Hilux||Utility vehicle||–||Japan|
1. Established in 1989.
2. ↑ El Artículo 1º del Decreto Supremo del 14 de abril de 1852 textualmente dice: " Todos los cuerpos de Policía, de Serenos y vigilantes, se reunirán en uno solo, con nombre de Gendarmería, se empleará exclusivamente en mantener la seguridad pública" . ↑ Article 1 of the Decree of April 14 of 1852 reads: "All police forces, serenity and security guards, will meet in a single, named Gendarmería be used solely to maintain public safety." Asimismo el 2º Artículo de este dispositivo legal expresaba la dependencia de este cuerpo Policial del Ministerio de Gobierno y Policía. Also the 2nd Article of this legal provision, expressing the dependence of the body of the Ministry of Police Affairs and Police.
3. ↑ En el Decreto del 7 de abril de 1856 expedido por Castilla se dispone que “ los cuerpos de policía y de vigilantes que existen hoy, se reunirán en uno solo que con el nombre de Gendarmes se empleará exclusivamente en mantener la seguridad público; constará de dos regimientos, uno de infantería y otro de caballería, el primero compuesto de dos batallones y el segundo de cuatro escuadrones ” . ↑ In the Decree of April 7 of 1856 issued by Castilla provides that "the police and vigilantes that exist today, will meet in one with the name of Gendarmes were used solely to maintain public safety, consisting of two regiments, one infantry and cavalry, the first consisting of two battalions and four squadrons of the second. "
4. ↑ El Artículo 14º del Capítulo IV del Decreto Supremo rubricado el 31 de diciembre de 1873, textualmente dice: “ La Fuerza Regular de Policía se divide en dos Clases: Guardia Civil y Gendarmería ” (la ultima a caballo y con labor de Policía Rural). ↑ Article 14 of Chapter IV of Decree signed on December 31 of 1873, reads: "The Regular Police Force is divided into two classes: the Civil Guard and Gendarmerie (the last horse to work with Police and Rural) .
5. ↑ El Artículo 1º del Decreto Supremo del 7 de agosto de 1919 textualmente dice: " Los batallones de gendarmes números 1 y 2 tendrán la misma organización regimentaria de los cuerpos del ejército, con sus efectivos actuales de presupuesto y denominándose el primero “Guardia Republicana”, al mando de un Teniente Coronel, con 27 oficiales y 431 individuos de tropa, distribuidos en 2 batallones de 2 compañías cada uno, 1 sección de ametralladoras y la banda de músicos " . ↑ Article 1 of Supreme Decree of August 7, 1919 reads: "The police battalions Nos. 1 and 2 has the same organization regimentaria of army corps, with its current budget and called the first" Republican Guard ", commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel, with 27 officers and 431 individuals of all ranks, divided into 2 companies of 2 battalions each, 1 section of machine guns and banda music. "
6. ↑ Título honorífico que desde el 2000 recibe, sin que ello implique incremento remunerativo alguno, el Teniente General que desempeña el cargo de Director General, habiendo sido el Teniente General PNP Juan Fernando Dianderas Ottone el primer Oficial General en recibir dicho grado policial honorífico. ↑ honorific title since 2000 is that it does not entail any increase in remuneration, the Lieutenant General who served as Director-General, having been Lieutenant General PNP Juan Fernando Dianderas Ottone General Officer in the first grade to receive the honorary police.
7. ↑ Aunque parezca discutible pero en la Policía Nacional del Perú este Grado policial es equivalente al de Mayor General. ↑ Though it may seem questionable but the National Police of Peru this degree is equivalent to police Major General.
- Album del Cincuentenario de la Guardia Civil del Perú, 1972, artículo: Breve Reseña Histórica de la Policía en el Perú, página 13 . Album of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Civil Guard of Peru, 1972, article: Brief History of the Police in Peru, page 13.
- Revista de la Guardia Civil del Perú, Año L, Nº 400, Noviembre-Diciembre de 1982, folleto adjunto: La Guardia Civil del Perú (páginas desglosables) . Revista de la Guardia Civil del Perú, Año L, No. 400, November–December 1982, attached brochure: The Guardia Civil of Peru (pages broken down).
- Revista de la Guardia Civil del Perú, Año LVI, Nº 434, Noviembre-Diciembre de 1988, artículo: Historia de la Guardia Civil del Perú refleja abnegación, sacrificio, patriotismo y heroicidad a la patria ya la sociedad, que la cubre de gloria e inmortalidad, páginas 10–20 . Revista de la Guardia Civil del Perú, Año LVI, No. 434, November–December 1988 article: History of the Guardia Civil of Peru reflects dedication, sacrifice, heroism and patriotism to the nation and society, which covers the glory and immortality, pages 10–20.
- Revista de la Policía Nacional del Perú, Año 3, Nº 12, Agosto de 1991, artículo: Proceso histórico de la PNP a través de las Constituciones del Perú por el Coronel PNP Carlos Orbegoso Rojas, páginas 64–65 . Journal of the National Police of Peru, Year 3, No. 12, August 1991, article: Historical process of the PNP through the constitution of Peru by Colonel PNP Orbegoso Carlos Rojas, pages 64–65.
- Revista de la Policía Nacional del Perú, Año 8, Nº 56, Diciembre de 1996, artículo: Una gloriosa historia policial. Journal of the National Police of Peru, Year 8, No. 56, December 1996 article: A glorious history of policing. Nota histórica sobre la existencia de la policía en el Perú, páginas 6–9 . Historical note on the existence of the police in Peru, pages 6–9.
- Revista de la Policía Nacional del Perú, Año 14, Nº 81, Enero-Febrero–Marzo de 2002, artículo: Caballeros de la ley, Custodios de la paz, Primera Parte, páginas 69–83 . Journal of the National Police of Peru, Year 14, No. 81, January–February–March 2002, article: Knights of the Act, the Guardians of Peace, Part One, pages 69–83.
- Revista de la Policía Nacional del Perú, Año 14, Nº 82, Abril-Mayo–Junio de 2002, artículo: Caballeros de la ley, Custodios de la paz, Parte Final, páginas 67–83 . Journal of the National Police of Peru, Year 14, No. 82, April–May–June 2002 article: Knights of the law, custody of the peace, part, pages 67–83.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2009-07-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Article 1 of Supreme Decree 14 April 1852 reads: "Todos los cuerpos de Policía, de Serenos y vigilantes, se reunirán en uno solo, con nombre de Gendarmería, se empleará exclusivamente en mantener la seguridad pública". Also the 2nd Article of this legal provision expressing the dependence of this body of the Ministry of Government and Police.
- In the Decree of the 7 April of 1856 issued by Castilla provides that "los cuerpos de policía y de vigilantes que existen hoy, se reunirán en uno solo que con el nombre de Gendarmes se empleará exclusivamente en mantener la seguridad público; constará de dos regimientos, uno de infantería y otro de caballería, el primero compuesto de dos batallones y el segundo de cuatro escuadrones".
- “una Escuela de Policía para los aspirantes a Oficiales e individuos de la institución".
- Article 1 of Supreme Decree of 7 August 1919 reads: "Los batallones de gendarmes números 1 y 2 tendrán la misma organización regimentaria de los cuerpos del ejército, con sus efectivos actuales de presupuesto y denominándose el primero “Guardia Republicana”, al mando de un Teniente Coronel, con 27 oficiales y 431 individuos de tropa, distribuidos en 2 batallones de 2 compañías cada uno, 1 sección de ametralladoras y la banda de músicos"
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-08. Retrieved 2014-05-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Police Corruption Fuels Rise of Extortion in Peru". Insightcrime.org. 2014-01-17. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
- Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire: Key Publishing Ltd. March 2013. p. 31.
- Programas de modernización y principales adquisiciones de las FAS de Perú. defensa.com (2011-05-12). Retrieved on 2011-05-15.
- El Callao patrullara sus calles con helicopteros elcomercio.pe/lima (2011-1-7). Retrieved on 2011-05-17.
- Montes, Julio A. (August 2011). "Peruvian Small Arms: Gunning for the Shining Path" (PDF). Small Arms Defense Journal: 25–29.
- Policía Nacional del Perú Official Site