Nanakshahi calendar

(Redirected from Mool Nanakshahi Calendar)

The Nanakshahi (pronunciation: [naːnakʃaːɦiː]) calendar is a tropical solar calendar used in Sikhism. It is based on the "Barah Maha" (Twelve Months), a composition composed by the Sikh gurus reflecting the changes in nature conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the year.[1] The year begins with the month of Chet, with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March. The reference epoch of the Nanakshahi calendar is the birth of Guru Nanak Dev, corresponding to the year 1469 CE.[2]

Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Etymology edit

The Nanakshahi Calendar is named after the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak Dev Ji.[3]

History edit

Sikhs have traditionally recognised two eras and luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars closely followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi (full moon) and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi.[4] The methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was also the same as the Bikrami solar year.[5] According to Steel (2000), (since the calendar was based on the Bikrami), the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2–3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart.[6] Kay (2011) abbreviates the Khalsa Era as KE.[7]

References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents.[8] Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 CE after his victory in Sirhind (12 May 1710 CE)[9] according to which the year 1710 CE became Nanakshahi 241. However, Singh (2008) states the date of the victory as 14 May 1710 CE.[10] According to Dilgeer (1997), Banda "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar".[11] Banda Singh Bahadur also minted new coins also called Nanakshahi.[12] Herrli (1993) states that "Banda is supposed to have dated his coins according to his new calendar. Although Banda may have proclaimed this era, it cannot be traced in contemporary documents and does not seem to have been actually used for dating".[13] According to The Panjab Past and Present (1993), it is Gian Singh who "is the first to use Nanak Shahi Samvats along with those of Bikrami Samvats" in the Twarikh Guru Khalsa.[14] According to Singha (1996), Gian Singh was a Punjabi author born in 1822.[15] Gian Singh wrote the Twarikh Guru Khalsa in 1891.[16]

The revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar.[17] The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on what is 14 March in the Gregorian Western calendar.[18][19] The start of each month is fixed.[20] According to Kapel (2006), the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar.[21] This is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year[22] instead of using the sidereal year which is used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars.

The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998 and released in 1999 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee ("SGPC") to determine the dates for important Sikh events.[23] Due to controversy surrounding the amended calendar, it was shortly retracted.[24] The calendar was re-released in 2003 by the SGPC with three dates: Guru Nanak Dev Ji's Birth, Holla Mohalla, and Bandi Chhor Divas kept movable as per the old Bikrami system as a compromise.[25][26] The calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership.[18] The Mool Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, and accurately fixes for all time in the future.[27]

Features of the Nanakshahi calendar (2003) edit

Features of the original Nanakshahi calendar (2003 Version):[28][29]

  • Uses the accurate Tropical year (365 Days, 5 Hours, 48 Minutes, 45 Seconds) rather than the Sidereal year
  • Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak (Founder of Sikhism)
  • Year 1 is the Year of Guru Nanak's Birth (1469 CE). As an example, 28 February 2024 CE is Nanakshahi 555.
  • Is Based on Gurbani[30] – Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib[31]
  • Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days
  • Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month (Phagun) has an extra day
  • Approved by Akal Takht in 2003[32]

Months edit

The months in the 2003 version (also known as the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar)[3] are:[33]

No. Name Punjabi[34] Days Gregorian Months Season[35]
1 Chet ਚੇਤ 31 14 March – 13 April Basant (Spring)
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ 31 14 April – 14 May Basant (Spring)
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ 31 15 May – 14 June Garikham (Summer)
4 Harh ਹਾੜ 31 15 June – 15 July Garisham (Summer)
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ 31 16 July – 15 August Rut Baras (Rainy season)
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ 30 16 August – 14 September Rut Baras (Rainy season)
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ 30 15 September – 14 October Sard (Autumn)
8 Kattak ਕੱਤਕ 30 15 October – 13 November Sard (Autumn)
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ 30 14 November – 13 December Sisiar (Winter)
10 Poh ਪੋਹ 30 14 December – 12 January Sisiar (Winter)
11 Magh ਮਾਘ 30 13 January – 11 February Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)
12 Phaggan ਫੱਗਣ 30/31 12 February – 13 March Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)

Festivals and events (2003 version) edit

Dates of observance of festivals as determined by reference to the 2003 version.

Festivals and events (Original Nanakshahi calendar)[36] Nanakshahi date Gregorian date
Guru Har Rai becomes the 7th Guru
Nanakshahi New Year Commences
1 Chet 14 Mar
Guru Hargobind merges back to the Creator 6 Chet 19 Mar
The ordination of the Khalsa
Birth of Guru Nanak (Vaisakhi Date)[37]
1 Vaisakh 14 Apr
Guru Angad merges back to the Creator
Guru Amar Das becomes the 3rd Guru
Guru Harkrishan merges back to the Creator
Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes the 9th Guru
3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Birth of Guru Angad, the 2nd Guru
Birth of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the 9th Guru
5 Vaisakh 18 Apr
Birth of Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru 19 Vaisakh 2 May
Birth of Guru Amar Das, the 3rd Guru 9 Jeth 23 May
Guru Hargobind becomes the 6th Guru 28 Jeth 11 Jun
Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru, is martyred 2 Harh 16 Jun
Foundation Day of the Akaal Takht 18 Harh 16 Jun
Birth of Guru Hargobind, the 6th Guru 21 Harh 5 Jul
Miri-Piri is established by Guru Hargobind 6 Sawan 21 Jul
Birth of Guru Harkrishan, the 8th Guru 8 Sawan 23 Jul
The writing of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is completed 15 Bhadon 30 Aug
Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is installed at the Golden Temple for the first time 17 Bhadon 1 Sep
Guru Amar Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Ram Das becomes the 4th Guru
Guru Ram Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Arjan becomes the 5th Guru
2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Angad becomes the 2nd Guru 4 Assu 18 Sep
Guru Nanak merges back to the Creator 8 Assu 22 Sep
Birth of Guru Ram Das, the 4th Guru 25 Assu 9 Oct
Guru Har Rai merges back to the Creator
Guru Harkrishan becomes the 8th Guru
The Guru Granth Sahib is declared as the Guru for all times to come by Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last human Guru
6 Katak 20 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh merges back to the Creator 7 Katak 21 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh becomes the 10th Guru 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Guru Tegh Bahadur martyred in Delhi by Aurangzeb for defending the oppressed 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Ajit Singh, and Jujhar Singh, the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, martyred in the battle of Chamkaur 8 Poh 21 Dec
Zorawar Singh, and Fateh Singh, the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh, executed in Sirhind 13 Poh 26 Dec
Birth of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru 23 Poh 5 Jan
Birth of Guru Har Rai, the 7th Guru 19 Magh 31 Jan

Movable dates for Sikh Festivals in the 2003 and 2010 versions. (These change every year in line with the lunar phase.)[38]

Year Hola Mohalla Bandi Chhor Divas Birth of Guru Nanak Dev
2003 19 Mar 25 Oct 8 Nov
2004 7 Mar 12 Nov 26 Nov
2005 26 Mar 1 Nov 15 Nov
2006 15 Mar 21 Oct 5 Nov
2007 4 Mar 9 Nov 24 Nov
2008 22 Mar 28 Oct 13 Nov
2009 11 Mar 17 Oct 2 Nov
2010 1 Mar 5 Nov 21 Nov
2011 20 Mar 26 Oct 10 Nov
2012 9 Mar 13 Nov 28 Nov
2013 28 Mar 3 Nov 17 Nov
2014 17 Mar 23 Oct 6 Nov
2015 6 Mar 11 Nov 25 Nov
2016 24 Mar 30 Oct 14 Nov
2017 13 Mar 19 Oct 4 Nov
2018 2 Mar 7 Nov 23 Nov
2019 21 Mar 27 Oct 12 Nov
2020 10 Mar 14 Nov 30 Nov

Controversy edit

In 2010, the SGPC modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase.[39] This has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version, also called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar"[40] and others, the 2010 version.[41] By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted to the Bikrami calendar entirely, however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi.[42] The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the RSS and Shiromani Akali Dal.[43][44] There is also some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world.[29]

SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current (2014) Nanakshahi calendar.[45] The previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 23 Poh (5 January) as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied.[46] The PSGPC and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth.[43]

According to Ahaluwalia (2003), the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory. It begins with the year of birth of Guru Nanak Dev, but the first date, 1 Chet, is when Guru Har Rai was installed the seventh Guru.[47] However, the first date of the Nanakshahi calendar (1 Chet) is based upon the Barah Maha of the Guru Granth Sahib, which has Chet as the first month.[48] Pal Singh Purewal, as reported in the Edmonton Journal (March 2018) has stated that his aims in formulating the Nanakshahi calendar were, "first and foremost, it should respect sacred holy scriptures. Second, it should discard the lunar calendar and use only a solar one. Third, all the dates should be fixed and not vary from year to year."[42] In reality however, state Haar and Kalsi (2009), the introduction of the Nanakshahi calendar has resulted in many festivals being "celebrated on two dates depending on the choice of the management of the local gurdwaras."[49]

In 2017, a conference was held in Chicago[50] where it was decided to fix the three movable dates from the 2003 version and fully follow the original version published in 1999.[51]

Sikh historian Harjinder Singh Dilgeer has rejected this calendar fully.[52] Even Anurag Singh and Surjit Singh Nishaan too have rejected this calendar.[citation needed][further explanation needed]

Mool Nanakshahi Calendar edit

The "Mool" prefix, means "original". SGPC released a calendar that was close to this one on the 300th year of Khalsa's Creation in 1999. In 2003, Pal Singh Purewal, who had been working towards the Sikh calendar since the 1960s, introduced the Nanakshahi Calendar. The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee had implemented and launched the copies of the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar on 14 April 2003 from the land of Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib under the presidency of prominent Sikh scholar Prof Kirpal Singh Badungar and Akal Takhat Jathedar Giani Joginder Singh Vedanti (chairman of the committee for Mool Nanakshahi Calendar) on the occasion of Baisakhi in the presence of large community gathering (unlike Bikrami calendar which is based on lunar setup the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar was largely based on solar system). As per the SGPC records 21 meetings were held having deep deliberations before the implementation of this Calendar. Sikhs throughout the world have embraced the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar with full reverence as the Sikh scholars with empirical research have held that the Calendar had its roots to the First Khalsa Raj established by Baba Banda Singh Bahadur who first released and implemented it.

A Calendar Reform Committee composed of many scholars and representatives of various academic institutions met at the Institute of Sikh Studies in Chandigarh in 1995. In 1996, a formal proposal was submitted to the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC).[53] The SGPC issued a General House Resolution asking the Sikhs across the world to adopt the Sikh Calendar.[54] In 2003, although some of the dates were largely adopted as fixed dates, some due to cultural and political concerns were dismissed and reverted to Bikrami dates, which were later synchronized in 2017 when the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar was introduced to fix all dates.[55]

Pal Singh Purewal, introduced the term Mool (original) Nanakshahi Calendar in 2017.[56] The new term meant to distinguish from the current Nanakshahi Calendar which was altered in 2003 to include movable Bikrami dates in addition to the new adopted dates by the SGPC in 1999. This pre-altered versional of the calendar was the one proposed by the Calendar Reform Committee in 1995 and accepted by the SGPC in 1999.[57] The original calendar synchronized Mool Nanakshahi (religious) Calendar with Common Era (CE) Calendar, permanently and hence termed Mool Nanakshahi Calendar.

There are notable differences between the Nanakshahi Calendar and the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar. Understanding the motivation and decades of research to reflect the accuracy of historical events is essential.[58] The Mool Nanakshahi Calendar continues to gather support[59] across the world as Sikhs yearn to follow fixed dates which are an accurate historical representation of the Sikh History and an attempt at adding integrity to the Sikh identity.[60][61][62] This provides the platform for Sikhs to agree on a common calendar.[63][64] Sardar Pal Singh Purewal, the main architect of the calendar, has written scholarly articles on this issue[65] and explains the difference between the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar and Bikrami Calendars.[66][33] There is a difference between the Nanakshai Calendar and the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar as such as the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar fixes dates which were movable in the Nanakshahi Calendar.[citation needed]

In 2018, The Akal Takhat Jathedar, Giani Gurbachan Singh asked that the Sikhs should unite and adopt the new Nanakshahi Calendar and that the "majority of Sikh sects, including Nihangs, Nirmalays, Udhasis and Damdami Taksal, observe and want to observe Sikh religious days according to the (amended) Nanakshahi calendar.".[67] The Sikh communities around the world are embracing the calendar.[citation needed]

The Sikh Youth of Punjab (SYP) embraces this version of the calendar.[68]

In the news edit

The extensive 2 day Mool Nanakshahi Calendar Implementation Conference in Chicago detailed the significance of the changes. Several scholars and topics on this topic lead the presentations and discussions.[69]

  • Mool Nanakshahi Calendar gains momentum across the world.[70][71]
  • March 2020, Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Prabadhak Committee released the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar.[72]

Significant resolutions edit

Significant resolutions were adopted at the Chicago conference in December 2017.[73] More importantly three dates were fixed for the upcoming years so that the Nanak's Gurpurab, Bandee Chorrd Divas, and Holla-Muhalla fall on the same date each year. The fixed dates, in addition to the already constant Vaisakhi 14 April date, are:

  • Bandee Chorrd Divas – 12 February every year
  • Holla-Muhalla – 14 March every year
  • Guru Nanak's Gurpurab – 14 April every year
  • Vaisakhi – 14 April every year[63]

Months (2014 version) edit

The start date of the months in the modified Nanakshahi calendar are not fixed and hence do not correspond to the seasons.[3]

No. Name Punjabi Gregorian Months
1 Chet ਚੇਤ March – April
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ April – May
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ May – June
4 Harh ਹਾੜ June – July
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ July – August
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ August – September
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ September – October
8 Kattak ਕੱਤਕ October – November
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ November – December
10 Poh ਪੋਹ December – January
11 Magh ਮਾਘ January – February
12 Phaggan ਫੱਗਣ February – March

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine. Scarecrow Press.
  2. ^ Singh, Jagraj (2009). A complete guide to Sikhism Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine. Unistar Books.
  3. ^ a b c J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann (2010) Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes]. ABC-Clio [1] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Singh, Harbans (1998) The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism: S–Z. Publications Bureau [2] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Proceedings – Punjab History Conference, Volume 27, Part 1 (1996) Punjabi University [3] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Steel, Duncan (2000). Steel, Duncan (2000) v. Wiley. Wiley. ISBN 9780471298274. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  7. ^ Kay, Michael (2011) XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 Programmer's Reference. John Wiley & Sons [4] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, A. T. Kerr (1995) Akal Takht Sahib. Sikh Educational Trust in collaboration with the Sikh University Centre, Denmark [5] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Gandhi, Surjit Singh (1999) Sikhs in the Eighteenth Century: Their Struggle for Survival and Supremacy. Singh Bros [6] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Singh, Patwant (2008) Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen [7] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (1997) The Sikh Reference Book. Sikh Educational Trust for Sikh University Centre, Denmark [8] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Dhillon, Harish (2013) First Raj of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Banda Singh Bahadur. Hay House [9] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Herrli, Hans (1993). "Herrli, Hans (1993) The Coins of the SikhsIndian Coin Societ". Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  14. ^ The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 27, Issue 1. Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University [10] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Siṅgha, Sukhadiāla (1996) Historical analysis of Giani Gian Singh's writings. UICS [11] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 32 (2001) Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University [12] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Chilana, Rajwant Singh (2006) International Bibliography of Sikh Studies. Springer Science & Business Media [13] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ a b "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  19. ^ "Sikhs to Celebrate their New Year on March 14th as Sikh Environment Day | Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology". fore.yale.edu. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  20. ^ "Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies". 2003. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  21. ^ Kepel, Martin (2006) The Structure and Mathematics of the Principal Calendars of the Western World: Muslim, Gregorian, Jewish, and Other Systems. Edwin Mellen Press [14] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Gordon Melton, J. (13 September 2011). Melton, J. Gordon (2011) Religious Celebrations: L–Z. ABC-Clio. Abc-Clio. ISBN 9781598842050. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  23. ^ Louis E. Fenech, W. H. McLeod (2014) Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield [15] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "Another Link on Nanakshahi Calendar". fateh.sikhnet.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  25. ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2008) South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora. Routledge [16] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016) Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press [17] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Bodiwala, Community Contributor Suresh. "Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two-day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar". Naperville Sun. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2018. {{cite news}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  28. ^ "Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies". 2003. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC". BBC. 29 July 2003. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  30. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurbani And Nanakshahi Calendar" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  31. ^ "Barah Maha". SikhRI Online Courses. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  32. ^ Parkash, Chander (14 March 2003). "Nanakshahi calendar out". www.tribuneindia.com. The Tribune. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  33. ^ a b "Home". nanakshahicalendar.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  34. ^ Purewal, Pal Singh. "Nanakshahi Calendar 1999 – Introduction" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  35. ^ Kohli, Surindar Singh (1992) A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib.Manohar Publishers & Distributors [18] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurpurbs (Fixed Dates)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  37. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Birth Date of Guru Nanak Sahib" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  38. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Movable Dates of Gurpurbs (Change Every Year)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  39. ^ "Nanakshahi Calendar is Immortal". The World Sikh News. 13 March 2017. Archived from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  40. ^ Chicago Tribune (18 November 2017) Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two-day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar [19] Archived 20 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Singh, Surjit( 6 March 2018) Hindustan Times) HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar [20] Archived 15 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ a b Sikhs around world celebrate new year using Edmonton man's calendar (14 March 2018) Edmonton Journal by Juris Graney [21] Archived 22 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ a b Singh, Surjit (6 March 2018). "HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  44. ^ "Makkar-Badal let down Sikhs, Nanakshahi calendar goes Bikrami". The World Sikh News. 13 March 2017. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  45. ^ "Tribune India (14.03.2018) SGPC: Follow Nanakshahi calendar". Archived from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  46. ^ Singh, Surjit (13 November 2017). "Guru Gobind Singh's birth anniversary: Akal Takht rejects SGPC plea to extend parkash parv date". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Archived from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  47. ^ Āhalūwālīā, Jasabīra Siṅgha (2003) Liberating Sikhism from 'the Sikhs': Sikhisim's [sic] Potential for World Civilization. Unistar books [22] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Reply to Mr. Gurcharanjit Singh Lamba's criticism of Nanakshahi Calendar first implemented in 1999 CE" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  49. ^ Haar, Kristen and Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2009) Sikhism. Infobase Publishing [23] Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar Implementation Conference | Palatine Gurdwara". Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  51. ^ "Adopt Mool Nanakshahi Calendar, stop confusion, says Sikh Chicago meet – WSN". Asia Samachar. 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 3 April 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  52. ^ https://m.facebook.com/nt/screen/?params=%7B%22note_id%22%3A645582832992519%7D&path=%2Fnotes%2Fnote%2F&_rdr Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine[user-generated source]
  53. ^ Purewal, Pal Singh. "New Nanakshahi Calendar" (PDF). Purewal.biz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016.
  54. ^ "Another Link on Nanakshahi Calendar". Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  55. ^ "BBC – Religions – Sikhism: The Sikh Calendar". Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  56. ^ "Adopt Mool Nanakshahi Calendar, stop confusion, says Sikh Chicago meet – WSN". Asia Samachar. 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 3 April 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  57. ^ "Institute of Sikh Studies, Chandigarh". sikhinstitute.org. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  58. ^ http://www.purewal.biz/compnsbk.pdf Archived 22 December 2022 at the Wayback Machine[bare URL PDF]
  59. ^ "Guru Gobind Singh Gurpurab on 5 Jan gathers momentum". 15 December 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  60. ^ "The Calendar Issue… Part 4: The Bikrami, Saka and Purewal's Mool Nanakshahi Calendar". 28 January 2018. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  61. ^ "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People". Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  62. ^ "World Sikh News". Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  63. ^ a b "Vaisakhi – SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  64. ^ Singh, Irwin Preet (2 January 2018). "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar Plugs Bikrami Gaps". Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  65. ^ Purewal, Pal. "Gurbani and Nanakshahi Calendar" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  66. ^ Purewal, Pal. "Difference Between Nanakshahi and Bikrami Caldenar" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  67. ^ "HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar". 6 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  68. ^ "Sikh Youth of Punjab releases genuine Nanakshahi Calendar". 14 April 2019. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  69. ^ "The Chicago Tribune". Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  70. ^ "Parkash Purab Guru Gobind Singh Ji Gathers Momentum". 15 December 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  71. ^ "World Sikh News". Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  72. ^ "Nanakshahi calendar out in Pakistan". Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  73. ^ "Adopt Mool Nanakshahi Calendar". Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.

External links edit

  • Purewal.biz, the website of Mr. Pal Singh Purewal, the creator of the Nanakshahi Calendar, this site contains detailed articles about this calendar.
  • Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC
  • Nanakshahi.net A website to get the Nanakshahi Calendar info and get Sikh Holiday dates, based on an Open Source JavaScript Library.