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The Mtatsminda Pantheon of Writers and Public Figures (Georgian: მთაწმინდის მწერალთა და საზოგადო მოღვაწეთა პანთეონი, mtats'mindis mts'eralta da sazogado moghvats'eta p'anteoni) is a necropolis in Tbilisi, Georgia, where some of the most prominent writers, artists, scholars, and national heroes of Georgia are buried. It is located in the churchyard around St David’s Church "Mamadaviti" on the slope of Mount Mtatsminda (Geo. მთაწმინდა, meaning the Holy Mountain) and was officially established in 1929. Atop the mountain is Mtatsminda Park, an amusement park owned by the municipality of Tbilisi.
მთაწმინდის მწერალთა და საზოგადო მოღვაწეთა პანთეონი
The first celebrities to be buried at this place were the Russian writer Alexander Griboyedov (1795–1829) and his Georgian wife Nino Chavchavadze (1812–1857). The Pantheon was officially opened in 1929 to mark the centenary of Griboyedov's death during his time as the Russian ambassador. The Pantheon was conceived of as a symbol of collective identity of Georgia. Since then, several illustrious Georgians have been buried or reburied there. The Pantheon is administered by the Government of Tbilisi and is frequented by locals as well as the city’s visitors.
This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (April 2021)
The earliest attempt to create a Pantheon in Tbilisi was the Pantheon of Kukia, which the Dramaturgical Society of Georgia began work on to honor its artists by 1900, but which had disappeared by the 1950s. Later, the Society for Spreading Literacy Among Georgians managed to established the Didube Pantheon in 1915. In 1929, the Government of the Soviet Union, which controlled Georgia at the time, established another pantheon on a former cemetery near the Mtatsminda Church; its opening was dedicated to the 100-year anniversary of the Alexander Griboyedov, who was buried there in 1829 with his wife (and whose grave had a sculpture of a mourning woman on it).
Under Soviet rule, the Didube Pantheon was nearly abolished in the 1930s. There was an order issued in 1934 to remove unknown or unimportant tombs from Mtatsminda and to transfer some distinguished people[which?] from Didube to Mtatsminda; this order marked the fall of Didube's status and the rise of Mtatsminda's. In 1937, the pantheon's administration adopted regulations indicating that the decision-making council should consist mainly of government official, party[which?] members, and Georgian scholars. Because of the totalitarian system, it was easy to create the impression that the Mtatsminda Pantheon was the most desirable place of rest for Georgians, an impression which still persisted in 2014.
In 2009, Tbilisi City Hall announced that the old Mtatsminda Pantheon had no more space and that there were ongoing consultations about a new one with the Patriarch of Georgia. In October 2009, the vice-mayor of Tbilisi declared, "a new place has to be selected, where a church can be erected and public funerals can be held. It is important to build the new pantheon at an especially good location, accessible for society and approved by society". However, since the official closure of the old site, there have been exceptions: Mukhran Machavariani was buried there in 2010 and Chabua Amirejibi was buried there in 2013 (the latter of which caused controversy).
List of burialsEdit
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- Vaso Abashidze (1854–1926), Georgian theater actor and director
- Veriko Anjaparidze (1897–1987), Georgian theater and movie actress
- Nikoloz Baratashvili (1817–1845), Georgian romanticist poet
- Vasil Barnovi (1856–1934), Georgian novelist
- Nikoloz Berdzenishvili (1894–1965), Georgian historian
- Vakhtang Chabukiani (1910–1992), Georgian ballet dancer
- Ilia Chavchavadze (Saint Ilia the Righteous) (1837–1907), Georgian writer and public figure; and his wife Olgha Guramishvili (1842–1927)
- Zakaria Chichinadze (1853–1931), Georgian amateur historian and publisher
- Simon Chikovani (1902–1966), Georgian poet and public figure
- Otar Chiladze (1933–2009), Georgian writer
- Kakutsa Cholokashvili (1888–1930), Georgian national hero and fighter against the Soviet regime
- Shalva Dadiani (1874–1959), Georgian playwright and actor
- Nodar Dumbadze (1928–1984), Georgian writer
- Davit Eristavi (1847–1890), Georgian journalist, translator and playwright
- Zviad Gamsakhurdia (1939–1993), Soviet-era dissident and the first democratically elected President of Georgia
- Keke Geladze (1858–1937), mother of Joseph Stalin
- Iakob Gogebashvili (1840–1912), Georgian writer and educator
- Alexander Griboyedov (1795–1829), Russian writer; and his wife Nino Chavchavadze (1812–1857)
- Ioseb Grishashvili (1889–1965), Georgian writer, poet and scholar
- Lado Gudiashvili (1896–1980), Georgian painter
- Olga Guramishvili-Nikoladze (1855–1940), Georgian educator
- Simon Janashia (1900–1947), Georgian historian
- Mose Janashvili (1855–1934), Georgian historian
- Ana Kalandadze (1924–2008), Georgian poet
- Akaki Khorava (1895–1972), Georgian actor
- Leo Kiacheli (1884–1963), Georgian writer
- Dimitri Kipiani (1814–1887), Georgian journalist and public figure
- Davit Kldiashvili (1862–1931), Georgian writer
- Merab Kostava (1939–1989), Soviet-era dissident and national hero of Georgia
- Giorgi Leonidze (1899–1966), Georgian poet
- Kote Marjanishvili (1872–1933), Georgian theatre director
- Nikoloz Muskhelishvili (1891–1976), Georgian mathematician
- Niko Nikoladze (1843–1928), Georgian journalist and public benefactor
- Iakob Nikoladze (1876–1951), Georgian sculptor
- Ivane Paliashvili (1868–1934), Georgian conductor
- Galaktion Tabidze (1892–1959), Georgian poet
- Ekvtime Takaishvili (1862–1953), Georgian historian and archaeologist
- Aleksandre Tsagareli (1844–1929), Georgian linguist
- Akaki Tsereteli (1840–1915), Georgian poet
- Grigol Tsereteli (1870–1938), Georgian papyrologist
- Mikhail Tskhakaya (1865–1950), Georgian communist
- Anastasia Tumanishvili-Tsereteli (1849–1932), Georgian woman writer
- Vazha-Pshavela (1861–1915), Georgian poet
- Ilia Vekua (1907–1977), Georgian mathematician
- Sergo Zakariadze (1909–1971), Georgian actor
- Solomon Dodashvili (1805–1836), Georgian philosopher, journalist, historian, grammarian, belletrist and enlightener
- Chabua Amirejibi (1921–2013), Georgian novelist and Soviet-era dissident
- Niko Pirosmani (1862–1918), Georgian artist
- Jansug Charkviani (1931–2017), Georgian poet
- Giorgi Kvinitadze (1874–1970), Georgian general
- Rich, Paul B. (December 4, 2009). Crisis in the Caucasus: Russia, Georgia and the West. London: Routledge. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0415544290.
- Chikovani, Nino (2021). "The Mtatsminda Pantheon: a memory site and symbol of identity". Caucasus Survey: 1–15. doi:10.1080/23761199.2020.1871242. S2CID 234037225.
- Kekelia, Elene (January 2014). "The Formation and the Legacy of the Mtatsminda Pantheon as a Site of Memory". Identity Studies in the Caucasus and the Black Sea Region.
- "Mtatsminda Panthenon – a necropolis of great Georgians". GeorgianJournal (in Georgian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- "Pirosmani's symbolic grave to be set up at Mtatsminda Pantheon". GeorgianJournal (in Georgian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- "Jansug Charkviani will be buried at Mtatsminda Pantheon". 1TV. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- "Georgian Democratic Republic's Commander-in-Chief Reburied in Tbilisi". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.