Muṟukku (Tamil: முறுக்கு, romanized: muṟukku, lit.'twisting') is a savoury, crunchy snack originating from the Indian subcontinent. The name muṟukku "twisting" refers to its shape.[1]

Place of originIndia
Region or stateIndia: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Sri Lanka: Jaffna, Batticaloa
Associated cuisineIndia, Sri Lanka, Fiji
Main ingredientsRice flour, Urad dal flour (Black gram), Salt, Oil

In India, murukku is especially common in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala. It is called murkulu or janthukulu in Andhra Pradesh. It is also common in countries with substantial Indian and Sri Lankan diaspora communities, including Singapore, Fiji, Malaysia, and Myanmar. Called sagalay gway (စာကလေးခွေ; lit.'baby sparrow coils') in Burmese, it is a common snack and is used as a topping for a regional dish called dawei mont di.[2]

Other names of the dish include Kannada: ಚಕ್ಕುಲಿ, romanized: cakkuli, Odia: ଦାନ୍ତକଲି, romanized: dāntakali, Marathi: चकली, romanized: cakalī, Gujarati: ચકરી, romanized: cakri, Telugu: చక్రాలు, romanizedcakrālu or జంతికలు jantikalu, and Konkani: chakri or chakkuli.

Murukku is typically made from rice flour and Vigna mungo flour. Chakli is a similar dish, typically made with an additional ingredient, chickpea flour.

It is the origin of the Tamil saying Tamil: பல்லற்ற தாத்தாக்கு முறுக்கு வேண்டுமாம் ('toothless grandfather wants murukku'), meaning someone wants something they cannot use; murukku is very hard and can break teeth and orthodontic devices.

Ingredients and preparation edit

Murukku preparation

Murukku is typically made from rice and Vigna mungo "black gram" flour.[3] The flours are mixed with water, salt, chili powder, asafoetida and either sesame seeds or cumin seeds. The mix is kneaded into a dough, which is shaped into spiral or coil shapes either by hand or extruded using a mould. The spirals are then deep-fried in vegetable oil.

Varieties edit

The dish has many variations, resulting from the types and proportions of flours used. Mullu muṟukku "thorn muṟukku" has an uneven texture that gives it an extra crunch. The Kai murukku "hand murukku") is made by hand using a stiffer dough. Pakoda muṟukku is another ribbon-shaped variety of the snack.[4] Āṭṭaiyāmpaṭṭi kai muṟukku, a town in Tamil Nadu, is known for its unique variety of murukkus, known as Maṇappāṟai muṟukku. This gained popularity because of Krishnan Iyer, who prepared and sold this first in Maṇappāṟai.[5][6][7] In 2010, the Tamil Nadu government applied for a geographical indication tag for Manapparai Murukku.[8]

Some of the murukku varieties include:

  • Kai murkku (Hand-woven murkku)
  • Manapparai murukku (Manapparai - the place of origin of this variety)
  • Mullu murukku or Magizhampoo murukku
  • Thenkuzhal murukku (Skinny murukku)
  • Oosi thenkuzhal murukku (Needle murukku)
  • Thengaaippaal murukku (Coconut milk murukku )
  • Godhumai murukku (Wheat murukku)
  • Kaara murukku (Spicy murukku)
  • Poondu murukku (Garlic murukku)
  • Inji murukku (Ginger murukku)
  • Meen murukku (Fish-thorn shaped murukku)
  • Vattaurulai murukku (Ring murukku)
  • Vennai murukku (Butter murukku)
  • Kadalai Murukku (Besan murukku)
  • Arisi murukku (Rice murukku)
  • Achhu murukku or Achchappam (Sweet murukku)
  • Karuppatti achchu murukku (Palm jaggery murukku)
  • Pudhina Murukku (Mint murukku)
  • Ezhumichai murukku(Lemon murukku)
  • Kelvaragu or aarya murukku (Finger millet murukku)
  • Kambu murukku (Pearl millet murukku)
  • Chola murukku (Sorghum murukku)
  • Thinai murukku (Foxtail millet murukku)
  • Ulundhu murukku (Vigna mungo murukku)
  • Ellu murukku (Sesame murukku)
  • Varagarisi or varagu murukku (Kodo millet murukku)
  • Thirunelveli manoharam
  • Urulaikkizhangu murkku (Potato murukku)
  • Nei murukku (Ghee murukku)
  • Ravai murukku (Semolina murukku)
  • Pulungal arisi murukku (Parboiled rice murukku)
  • Vengaaya murukku (Onion murukku)
  • Milagu murukku (Black pepper murukku)
  • Thakkaali murukku (Tomato murukku)
  • Karuveppillai murukku (Curry leave murukku)
  • Maida murukku (Maida murukku)

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Cre-A Online Dictionary".
  2. ^ "ထားဝယ်မုန့်တီ (ခေါ်) ထားဝယ်ရိုးရာ မုန့်လတ်သုပ်". MyFood Myanmar (in Burmese). Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  3. ^ Amos, Jennifer (24 October 2022). "The South Indian Snack That's Perfect For Diwali". The Daily Meal. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  4. ^ Devasahayam, Theresa. "When We Eat What We Eat: Classifying Crispy Foods in Malaysian Tamil Cuisine". Anthropology of food. OpenEdition. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Heavy demand for crispy treat". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 October 2010.
  6. ^ Gerald, Olympia Shilpa (18 August 2012). "In search of Manapparai Murukku". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  7. ^ S. Annamalai (4 November 2013). "Business dynamics, supply issues have hardened the 'Manapparai murukku'". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  8. ^ "Geographical indication tag for 'Mannapparai Murukku' sought". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010.

External links edit

  •   Media related to Murukku at Wikimedia Commons