Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Habib ibn Sulayman ibn Samra ibn Jundab[1] al-Fazari (Arabic: إبراهيم بن حبيب بن سليمان بن سمرة بن جندب الفزاري) (died 796 or 806) was a Muslim philosopher, mathematician and astronomer.[2][3] He is not to be confused with his father Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī, also an astronomer and mathematician. Some sources refer to him as an Arab,[4][5][6][7] other sources state that he was a Persian.[8][9][10] Al-Fazārī translated many scientific books into Arabic and Persian.[11] He is credited to have built the first astrolabe in the Islamic world.[9] Along with Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq and his father he helped translate the Indian astronomical text by Brahmagupta (fl. 7th century), the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, into Arabic as Az-Zīj ‛alā Sinī al-‛Arab.,[12] or the Sindhind. This translation was possibly the vehicle by means of which the Hindu numerals were transmitted from India to Islam.[13]

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari
Died796 or 806
Occupation(s)Philosopher, Mathematician, Astronomer
EraIslamic Golden Age

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "al-Fazārī".
  2. ^ * H. Suter: Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber (p. 4, 1900).
  3. ^ * Introduction to the History of Science by George Sarton – Page 524
  4. ^ Scott L. Montgomery. Science in Translation: movements of knowledge through cultures and time. p. 81.
  5. ^ Abramovich, Boris et al. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. pp. 177–178.
  6. ^ Pingree, David (1970). The Fragments of the Works of Al-Fazari. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Vol. 29, No. 2. pp. 103–123.
  7. ^ Yaqut al-Hamawi. Irshad al-Arib Fi Ma'rifat al-Adib. Ed. D. S. Margoliouth. "E. J. W. Ser.," 6. Vol. 6. 2d ed. London, 1931.
  8. ^ *The Root of Europe: studies in the diffusion of Greek culture by Ralph Westwood Moore, Michael Huxley – 1952 – Page 48
  9. ^ a b *Richard N. Frye, The Golden Age of Persia, p. 163.
  10. ^ *From Freedom to Freedom: African roots in American soils : selected readings – by Ervin Lewis, Mildred Bain
  11. ^ *Glimpses of Islamic History and Culture by M. D. Zafar – 1987 – Page 331
  12. ^ E. S. Kennedy, A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables, (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 46, 2), Philadelphia, 1956, pp. 2, 7, 12 (zijes no. 2, 28, 71).
  13. ^ *D. E. Smith and L. C. Karpinski: The Hindu-Arabic Numerals (Boston, 1911), p.92.).

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