Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (Persian: محمدعلی شاه قاجار‎; 21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, San Remo, Italy), Shah of Iran from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909. He was the sixth shah of the Qajar Dynasty.

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar-0a.jpg
Photograph published by G. G. Bain, 1907
Shah of Persia
Reign3 January 1907  – 16 July 1909
PredecessorMozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar
SuccessorAhmad Shah Qajar
Prime Ministers
Born(1872-06-21)21 June 1872
Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Persia
Died5 April 1925(1925-04-05) (aged 52)
San Remo, Italy
SpouseMalekeh Jahan
IssueSee below
Mohmmad Ali Shah
FatherMozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar
Mother Taj ol-Molouk (Umm al-Khakan)
ReligionShia Islam
TughraMohammad Ali Shah Qajar's signature


Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was opposed to the Persian Constitution of 1906, which had been ratified during the reign of his father, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar. In 1907, Mohammad Ali dissolved the National Consultative Assembly and declared the Constitution abolished because it was contrary to Islamic law.[1] He bombarded the Majles (Persian parliament) with the military and political support of Russia and Britain.[2]

In July 1909, pro-Constitution forces marched from Persia's provinces to Tehran led by Sardar As'ad, Sepehdar A'zam, Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan and Yeprem Khan, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. On 16 July 1909, the parliament voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 11-year-old son, Ahmad Shah on the throne. Mohammad Ali Shah abdicated following the new Constitutional Revolution and he has since been remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.

Having fled to Odessa, Russia (currently Ukraine), Mohammad Ali plotted his return to power. In 1911 he landed at Astarabad, Persia, but his forces were defeated.[1] Mohammad Ali Shah returned to Russia, then in 1920 to Constantinople (present day Istanbul) and later to San Remo, Italy, where he died on 5 April 1925 (bur. Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq). Every Shah of Persia since Mohammad Ali has died in exile.

His son and successor, Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last sovereign of the Qajar dynasty.[3]


Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar with Mirza Mohammad Ebrahim Khan, the Moavin al-Dowleh, and Company
A 2000 Dinar/2 Qiran coin of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar era

Marriages and childrenEdit


Mohammad Ali Shah had two wives:

  1. Robabeh Khanum "Malih-os-Saltaneh"
  2. Princess Zahra Qajar "Malekeh Jahan", daughter of Kamran Mirza "Nayeb-os-Saltaneh"


Mohammad Ali Shah had six sons and two daughters:

  1. Hossein Ali Mirza "E'tezad Saltaneh"
  2. Gholam Hossein Mirza (died in infancy)
  3. Sultan Ahmad Mirza (later Ahmad Shah Qajar)
  4. Mohammad Hassan Mirza
  5. Sultan Mahmoud Mirza
  6. Sultan Majid Mirza
  1. Khadijeh Khanum "Hazrat-e Ghodsieh"
  2. Assieh Khanum

List of prime ministersEdit

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar after deposal

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Donzel, Emeri "van" (1994). Islamic Desk Reference. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. p. 285-286
  2. ^ "گزارشی از سمینار 'سده انقلاب مشروطیت ایران' در لندن". BBC Persian. 24 July 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  3. ^ Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, 'Mohammad Ali Shah: The Man and the King', in: Qajar Studies. Travellers and Diplomats in the Qajar Era. Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII, 2007.

Further readingEdit

  • Shablovskaia, Alisa (2019). "Treacherous friends or disenchanted masters? Russian diplomacy and Muhammad 'Ali (Shah) Qajar, 1911-1912". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies: 1–18. doi:10.1080/13530194.2019.1683717.

External linksEdit

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Born: 21 June 1872 Died: 5 April 1925
Iranian royalty
Preceded by
Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar
Shah of Persia
Succeeded by
Ahmad Shah Qajar